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Running head: ‘CUMENE' 1

PROJECT REPORTS

CUMENE
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PROJECT REPORT

Submitted by

 Patel Rutvik 1664503055

 Patel Shreyas 1664503055

 Patel Tirth. 1664503055

 Prajapati Nikul. 166450305548

 Rajput Konal. 166450305550

 Savaliya Divyam. 166450305552

IN FULFILLMENT FOR THE AWARD OF THE DEGREE

OF

DIPLOMA

IN

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING.
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SHREE KJ POLYTECHNIC, BHARUCH

CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that SAVALIYA DIVYAM B., PATEL TIRTH., PATEL SHREYAS.,

PATEL RUTVIK., PRAJAPATI NIKUL., RAJPUT KOMAL.

of Diploma in chemical Engineering have

successfully completed the Term-work in the Subject PROJECT (360501) offered during the

academic term 2018-2019.

GUIDE. HEAD OF DEPARTMENT.


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PREFACE

 Teaching is the important knowledge, but training develops habits. It assures that technical skills

cannot be perfect without practical training. HenceHence, the practical training is grate valuable

for engineering student the actual aim of in plant training is to get all operation and process which

are carried out in the industries and more about the chemical equipment.

 Practical makes a man perfect in practical training a person deals with many technical problems.

In real operation and process another aim of I plant training is to learn industrial management and

discipline.

 This project describes the manufacture of “ISOPROPYL ALCOHOL” is prepared fulfillment in

chemical engineering. It is purely academic in nature though attempts have been made to

incorporate faculty data available from journals, books and other sources. Reasonable assumption

have been made for data those were not available .

 This report includes the information based on theoretical backgrounds. So this report cannot

applicable to industrial scale to tally . but for actual setting up of a new chemical plant and

expansion or revision of existing one requires the use of design report as a preliminary estimate.

 The report provides preliminary information and gives an idea and in sign into the process design

aspects.

 The report also includes safety consideration, instrumentation, and process control. The reference

section at the end lists the source of information. A detailed market surveys and plant set up

design factor has to be studied before setting up a plant end. A number of pilot trials should be

conducted before starting. No such trails were conducted


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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

We extend our sincere gratitude to our guide Shri K .J Panchal sir


and Head of department in Chemical Engineering Prof. Shri.
sir in SHREE KJ POLYTECHNIC, BHARUCH for sharing his
knowledge and resources and also for his availability.

We are also thankful to Shri K.J . Panchal sir our project group
guider in Chemical Engineering Department.

For extending his help in the course, we are also thanks to all the
authors and editors of various reference books, research paper that
helped us through his report.

Thanking you sir …..


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INDEX
SR.no Topic Page no.

From. To.
1 Introduction

1.1 Introduction
1.2 Market analysis
1.3 Properties
1.4 Uses & Application
1.5 Raw materials

2 Manufacturing process with flow diagrams.

2.1 Various process of manufacturing


2.2 Selection of most suitable process
2.3 Detail description of selected process
2.4 Process equipment flow diagrams

3 List major equipmen & instrumentation required

3.1 Equipment
3.3 Instrumentation

4 Material balance

4.1 Material balance for various equipment


4.2 Overall material balance

5 Plant design basis

5.1 Plant design


5.2 Plant size

6 Plant location

6.1 Plant location & site selection


6.2 Schematic plant layout

7 Economic evaluation

7.1 Capital cost estimation


7.2 Estimation of capital investment costs

8 Important aspects of safety & Pollution control


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8.1 Safety
8.2 Pollution

9 MSDS of raw material and product

10 Conclusion

11 Preference
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Chapter 1

INTRODUCTION
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1.1 INTRODUCTION

Cumene (isopropylbenzene) is an organic compound that is based on an aromatic

hydrocarbon with an aliphatic substitution. It is a constituent of crude oil and refined fuels. It is a

flammable colorless liquid that has a boiling point of 152 °C. Nearly all the cumene that is

produced as a pure compound on an industrial scale is converted to cumene hydroperoxide,

which is an intermediate in the synthesis of other industrially important chemicals, primarily

phenol and acetone.

 The alkylation of benzene with propylene gives CUMENE a very important

petrochemical C3 compound.

