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AGMA 904-C96

(Revision of

AGMA 904-889)

Reaffirmed January 2017

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

January 2017 AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION Metric Usage AGMA INFORMATION SHEET (This Information Sheet

Metric Usage

2017 AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION Metric Usage AGMA INFORMATION SHEET (This Information Sheet is NOT an

AGMA INFORMATION SHEET

(This Information Sheet is NOT an AGMA Standard)

=·.

_ ~·

Reproduced By GLOBAL

ENGINEERING DOCUMENTS

_ffe.With The Pennission Of AGMA

Under Royalty Agreement

-= =-

_

Contents

AGMA 904-C96

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Foreword

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1

Scope

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SI Units

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3

Multiples and Sub-multiples of SI Units

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Units Outside the International System

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Definitions of the SI Base Units and Dimensionless Derived

Units

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Preferred Dimensions and Tolerances

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Conversion -

Non-metric to Metric

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Module System

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13

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Multiples for Use

in AGMA Standards

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14

1o Gear Symbols for Use in Metric Standards

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20

Figures

Figure 5-1 Angular Units

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Figure 7-1 Total Variation Incurred by Rounding Off

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Tables

. Table 2-2 Dimensionless Derived Units

Table

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2-1 Base Units

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1

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Table

2-3

Examples of SI

Base Units

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Units Derived from Derived Units With

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Units Derived

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From SI

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Table

Table

Table 3-1 SI Prefixes

Table

2-4

2-5

. 4-1 Other Units of Measurement Used with SI

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Examples of SI Examples of SI

Special Names

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2

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5

6

Table

. 6-1 Preferred Metric Tolerances and their Inch Equivalent

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Table 7-1 Possible Difference Due to Rounding

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Table

. Table 7-3 Conversion of Other Units and Recommended Rounding Method

Table

7-2

Round Off Practice for Toleranced Dimensions

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8-1 Metric Modules

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11

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. Table 9-1 Multiples and Conversion Factors for Use in AGMA Standards

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15

AGMA 904-C96

Foreword

[This foreword, footnotes, and appendices, if any, are provided for informational purposes only and should not be construed as a part of American Gear Manufacturers Association Information Sheet 904-C96, Metric Usage.]

In 1972, the AGMA Technical Division Executive Committee (TDEC) started the formation of a committee referred to as the Metric Study Committee. The first meeting of this Metric Study Committee was on January 23, 1973. In March 1974, the AGMA Board of directors instructed its Technical Division to:

• Form a standing Metric Resource and Advisory Committee.

• Establish detailed procedures to effect a changeover, i.e., create a metric usage standard.

The first meeting of the Metric Resource and Advisory Committee was held on November 4, 1974. A proposed AGMA Information Sheet, Guide for Use of SI (Metric) Units in Gearing, AGMA 600.XX was drafted over the next years. On September 21, 1977, the Metric Resource and Advisory Committee changed the name of the proposed standard 600.:XX to AGMA Standard for Metric Usage. The standard 600.01 was issued in March

1979.

On September 12, 1979, the first draft of Procedural Guidelines for Metrication of AGMA Standards was written. This document was released on June 4, 1980 as Policy and Practice guide Number 040.17,

Procedure for the Metrication of AGMA Standards. The Guidelines for Metrication were AGMA Board on November 2, 1977.

In 1988, the TDEC converted this revision to an Information Sheet and assigned compliance review to AGMA Headquarters Staff. In 1996, it was uptdated and the symbols tables 10.1 and 10.2 were removed, which can be found in AGMA 900-F96.

approved by the

This Information Sheet is to be used as an editorial guide when preparing the AGMA metric standards and information sheets. It describes the SI system of units and the multiples and sub-multiples to be used in AGMA standards.

The guidelines for metrication are as follows:

(1} The intent of the process is conversion to SI units, not the revision of content.

(2)

The purpose of these guidelines is to assure uniformity of metric terms and abbreviations.

(3)

Generally, metrication will be performed by the responsible committee. Exception will be at the

discretion of the TDEC.

