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The Role of Education, Community Integration and Arts Enterprise in Developing Entrepreneurial Skills in Adolescent At-Risk Populations

L. Lawrence Riccio School of Education, Trinity College, Washington, DC, USA Christopher L. Hannon George Washington University, Washington, DC, USA

WVSA arts connection, a non-profit arts-in-education organization located in Washington, DC, serving children and youth with special needs for over 20 years, has developed the ARTiculate Employment Training Program 1 , a community-based learning program that combines arts-based instruction and

a unique environment with the elements of education, community inclusion,

and enterprise to promote participant achievement in the transition from school

to the world of work. These components form the bases for teaching vocational,

social and entrepreneurial skills. This article focuses on the interaction of these components and shows how the arts connect with 'real learning' using an innovative, non-traditional approach - a paradigm-shifting view of employment and social skills development in relation to youth with special needs.


Increasing numbers of educators, parents and students are recognizing that traditional employment training methods can be unsupportive and at times alienating to youth, particularly those with special needs. Non-traditional models have proven effective in promoting student achievement and successful transition from school to the community and the world of work. WVSA's ARTiculate Employment Training Program, a community based arts-infused employment training program for youth and young adults with disabilities, is such a model. The program works with the belief that students who have

difficulty learning, processing information, and/or demonstrating knowledge through traditional methods may be more successful using the arts as a vehicle for gaining and cultivating the social and vocational skills needed to transition successfully from school

to the 'future' (Riccio, 2001). The employment training program is funded by public schools, state health or

employment departments, and grants from private foundations or government agencies.

A portion of the sales from participants' artwork is also a source of program funding,

with yearly sales averaging $60,000 and growing.

Transition Services Defined

Transition can be defined as the passage from one state, stage, or place to another; movement, development, or an evolution from one form, stage, or style to another. Historically in the United States, transition services designed for youth with special

©2003 L.L. Riccio & C.L. Hannon


1357-4019/03/03 0180-13 $10.00/0



Community Integration and Arts Enterprise


needs to prepare them for living productive lives after leaving the secondary school system, have been limited. The introduction of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) in 1990 and its previous formats (i.e. Education of the Handicapped Act) served as a direct solution to this problem. IDEA, in part, was created to guarantee that all children and youth with disabilities are provided free and appropriate public education encompassing special education and related services that will assist in their movement from school to independent living, work or further education (Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, 1997).

The Individual: The ARTiculate Program Participant

The typical program participant attends a public school (a municipally run school) that provides transition services that may not speak to each student's needs, thus failing to cater to all learning styles. Participants range in age from 14 to 25 years and are predominantly African American and Latino. Many live in the most underserved and poorest areas in Washington, DC, with a single caretaker, most often an older female relative. Others live in residential facilities or are in foster care.Very few reside with both biological parents. Special needs have included learning disabilities, emotional disorders, cerebral palsy, mental retardation, and schizophrenia. Most participants are simultaneously involved in individual, group, or family therapy. Levels of self-esteem tend to be low and most need one-on-one guided attention. Participants rarely are involved in extracurricular school activities such as sports or clubs and are often viewed as operating outside of their peers' social arena.

Multiple Intelligences and the Arts: A Complementing Pair The Theory of Multiple Intelligences (Gardner, 1983; 1993) proposes that there exists multiple ways in which people view and understand the world around them and that there are multiple ways of learning and knowing. The program philosophy is based on the affirmation and use of the multiple intelligences of its participants, subscribing to the belief that we all learn differently and that success is obtainable if programming is tailored for each participant. It works therefore to develop multiple learning/teaching opportunities: linguistic, mathematical, body kinesthetic, musical, interpersonal skills, intrapersonal skills, spatial skills, and naturalistic. The arts provide an excellent avenue to cultivate multiple intelligences and ultimately develop new talents, increase self-esteem, enhance social and employment-related skills, and enjoy mainstream community, cultural, and educational activities. The arts promote 'real -based' learning and learning by doing.