 The cumene molecular have can be visualize as straight chain propylene group have

benzene ring attached at the middle carbon form cumene (C6H5CH(CH3)2

 The cumene production capacity of the world is about 7 million Ton/day distribute over

40 plant.

 The catalyst for such a process is phosphoric acid supposed. Silica

Kieselguhr(skpa).

 Only few plants are based on the MONSANTO TECHNOLOGY, which uses aluminium

trichloride (ALCL3) as catalyst .

 Cumene producers account for approximately 20% of the global demand for benzene.
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1.2 STRUCTURE

2 dimension structure of cumene. 3 dimension structure of cumene


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1.3 PRESENT STATUS AND MARKET ANALYSIS.

Essentially,all world cumene is consumed for the production of phenol and acetone. As

a result, demand for cumene is strongly tied to the phenol market. Trade In cumene accounts for

only 4% of world production. The largest exporter of cumene are the United States & Japan.

Taiwan also import large volume of cumene for phenol production.

As of early 2011, the U.S. cumene market was tight-primarily as a result of a shortage

of feedstock propylene. Schedule plant maintenance by several large cumene manufacturer was

also planned for early to mid 2011. Because of the cumene shortage, phenol and acetone plant

operations rate have been reduced significantly, which in turn has restricted phenol export to

Europe and higher demand region such as Asia & South America.

Increased demand for bisphenol A and phenolic resin will result in strong Demand for

phenol,particularly in Asia (excludingJapan). As a rresult, consumption of cumene for phenol is

forecast to grow atapproximately 8% per year in the regio.China alone is expected to add a

million metric ton of cumene capacity during stream in 2013) to supply its phenol/ acetone plants
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that are slated to come on stream during that period. OverallOverall, world wide cumene

consumption for the production of phenol/acetone is forecast to grow at an average annual rate of

about 4.5% during 2010–2015.

1.4 LIST PRODUCE OF CUMENE.

SR. List of cumene manufacturing Capacity


No industry

1 Herdillia chemicals Ltd. 2000 TPA


Air India building,
13thfloor,narimanpoint,
Bombay400021(Maharashtra)
2 Si group India ltd. 1470 TPA
Ballarpur road
Opp. juinagar railway station
Turbhethane,
NaviMumbai(Maharashtra)
3 Hindustan organic chemicals Industry, 40000 TPA
81,Maharishi karvemarg,
Harchandri house,
Mumbai (400002)
4 Global polychemllc. 10301 TPA
N-2, sector 11,
Noida-201301, Uttar Pradesh.

Table 1, list producer of cumene and capacity of cumen .


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1.4.2 LIST GLOBAL MANUFACTURER

Sr . No LIST OF GLOBAL CUMENE Approximately,


MANUFACTURER Capacity

1 Hangzhou Tianlong Co., Ltd 300000 TPA


Zhejiang, China.
2 A.M. FOOD chemical co., Ltd 10000 TPA
Shandong, China.
3 TS CHEMICAL PVT. LTD 20000 TPA
Texas, American
4 JLM CHEMICAL .PVT .LTD 1120 TPQ
Blue Island, IL, USA
5 EniChem , ENI. CO.LTD. 1980 TPQ
San Donato Milanese, Italy
Table 2, Global manufacturer of cumene and capacity of cumene
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1.6 PROPERTIES

 PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF CUMEN.

 Colour :- colourless

 Order. :- ordeless

 Molecular weight. :- 120.19

 Purity :- 99%

 Melting point. :- -96.9°C

 Boiling point. :- 152.5°C

 Density :- 0.862 gm/cc

 Flash point. :- 39°C

 Vapour pressure :- 4.5 mmHg at 25°C

 Ignition point. :- 138°C

 Freezing point :- -96°C

 Thermal conductivity. :- 0.124 w.m/k

 Surface tension. :- 0.791 N/M

 Flammable limit in air. :- lower – 0.9% volume,

:-. Higher – 6.5% volume

 Toxicity limit. :- 200 PPM

 Soluble :- Water, and more solvent.

 Insoluble in. :- Alcohol, Ether, Carbotetrachloride & etc.


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 CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF CUMENE

 Cumene under goes oxidation to give cumene hydroperoxide by means of air or

oxygen.