(4) There shall be two methods of generating metric standards, the choice of which shall be at the

discretion of the originating committee. All standards on which revision is begun after January 1, 1991 shall be prepared in accordance with one of the two following methods.

(a)

Standards may be developed in hard metric only.

(b)

Parallel standards, in which both hard conversion SI and conventional inch versions of standards will

be available for the same purpose.

(5)

Metrication shall conform to AGMA 904-C96 which references ANSI/IEEE 268-1982 and ISO 1000.

(6)

Preparation of a hard metric document shall be approved by the TDEC prior to starting work.

(7) The documents shall be reviewed for conformance to the Information Sheet concurrently with

committee comment.

This addition, AGMA 904-C96, was approved by the TDEC on October 28, 1996.

Suggestions for the improvement of this information sheet will be welcome. They should be sent to the American Gear Manufacturers Association, 1500 King Street, Suite 201, Alexandria, Virginia, 22314.

AGMA 904-C96

PERSONNEL of the AGMA Committee for Metric Resource and Advisory Committee (at the time of AGMA 600.01 development)

J.M. Lange, Chairman (American Pfauter) 0. Thurman, Vice Chairman (Caterpillar)

ACTIVE MEMBERS

W. A. Bradley (Consultant)

M.

R. Chaplin (Contour Hardening)

P.

M. Dean, Jr. (Honorary Member)

R.

Green (Eaton/Transmission Division)

L.

J. Smith (Invincible Gear)

ASSOCIATE MEMBERS

L. V. Campbell (Spar Aerospace)

J. T. Cook (Power Tech International, Inc.)

E.

H. Diedrich (Rockwell)

C.

R. Firestone (Reliance Electric/Reeves)

W.

H. Heller (Peerless-Winsmith)

T.

J. Krenzer (Gleason)

J.

R. Kuehnel (Rockwell)

T.

Meyer {Harnischfeger)

C.

E. Overton (Overton Gear)

J.

R. Partridge (Lufkin Industries)

A. E. Phillips (Emerson Power Transmission/Browning)

G.

R. Schwartz (Power Tech International, Inc.)

H.

A. Swierczynski (Fellows)

G.

Sykes (Falk)

J.

D. Szynkiewicz (Farrel)

J.

0. Tennies (Renold)

H.

Wedler (ferry Corporation)

AGMA 904-C96

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Metric Usage

I.Scope

This editorial manual describes the SI system of units to be used in AGMA standards. Where necessary, specialized metric dimensions, tolerances and units are used which are specifically suited to the gear industry and may not be part of the referenced documents.

1.1 Historical Background. The 11th Conference Generale des Poids et Mesures (1960) (CGPM), by its Resolution 12, adopted the name International System of Units, with the international abbreviation SI, for this practical system of units of measurement and laid down rules for the prefixes, the derived and dimensionless derived units and other matters, thus establishing a comprehensive specification for units of measurement. The expressions SI Units, SI Pre-

fixes and Dimensionless Derived Units as used in this

Information Sheet, are in accordance with the metric practices in ANSI/IEEE Std. 268-1982.

2. SI Units

AGMA 904-C96

2.5 Mass and Force Units. The principal departure

of SI from the previous gravimetric form of Metric Engineering Units is the separate and distinct units for mass and force. In previous Metric Systems, the kilogram was used as both a force and mass unit. Technically, units should have been labeled as kilogram-force or kilogram-mass but it was com- mon practice to ignore such labeling, which often re- sulted in confusion as to whether mass or force was intended. The same practice was true in the non- metricinch-pound system where the pound was also used as both a mass or force unit and rarely labeled. In SI, the kilogram is restricted to the unit of mass. The newton is the unit of force and should be used in place of kilogram-force. Likewise, the newton, instead of kilogram-force, should be used in com- bination units which include force.

Example:

Pressure or Stress (N/m2 = Pa), Energy (N•m = J), and Power (N•m/s = m2kg•s-3= W).