The Program Environment

A positive, supportive, unique environment plays a significant role in learning, particularly in relation to youth, and such elements as space, acoustics, lighting, instructor behavior, and peer group dynamics affect performance. Therefore, the physical and social environments of the program have been carefully designed to promote learning through hands-on experience and community inclusion and support. The environment (both physical and social) ultimately assists in participant expression and skill development. The program, as well as the WVSA arts connection office areas and several other programs (e.g. the School for Arts in Learning, a public elementary charter school) and



Social and Economics Education

staff overseen by the umbrella organization, is housed in the center of the Washington, DC, business district. The non-traditional 'school/employment training' setting includes

a gallery with display space rivaling that of any other in the downtown area and an

adjoining art studio, one of four located throughout the building. The gallery, dedicated solely to the display of program participants' artwork, houses the gallery curator's office space and is listed as a 'must see' local Washington, DC, site. Notice of opening receptions, during which participants sell and promote their artwork, regularly appear in area newspapers and periodicals and have attracted hundreds of community patrons.

Studio spaces consist of accessible art tables; a technology-learning center including computers with Internet access, printers and scanners; and a framing work area. The fully functioning spaces are designed to engage the participants in all aspects of product production. The participants are encouraged to develop meaningful relationships extending from within the art studios and the gallery (with youth co-workers and program staff) to throughout the building, creating bonds with the administrative, artistic, and support staff, and visitors alike.

The ARTiculate Model

The ARTiculate program strives to create a vocational learning environment that

allows participants to learn the basic skills applicable to real-life situations and proceed

at a rate that is achievable for them (making no unfair comparisons with the progress of

others); assures positive reinforcement; and provides curriculum, instruction, and assessment procedures that reflect the many different ways individuals learn and process information (Teele, 1994). As visually represented in Figure 1, the program is able to individually address the needs of each program participant by combining an arts-based curriculum and unique environment with the elements of Education, Community, and Enterprise.

with the elements of Education, Community, and Enterprise. Figure 1 The ARTiculate model of interlocking elements

Figure 1 The ARTiculate model of interlocking elements


Community Integration and Arts Enterprise


Each interlocking element brings a new dimension to the program and all work in unison to fulfill the goal of social skills building and vocational achievement through the arts. The basic elements of Education, Community, and Enterprise are further broken down in Figure 2. Each element is explored further in the following sections.

Each element is explored further in the following sections. Figure 2 Program Elements Education The program

Figure 2 Program Elements


The program strives to educate its participants by guiding them in the exploration of themselves to ultimately reveal their skills, talents, and aspirations. Each participant is thought to be capable of learning and achieving success. The intelligences of all are appreciated and honed.

Arts as a learning tool

The arts, considered an 'intelligence fair' tool that can be used to cultivate many ways of thinking and learning (Gardner, 1993), are the core of the program's curriculum. The philosophy is based on the premise that the arts provide an excellent avenue for all individuals to develop new talents, increase self-esteem, enhance social and employment- related skills, and enjoy mainstream community, cultural, and educational activities. The arts strengthen learning by actively involving participants, and work to provide new perspectives, to permit trying out different options, engage the whole person, teach participants skills for working together to manage conflict, and offer alternative ways to communicate. Many studies have shown that marketable skills can be developed through an interest in or talent for the arts. Eisner (1998) reports: 'The arts foster an awareness that problems can have multiple solutions and questions multiple answers - that good things can be done in different ways'. For many individuals, the arts may be the ideal way not only to teach this kind of multi-dimensional problem-solving, but also to teach individuals to take pride in approaching challenges in unique ways. An arts curriculum designed in particular for participants with diverse learning styles advances individual expression, creative problem- solving, and flexible thinking (Riccio & Eaton, 1995).


Through the program's training format, program participants work a minimum of six hours each week during the school year and eight hours per day each week during the summer in designated studios with a staff consisting of artist instructors, artist



Social and Economics Education

assistants, gallery staff, an independent living/social skills instructor, and a vocational instructor. Specific skill development includes, but is not limited to, understanding the importance of and engaging in regular attendance, understanding and engaging in interpersonal communication, working within a group, meeting deadlines, understanding the creative process, and career exploration/development. The program provides participants with training in three discrete skill areas: applied and fine arts, social skills, and employment readiness. The program's goal is to move the participant forward on the continuum of skills needed to live and work independently in their community as shown in Figure 3.

work independently in their community as shown in Figure 3. Figure 3 Continuum of Skills Applied

Figure 3 Continuum of Skills

Applied and fine arts training Participants are taught to explore applied and fine arts as a means of providing a lifelong tool for self-expression and self-awareness. Instructors teach participants how to mix and vary color tones with acrylic paints, mix watercolors according to the effect wanted, and produce two- and three-dimensional pieces. Participants also are exposed to arts-based information technology skills, as a way to foster an awareness of information technology by developing new skills needed to function in a hi-tech society. Participants learn basic computer skills as well as how to operate digital cameras, digital scanners, and digital imaging software.