 C6H5CH(CH3)2 + O2 = C6H5(CH3)2COOH.

 By catalytic actions of dilute sulphuric acid, cumene hydroperoxide is Split into

phenol & acetone.

 C6H5(CH3)2COOH = C6H5OH + CH3COCH3


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1.7 USES OF CUMENE

1. Cumene is a natural component of coal tar and crude oil, and also can be used as

Blanding component in gasoline.

2. A building-block chemical, almost all cumene approximately 98% of cumene is

consumed as a chemical intermediate in the production of phenol & acetone, two

chemicals that are widely use plastic .

3. Additional, cumene I’m minor amounts is used as a solvent during the manufacturing of

paints, lacquer & enamel.

4. Cumene is also used as a solvent for fats and raisins.

5. Cumene by itself is not generally sold by producers for consumers used


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1.9 RAW MATERIALS USED.

Raw materials for cumene manufacturing are;

 1.Benzene

 2.Propane

 3.Propylene.

1.9 CATALYST USED.

 QZ-2000™

&

 QZ-2001™

2000catalyst is a solid, regenerable, zeolitecatalyst used to produce c

umene (isopropylbenzene) via alkylation of benzene with QZ_2001

catalyst is based on a proprietary betazeolite formulation developed b

y UOP
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Chapter :- 2

Manufacturing Processes Of Cumene With Flow Diagrams.


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2.1 Various process of manufacturing.

1) Q-max™ Manufacturing process.

2) CD -TECH manufacturing process.

3) Monsanto – Lummus Crest Cumene Process.

4) UOP cumene process .

5) Badger cumene process .


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1) Q-MAX™ CUMENE manufacturing process flow diagram.

Fig.2 Q-MAX™ cumene manufacturing process.


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2)CD-TECH CUMENE manufacturing process flow diagram.

Fig.3 CD-TECH CUMENE manufacturing process.


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3) MONSANTO – LUMMUS crest cumene process.

Fig.4 MONSANTO LUMMUS cumene manufacturing process


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4) UOP cumene manufacturing process .

Fig.5 UOP cumene manufacturing process.


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5)BADGER cumene manufacturing process.

Fig.6 MOBILE BADGER cumene manufacturing process.


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2.3 SELECTION OF CUMENE MANUFACTURING PROCESS

 Q-MAX ™ Manufacturing process is most convenient process for CUMENE

manufacturing.

Justification of selection of cumene:-

o Product yield is 99.7 weight%.

o High activity and selective with minimum by product formation.

o Typical cumene productive yield is 95.5% pure.

o Extremely tolerant to poison.

o Proven run-length of up to 5 years.

o Low catalyst cost .

o Low in investments as compare to other process.

o Reduce in solid waste.

o Corrosion free environment.


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2.4 Process description on Q-MAX ™ cumene manufacturing process.

1. Raw material propylene and benzene are used for the production of cumene.

2. These are stored in the respective storage tanks of 500MT capacity in the storage yard

pumped to the unit by the centrifugal pumps.

3. Benzene pumped to the feed vessel which mixes with the recycled benzene. Benzene

stream is pumped through the vaporizer with 25 atmospheric pressure and vaporized

to the temperature of 243℃, mixed with the propylene which is of same and

temperature and pressure of benzene stream.

4. This reactant mixture passed through a fired super heater where reaction temperature

350℃ is obtained.

5. The vapor mixture is sent to the reactor tube side which is packed with the solid

phosphoric acid catalyst supported on the the exothermal heat is removed by the

pressurized water which is used for steam production and the effluent from the reactor

i.e. cumene, p-DIPB, unreacted benzene, propylene and propane with temperature

350℃ is used as the heating media in the vaporizer which used for the benzene

vaporizing and cooled to 40℃ in a water cooler, propylene and propane are separated

from the liquid mixture of cumene, p-DIPB, benzene in a separator operating slightly

above atmospheric and the pressure is controlled by the vapor control value of the

separator, the fuel gas is used as fuel for the furnace also.

6. The liquid mixture is sent to the benzene distillation column which operates at 1

atmospheric pressure, 98.1% of benzene is obtained as the distillate and used as recycle
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and the bottom liquid mixture is pumped at bubble point to the cumene distillation

column where distillate 99.9% cumene and bottom pure p-DIPB is obtained.

