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CHE239 – Process Control and

Lab No. : 1 Subject : Instrumentation

Title :
Date: 6/3/2017
Participant Course : CHE239 Semester : 4 Group: EH1104C
*Please cancel which
is not necessary. No. Name Matrix No.
1 Nur Farahana bt Hizamnuddin
2 Nur Sabrina bt Nazaruddin
3 Nurul Najihah bt Fadzin
4 Noor Izzah Nadhirah bt Muhamad Zahidi
5 Fatin Natasha bt Nazri


Objective :

1. To obtain the best combination of I and D onto the flow system, level system and cascade system.

2. To conduct the experiment on Level Flow Control System for Set Value Test and Load Disturbance Test
3. To observe the response of the controller when the disturbance encountered to
study the action of the PID controller.

Abstract :
For Proportional and Integral Level Control, PB value entered a 50 , I value of 30s, 15s,
5s and D value of 0s. The value of PB and D was maintained until the end of the
experiment. The LIC-603 control loop was put into manual mode, then the set point
adjusted to 50mmH20. Next, the recorder was turned on after that the record button
was pressed and the data started to record. The LIC-603 was put into auto mode. Load
change was stimulated by closing HV-620 for 20 seconds and returned into it’s original
position. The recorder was turned off once the measurement stabilized and the control
loop was put back into manual mode. Next, the output was tuned gradually so that the
level measurement matches the set point of 50mmH20. The recorder was turned on
again then the control loop put to auto mode. A set point that has changed was
stimulated by increasing the set point to 60mmH20. The recorder was turned off once
the measurement stabilized after that the control loop was put back into manual mode.
As for Proportional Integral Derivatives Level Control, the experiment remained the
same by only changing the value of I which are 1s and 6s.

Introduction: This experiment is to study single loop flow control in PID and PID single loop
control using derivatives mode. The derivatives mode is used to overcome
disturbance such as noise in a system. A proportional–integral–derivative controller
(PID controller) is a control loop feedback mechanism (controller) commonly used
in industrial control systems. A PID controller continuously calculates an error value
as the difference between a measured process variable and a desired set point. The
controller attempts to minimize the error over time by adjustment of a control
variable, such as the position of a control valve, a damper, or the power supplied to
a heating element. As a PID controller relies only on the measured process variable,
not on knowledge of the underlying process, it is broadly applicable. By tuning the
three parameters of the model, a PID controller can deal with specific process
requirements. The response of the controller can be described in terms of its
responsiveness to an error, the degree to which the system overshoots a set point,
and the degree of any system oscillation. The use of the PID algorithm does not
guarantee optimal control of the system or even its stability. Some applications may
require using only one or two terms to provide the appropriate system control. This
is achieved by setting the other parameters to zero. A PID controller will be called a
PI, PD, P or I controller in the absence of the respective control actions. PI
controllers are fairly common, since derivative action is sensitive to measurement
noise, whereas the absence of an integral term may prevent the system from
reaching its target value. The main benefit of any PID loop is that a designer can
“set it and forget it” while still maintaining a well-regulated system. PID control is
so universal that PI and PID loops can be small and fast like a current-regulating
loop inside a servo drive or vector controller, or a slower loop regulating the liquid
level in a giant tank holding thousands of gallons. PID loops are one of the simplest
yet most effective means to achieve that control on almost anything measurable and
regulable. Frankly, if PID didn't already exist, we would be forced to invent it or
factory automation would be very limited. PID loops provide technicians and
engineers with a customizable way to control a variety of conditions, from
temperature to speed and everything in between. The loop's control is used to
modify application behavior to keep output at stable and improve response rates.
What's particularly exciting is that special software and computers can perform
calculations to make PID design easier.


PI Controller

PB I (s) D Results
50 30 0  The graph experience undershoot and after that
slightly increase when disturbance applied
 Before reaching the set point, the graph shows
slightly decreases

 The graph experience overshoot and undershoot

when the disturbance is applied
 Managed to reach the set point
 When the set point increase the process variable
managed to reach the set point
 The graph experience overshoot and undershoot
50 15 0  The graph shows troubleshoot and after that
decreases when disturbance are applied
 Managed to reach the set point

50 5 0  The graph experience troubleshoot and oscillation

when disturbance are applied
 Managed to reach set point

PID Controller

PB I (s) D Results
50 6 1  The graph experience overshoot and oscillation
happens when disturbance is applied
 Managed to reach set point

50 6 6  The graph shows undershoot and troubleshoot

with oscillation when disturbance is applied
 Managed to reach set point
Graph for PI Controller
Graph for PID Controller
Conclusion: In this experiment, we learned to control a pressure, level, flow, temperature loop
using three different control modes: P, PI, and On-off. We experimented with the
trial and error method of tuning a controller and developed a feel for the behavior
of the control schemes for various values of the control parameters. The next
exercise will cover a different method of optimizing a PID controller and will
allow us to test our control skills on a flow process.



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Allocated Marks for Technical/Executive report

Criteria Full Marks

Abstract 10
Objective 10
Data/Results/Calculation 20
Discussion 30
Conclusion 10
References 10
Overall structure/organization and Quality 10