Social and life skills training

The program provides an environmental and instructional context through which an individual develops self-respect and self-esteem and respect for staff, colleagues, and equipment. The staff stress the importance of self-determination and making choices and decisions regarding quality of life. The significance of appropriate 'workplace' /studio language, attire, and etiquette are also reinforced. Various role-playing activities give participants the opportunity to further develop interpersonal communication skills.

Employment readiness training

Upon entering the program, participants complete inventories that are used in the exploration of their career interests and to identify their unique strengths, talents and aspirations. Program staff focus on five phases of career development that run along the continuum of skills needed to compete in a global economy taking into consideration each participant's interests and abilities. The phases outlined in Table 1 include awareness of self, career preparation, awareness of the world, career exploration and employment. Career development is not seen as an event, but as a multi-faceted process. Consequently, true career development is neither linear nor circular in development. It is more web- like, in that one will begin the career development process at any point along the continuum and will move to the next most appropriate phase, depending solely on one's distinct and personal needs.


Community Integration and Arts Enterprise

Five Phases of Career Development






1. Awareness of Self • Identifying one's unique strengths, talents, aspirations, career and other life interests, preferences, dreams, limitations and needs for support.

2. Career Preparation

3. Awareness of the World

4. Career Exploration

5. Employment

• Taking advantage of experiences that will give one skills, knowledge and attitudes related to specific career interests;

Expanding one's network of contacts (people familiar with one's field of interest);

Striving to do one's best;

Taking into consideration the relevance of one's life interests.

Having basic knowledge of other cultures, subcultures and the vast range of ways groups of people live;

Understanding the spectrum of occupational areas that exists in the United States and the global economy;

Understanding the range of occupational areas within one's own community.

Identifying at least three career interest areas;

Becoming exposed to things that catch one's interests - and exploring these areas in more detail (including leisure time pursuits, hobbies, jobs, current events etc.);

Developing hands-on experience in one's area(s) of interest.

Listing all of the jobs, both paid and unpaid, one has had in a lifetime - from childhood to the present;

Understanding the positive and negative experiences learned from previous employment situations;

Becoming aware of how each experience has an impact on one's current employment situation, i.e. awareness of oneself; understanding the work world; preparing for a career.

Table 1 Five phases of career development

1 Awareness of self

Awareness of self is the first step in social independence, communal interdependence, community inclusion and employment readiness. Self-identity, along with self-regulation to societal norms, makes community inclusion all the more demanding. Through a series of written and verbal interest inventories administered by the vocational coordinator, participants explore their hopes, dreams, and aspirations. Participants also formulate a positive personal profile, one that delineates the participant's strengths,



Social and Economics Education

short- and long-term goals, self-determination skills and strategies for success. These interest exercises, in conjunction with formal and informal assessments, help develop, cultivate and nurture a greater understanding of self. Participants are then encouraged to express their hopes, dreams and aspirations through their artwork. They are encouraged to find their identity through artistic expression and share that identity with their peers, families and community. Participants also are encouraged to work collaboratively, experiencing first hand the value of communal interdependence.

2 Career preparation

The training program provides participants with opportunities to display the knowledge, skills and attitudes gained through the program at six annual gallery openings that display participants' artwork to the general public. Gallery openings give participants the opportunity to interact with new people, discuss their original creations, sell their artwork, establish networking resources and put into application the social skills that the program stresses.

3 Awareness of world

Program staff schedule group discussion sessions throughout the year with the objective of exposing participants to other cultures and world views. Ultimately, participants learn about the global community and how they fit within it.

4 Career exploration

Participants are encouraged to understand a range of occupations and develop hands- on experience. All participants are encouraged to take advantage of arranged inclusive job- shadowing experiences that will afford them skills, knowledge and attitudes related to specific career interests. Job-shadowing opportunities include working in the gallery greeting patrons, writing sales receipts, working with WVSA's receptionist answering phones, faxing materials and working with the director of technology on various tasks such as installing software, trouble-shooting technical problems and working on hardware solutions.