7. The heat of bottom product p-DIPB is used for preheating the benzene column feed,

All the utility as cooling water, electricity, steam from the boiler, pneumatic air are

supplied from the utility section.

8. The typical reactor effluent yield contains 94.8 Wt. % cumene and 3.1 Wt. % of diiso

propyl benzene. The remaining 2.1 % is primarily heavy aromatics.

9. This high yield of cumene is achieved without of diiso propyl benzene and is unique

to the solid phosphoric acid catalyst process.

10. The cumene product is 99.9 Wt. % pure and the heavy aromatics, which have an octane

number of 109, can either be used as high octane gasoline blending components or

combined with additional benzene and sent to a trans alkylation section of the plant

where diiso propyl benzene is converted to cumene.

11. The overall yields of cumene for this process are typically 97-98 Wt. % with trans

alkylation and 94-96 Wt. % without trans alkylation.

2.5 Manufacturing process description of Cumene.


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A representative Q-Max flow diagram is shown. The alkylation reactor is typically

divided into four catalyst beds contained in a single reactor shell.

The fresh benzene is routed through the upper midsection of the depropanizer

column to remove excess water and then sent to the alkylation reactor via a side draw.

The recycle benzene to both the alkylation and trans alkylation reactors comes from

the overhead of the benzene column.

A mixture of fresh and recycle benzene is charged down flow through the alkylation

reactor. The fresh propylene feed is split between the four catalyst beds. An excess of benzene is

used to avoid polyalkylation and to help minimize olefin oligomerization.

Because the reaction is exothermic, the temperature rise in the reactor is controlled by

recycling a portion of the reactor effluent to the reactor inlet, which acts as a heat sink. In

addition, the inlet temperature of each downstream bed is reduced to the same temperature as

that of the first bed inlet by injecting a portion of cooled reactor effluent between the beds.

Effluent from the alkylation reactor is sent to the depropanizer column, which

removes any propane and water that may have entered with the propylene feed.

The bottoms from the depropanizer column are sent to the benzene column, where

excess benzene is collected overhead and recycled. Benzene column bottoms are sent to the

cumene column, where the cumene product is recovered overhead. The Cumene column bottom

which contains most d-isopropyl benzene is send to the DIPB stream leaves the column by way

of a side cut and is recycled to the Tran alkylation reactor. The DIPB column bottom consist of

heavy aromatic by-product, which are normally blended into fuel oil. Steam or hot oil provide

the heat for the product, fractionation section.


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A portion of the recycle benzene from the top of the benzene column is combined

with the recycle DIPB from the side cut of the DIPB column and sent to the trans alkylation

reactor.

In the trans alkylation reactor, DIPB and benzene are converted to additional cumene.

The effluent from the trans alkylation reactor is then sent to the benzene column. The QZ-2000

catalyst utilized in both the alkylation and trans alkylation reactors is regenerable.

At the end of each cycle, the catalyst is typically regenerated ex-situ via a simple carbon

burn by a certified regeneration contractor. However, the unit can also be designed for in-situ

catalyst regeneration.

Mild operating conditions and a corrosion-free process environment permit the use of

carbon-steel construction and conventional process equipment.


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2.4 PROCESS FLOW DIAGRAM WITH INSTRUMENTATION AND EQUIPMENT OF

Q-MAX ™ PROCESS FOR CUMENE MANUFACTURING

Figure 7, PFD. of Cumene manufacturing process with all instrumentation and fittings with feed

locations, heat exchanger, pumps, coolers etc.


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Chapter:- 3

List major equipment and instrumentation required in

manufacturing of Cumene

.
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3.1 MAJOR EQUIPMENT

Major equipment required in Q-MAX ™ CUMENE MANUFACTURING are follow:-

1. Alkylation reactors.

2. Trans alkylation reactor

3. Depropanizer column.

4. Benzene column.

5. Cumen column.

6. DIPB column.

Other general equipment used in cumene manufacturing process.

1. Feed drum.

2. Feed pump.

3. Feed vaporizer.

4. Feed heater.

5. Effluent coolers.

6. Phase separator.

7. Condenser.

8. Reflux pump.

9. Reboiler.

10. Cumene Reflux drum.


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1. Alkylation reactors.