5 Employment

Participants are guided through employment history exercises during which they are expected to reflect on past employment experiences and the knowledge gained from each. Program staff use the information gathered to pair participants with appropriate community employers outside of the program. Periodically, staff take part in site visits monitoring the participants' performance by observation and interviewing employers.

Assessment Tools

The assessment tools, designed specifically for the ARTiculate Employment Training Program and outlined in Table 2, are used to define a participant's needs upon entering the program and as benchmarks for progress made at intervals. Assessment tools yield literacy levels, knowledge of community and life skills, vocational awareness, as well as artistic aptitude. Assessment information is used by the teaching staff to formulate individual lesson plans adapted to the specific needs of each participant.


The physical community (people, buildings etc.) surrounding the employment training program is a place of learning that reinforces the principles of self-regulation, communal interdependence and the employment readiness skills needed to succeed.


Community Integration and Arts Enterprise









Used to assess a potential

During an intake interview, the


applicant's interest and basic skills.

Employment Training Program co-ordinator informally assesses

Arts Preparedness

variables such as attitude, motivation and concentration.


Used to assess a participant's knowledge of arts materials,

Given during the participant's first two weeks in the program,

Social Skills

terms, shapes and colors.

answers lead to an individual's present level of performance.

Assessment Tool

Converts each participant's present level of social skills

Given during the participant's first month in the program,

Vocational Skills

performance into a personal plan of action and is fed into the Individual Participant Objective Plan (IPOP).

answers lead to an individual's present level of perfonnance and specific transition goals and objectives.

Assessment Tool

Converts each participant's level of employment skills into a

Given during the participant's first month in the program,


personal plan of action and is fed into the Individual Participant Objective Plan (IPOP).

answers lead to an individual's present level of performance and specific transition goals and objectives.


Driving document that provides a point of reference in training

Created within the first two weeks of a participant's entrance

Objective Plan

each participant in social,

into the program, revisited by


independent living and employability skills.

the program co-ordinator and support staff regularly.


Used to keep a daily record of

Used daily, discussed at weekly

Dynamics Log

an individual's participation in

staff meetings.


the Emplyment Training Program. Vocational instructors use the CDLs to keep track of each participant's progress and continued areas of need.


The Participant Feedback Form

Given during the last two weeks

Feedback Form

affords each participant an opportunity to voice his/her opinion about program strengths and areas of need.

of the programme/session.

Table 2 Programme Assessment Tools

Community resources

The emphasis on experiencing the community extends into the community at large. The city has become the program's 'living teaching tool'. Participants engage in many field trips throughout the year, for example visiting local art galleries, local community organizations and business offices. Excursions are frequently related to upcoming gallery


Citizenship, Social and Economics Education

opening/reception themes. For instance, participants may travel throughout the city visiting historical sites. The participants take tablets and drawing tools with them to sketch their impressions of the community excursion with the aim of producing artwork in the studio that will be displayed at the next scheduled exhibit opening. The program also partners with schools, organizations and businesses. For example, the program has partnered with a non-profit organization committed to training and matching successful adult mentors with program participants, and participants have created artwork at the request of community leaders to be displayed throughout the city.

Community inclusion

Participants enrolled in the program come from all over the city; however, most do not view the downtown business district as part of their community. To most participants, the downtown area is some place distant, unfamiliar, and foreign. The location of the program, in the center of the business district three blocks north of the White House, fosters an awareness of this area and allows the program participants to not only learn about the place in which they live but develop a sense of pride in their community. The program's location also assists participants in gaining necessary skills. In an effort to attend the program, most participants must access the public rail and/or bus system, enhancing community integration while fostering travel training. Participants also take part in community-mapping exercises, where they are given a map and are required to visit local businesses to inquire about what services the business provides and the possible employment opportunities. These exercises encourage participants to go into the community, explore and learn about real world applications of social, employment and interpersonal skills. Other community inclusion exercises include discussions facilitated by program staff relating to citizenship, e.g. cleaning up local parks and painting murals in public spaces. These experiences reinforce the taught principles of self-regulation, social independence, communal interdependence, community inclusion and employment readiness.

Parent/Guardian involvement

Although community participation is valued in the development of each participant, parental and/or guardian involvement is an essential factor in a program participant's success. While parent participation in public schools remains low (Henig et al, 1999) the program works to combat this by providing services for the entire family. Parents and guardians are offered training sessions in areas such as transition, advocacy and building self-determination skills in their children. They are encouraged to participate in the WVSA-sponsored program ImPACT (Imagine Parents and Artists Creatively Talking). ImPACT assists parents, guardians and youth to develop communication skills by using the arts as a tool. The service works to build multiple levels of protective factors against school failure, violence, delinquency and substance abuse through bi-weekly 2½-hour sessions that include a family meal and family participation in arts experiences.


The collaboration between enterprise and education is not a new strategy as exemplified by programs within the United States and abroad. Enterprise education in the US has been in existence since the close of World War I.The decade of the 1990s brought about


Community Integration and Arts Enterprise


significant change in the perception of enterprise and education as a national conscience emerged that the US had a serious deficiency in the system by which youth obtain needed skills to move from the school world to the world of work (Barton, 1993). Today's working climate has been characterized as the 'third wave' of the industrial revolution, with the first and second being steam and the assembly line, and this wave mandates students acquire a 'new set of skills to survive economically, politically and socially' (Krieg et al., 1995).

In stark contrast to the needs of the American workforce, the US General Accounting

Office found that American youth were poorly prepared for entry-level work due to poor academic preparation, limited career guidance and virtually no workplace experience (US General Accounting Office, 1993). This fact is not lost on American employers who work to bridge the gap between the needs of the market and the skills the American labor market possess, as it is estimated that US organizations spent approximately $60 billion on formal training in 1997, up from $43.2 billion in 1991 and up approximately five percent from 1996 (Industry Report, 1997).

The School-to-Work Opportunities Act of 1994 established national guidelines for states to design and implement a broad range of public school activities with the intended outcomes of addressing the documented problems in transitioning youth from secondary to post-secondary options such as career indecision; lack of consistent career plans; irrelevancy of secondary curriculum to post-secondary education training and employment; and lack of entry-level job skills (Griffith, 2001).

A source for many components of American work-based educational programs can

be found in European models that focus upon significant co-ordination between employers, school, labor and government; integration of school- and work-based learning experiences; broadly recognized certification of academic and occupational skill mastery; and high-skill, high-wage career routes that do not require a bachelor's degree (Smith,


Common to work-based employment programs in Europe and America is that evaluation and assessment is critical to informing the development process, assessing program impact and maintaining support for innovation (Smith, 1997).


Although the term 'entrepreneurship' is used primarily in the US and Canada, as opposed to the term of 'enterprise' as used in the UK and elsewhere in Europe, the ARTiculate program's entrepreneurship component is very much in line with European models of enterprise education. The common thread is bringing about a cultural change toward more enterprising, self-directed and innovative attitudes towards work and personal life management (Vento-Vierikko &Varis, 1998). The goal of ARTiculate's entrepreneurship education is not necessarily to channel program participants into artistic entrepreneur ventures, but to focus the training upon personal attributes that are essential to being a viable contributor in a global economy. All program participants are responsible for their learning pace and style of expression. Participants are given the responsibility to self-monitor and regulate their behavior and to fulfill the requirements of the program. They are required to sign contracts to enter the program and treat the program as their job. These contracts set forth the requirements of attendance, behavior, expected outcomes and commissions for artwork sold. The program is run as an entrepreneurial enterprise where there is a direct correlation



Social and Economics Education

between effort given by the participant and numbers of items created by the participant displayed in the gallery for sale. An important element of the program is to allow participants the independence to make their own decisions regarding pace, style and medium of artwork to be offered for sale to the gallery curator and later to the retail customer, which requires participants to bear the consequences of their decisions. Artist instructors offer suggestions to the participants and are there to provide professional input if needed but the participant has the final approval on what will be created. If the artwork does not fit in with the theme of the next gallery show, or it is not appropriate for display, the participant must bear the consequences that the artwork will not be displayed and has no chance of being sold. Hence, the entrepreneur (participant) can either adapt to the market trend and consumer needs (gallery curator) or the entrepreneur can create a product that is not in demand by the consumer market. If the artwork is 'sold' (accepted for display in the gallery) to the consumer (gallery curator), there is still no guarantee that the artwork will sell in the gallery to the general public and a commission will be earned by the participant. This technique is often referred to as learning under conditions of uncertainty. In the American educational context it is called self-determination, or making your own decisions and bearing the consequences of those decisions. The entrepreneurial training focuses upon developing participant's decision-making skills.