The alkylation reactor is typically divided into four catalyst beds contained in a single

reactor shell. The fresh benzene is routed through the upper midsection of the depropanizer

column to remove excess water and then sent to the alkylation reactor via a side draw. The

recycle benzene to both the alkylation and trans alkylation reactors comes from the overhead of

the benzene column.


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A mixture of fresh and recycle benzene is charged down flow through the alkylation

reactor. The fresh propylene feed is split between the four catalyst beds. An excess of benzene is

used to avoid polyalkylation and to help minimize olefin oligomerization.

Because the reaction is exothermic, the temperature rise in the reactor is controlled by

recycling a portion of the reactor effluent to the reactor inlet, which acts as a heat sink. In

addition, the inlet temperature of each downstream bed is reduced to the same temperature as

that of the first bed inlet by injecting a portion of cooled reactor effluent between the beds.

Effluent from the alkylation reactor is sent to the depropanizer column, which

removes any propane and water that may have entered with the propylene feed.

2. Trans alkylation reactor.

In the trans alkylation reactor, DIPB and benzene are converted to additional cumene.

The effluent from the trans alkylation reactor is then sent to the benzene column. The QZ-2000

catalyst utilized in both the alkylation and trans alkylation reactors is regenerable. At the end of

each cycle, the catalyst is typically regenerated ex-situ via a simple carbon burn by a certified

regeneration contractor. However, the unit can also be designed for in-situ catalyst regeneration.

Mild operating conditions and a corrosion-free process environment permit the use of carbon-

steel construction and conventional process equipment.


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3. Depropanizer Reactors.

Depropanizer Reactors is reactors which removes propane, water, and other

impurities present in the propylene feed. The depropanizer has a total condenser, partial reboiler,

20 equilibrium stages , and operates at 17 bar. The feed streams, a saturated liquid at 101.6°C,

enter at stage 11 at a flow rate of 100Kmol/hr.


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4. Benzene column.

The bottoms from the depropanizer column are sent to the benzene column, where excess

benzene is collected overhead and recycled. Benzene column bottoms are sent to the cumene

column, where the cumene product is recovered overhead.


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5. Cumene Column.

Benzene column bottoms are sent to the cumene column, where the cumene product is

recovered overhead. The Cumene column bottom which contains most d-isopropyl benzene is

send to the DIPB stream leaves the column by way of a side cut and is recycled to the Tran

alkylation reactor.

The bottom liquid mixture is pumped at bubble point to the cumene distillation column

where distillate 99.9% cumene and bottom pure p-DIPB is obtained.


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6. DIPB COLUMN.

The Cumene column bottom which contains most d-isopropyl benzene is send to the

DIPB stream leaves the column by way of a side cut and is recycled to the Tran alkylation

reactor. The DIPB column bottom consist of heavy aromatic by-product, which are normally

blended into fuel oil. Steam or hot oil provide the heat for the product, fractionation section.

.
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3.2 Instrumentation Required In Cumene Manufacturing Process.

Major instrumentation required in cumene manufacturing process are:-

1. Pressure measuring instruments.

 Diaphragm pressure valve.

 Border tube pressure gauge

2. Flow measuring devices.

 Turbine flow metre.

 Vortex flowmeters.

 Coriolis flowmeter.

3. Temperature measuring devices.

 Electro pyrometer.

 Helix bimetallic element thermometer.

4. Level measuring instrument.

 Radar level measuring transmitter.

 Buoyancy level measurement device.

5. Valve control and regulations.

6. Ph measuring instruments.

 Ph meter.

 Ph indicator.
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Chapter :- 4

MATERIAL BALANCE
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4.1 Overall Material Balance.

Reaction’s in the Alkylation Reactor:

C3H6 + C6H6 = C6H5 - C3H7 (Cumene, IPB)

C3H6 + C6H5-C3H7 = C3H7–C6H4-C3H7(diisopropylbenzene;DIPB;C6H4[CH(CH3)2])

Reaction’s in the Trans-Alkylation Reactor:

C3H7–C6H4-C3H7+C6H6 2(C6H5-C3H7)

Conversion of Propylene in Alkylation reactor :%100

Reactor Conversion for Trans-Alkylation reactor :%50

Capacity:13234ton/year product.