Hands-On Experience

The gallery plays an integral role in the ARTiculate Employment Training Program. Not only is it a place to display and sell the participants' artwork, but it is also a training site for entrepreneurial and enterprise skills. Participants job-shadow the gallery curator to learn the vital skills of marketing, framing, presentation, customer relations and how to consummate a sale (price decision, generate sales receipt, credit card/debit transaction etc). The gallery has six annual shows exhibiting the art produced by the participants. The artwork created for each show focuses on a particular theme (e.g. Valentine's Day; springtime; the holidays). Each participant must interview with the gallery curator before their artwork will be selected for upcoming exhibits. There is a limited amount of display space available in the gallery and the participants are very competitive in getting their artwork displayed. These gallery interviews help participants refine their interviewing, presentation, interpersonal and marketing skills while simulating a real work environment. Participants are represented in the gallery opening through paintings, two- and three- dimensional pieces or original greeting cards. However, the amount of artwork represented in the gallery for each participant is directly tied to his or her effort and dedication. The participants' reality is based on performance outcomes and successful completion of the gallery interview. Each gallery show opens with a reception for 125-150 attendees, which is essential to the overall success of the program, giving participants the opportunity to share their creations with, and potentially sell them to, the public. For every piece a participant sells, he or she receives a commission. During these receptions, the participants have the opportunity to demonstrate knowledge, skills and attitudes gained while in the program. The interpersonal interaction fosters a strong artist-patron relationship and, since many of our participants have a distinct artistic style and personality, they have developed quite


Community Integration and Arts Enterprise


a following among patrons of the gallery. As a result, a number of patrons have commissioned original artworks by their favorite artists. The participants are expected to co-host each exhibit opening. Examples of work they might engage in include:

• distributing invitations to the public;

• greeting gallery patrons (eye contact, talk clearly and slowly, lead the patron to their artwork and explain the relevance of the work to the patron);

• replenishing ice or food items;

• helping with the sale of the art;

• cleaning up at the end of the evening.

Essentially, the gallery opening is an evaluation of progress.The staff stand back and let the participants shine in the light of their success. The day following the gallery openings, the staff meet to critique the participant's performance, discuss strengths and areas of need and refine the skills training as needed. The whole process of education, community integration and enterprise starts again leading up to the next gallery opening.

Community Business


The program has a business advisory board that meets quarterly to discuss the needs of the local business community; how to effectively transfer those needs to the vocational curriculum of the program; and opportunities for job-shadowing, internships and part- time job placement for program participants. All advisory board members agree to hire at least one participant during the course of the program year and all members agree to allow the program to use their worksites as inclusive job-shadowing opportunities. Staff recruit business partners from a variety of sectors (for-profit, non-profit, educational, technology, etc.) to give the participants a well-rounded exposure to diverse workplaces. Program staff also attend on-site training sessions hosted by members of the advisory board to gain a better sense of the business needs and skills required by program participants who may ultimately be matched with the employer.

Program Graduates,

Post ARTiculate

The ARTiculate program tracks participants who have exited the program with follow- up meetings and interviews with parents/guardians, schools, social service providers and employers at three-monthly intervals to gauge the success of former participants in the community setting. Training and program delivery is refined in conjunction with information garnered through these follow-up activities. The employment and educational outcomes for program graduates reflect the various levels of disabilities they present. Some graduates are employed at stores, restaurants or other local businesses, others work in community organizations or government agencies. One former participant is a District of Columbia firefighter. This year five program graduates will be attending college. With feedback generated by the participants and those who provide care for them, the program continues to learn and grow from its experiences and provide programming that develops the whole person, incorporating all of the participant's special talents and special skills.



Social and Economics Education


The ARTiculate Employment Training Program functions to provide for its at-risk youth participants with special needs the necessary skills to become productive citizens and workers in an ever-changing global community setting. The program's emphasis on the intermingling of the arts, the environment, education, community integration and enterprise has proved to be successful by working collectively to instill social, self- determination and employment readiness skills in youth.


Any correspondence should be directed to Prof L. Lawrence Riccio, School of Education,Trinity College, Washington, DC 20017, USA (E-mail: lriccio


1. For more information about the ARTiculate Employment Training Program or WVSA arts connection, visit


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