 

Table2-1

2.1

Classes of Units. SI units are divided into three

Base Units

classes:

(1) Base units (2) Derived units (3) Dimensionless derived units

2.2 Base Units. SI consists of seven base units shown

with their symbols in Table 2-1.

through 5.1.7 for definitions of base units.

Refer to 5.1.1

Dimensionless

derived units are shown in Table 2-2. Refer to 5.2.1

and 5.2.2 for definitions of dimensionless derived units.

2.4 Derived Units. Derived units are expressed alge-

braically in terms of base, or dimensionless derived units, or both by means of the mathematical symbols of multiplication and division. Several derived units have been given special names and symbols which may themselves be used to express other derived units in a simpler way than in terms of the base units.

2.3 Dimensionless Derived Units.

Derived units may therefore be classified under three headings. Examples ofthem are given in Tables

2-3, 2-4 and 2-5.

Quantity

Name of Base SI Unit

Symbol

length mass time electric current thermodynamic temperature* amount of substance luminous intensity

meter

m

kilogram

kg

second

s

ampere

A

kelvin

K

mole

mol

candela

cd

* Temperature is in general expressed in degrees Celsius ( 0 C). The unit degree Celsius is equal to the

unit kelvin.

Table2-2

Dimensionless Derived Units

Quantity

Name of

Symbol

SI Unit

plane angle

radian

rad

solid angle

steradian

sr

AGMA 904-C96

Metric Usage

Table2-3

Examples of SI Units Derived from Base Units

Quantity

Name of SI Derived Unit

Symbol

area volume speed, velocity acceleration angular velocity angular acceleration wavenumber density, mass density Concentration (of amount of substance) activity (radioactive) specific volume luminance

square meter cubic meter meter per second meter per second squared radian per second radian per second squared 1 per meter kilogram per cubic meter mole per cubic meter 1 per second cubic meter per kilogram candela per square meter

m2

m3

m/S

m/s2

rad/s

rad/s 2

m-1

kg/m 3

mol/m 3

s-1

m3/kg

cd/m2

Table2-4

Examples of SI Derived Units With Special Names

Quantity

Special

Symbol

Expression in Terms of Other SI Units

Expression of SI Base

in Terms

Units

Name

frequency force pressure energy, work, quantity of heat

hertz

Hz

s-I

newton

N

m•kg•s-2

pascal*

Pa

N/m 2

m-I •kg•s-2

joule

J

Nm

m

2 •kg•s-2

power, radiant flux quantity of electricity, electric charge, electric potential, potential difference,

watt

w

J/s

m2•kg•s-3

coulomb

C

A•s

electromotive force capacitance electric resistance conductance magnetic flux magnetic flux density inductance luminous flux illuminance

volt

V

W/A

m

2 •kg•s-3•A-1

farad

F

CN

m-2•kg-l•s4•A2

ohm

Q

V/A

m2•kg•s-3•A-2

siemens

s

A/V

m-2•kg-l•s3•A2

weber

Wb

Vs

m2•kg•s-2•A-1

tesla

T

Wb/m2

kg•s-2•A-l

henry

H

Wb/A

m2•kg•s-2•A-2

lumen

Im

cd•sr

lux

Ix

m- 2 •cd•sr

*

Bar was formerly used to express pressure: 1 bar = lOOkPa or lCP

N/m2

 

Metric Usage

Table2-5

AGMA 904-C96

Examples of SI Units Derived From SI Units With Special Names

Quantity

Name

SI Unit

Expression in Terms

Symbol

of SI Base

Units

dynamic viscosity

pascal second newton meter newton per meter watt per square meter joule per kelvin

Pa•s

m-1 •kg•s-1

moment

of force

N•m

m2•kg•s-2

surface tension heat flux density, irradiance heat capacity, entropy specific heat capacity, specific entropy

Nim

kg•s-2

Wlm 2

kg•s-3

J/K

m2•kg•s-2•K-1

joule per kilogram kelvin joule per kilogram watt per meter kelvin joule per cubic meter volt per meter

Jl(kg•K)

m2•s-2•K-1

 

J/kg

m2•s-2

W/(m•K)

m•kg•s-3•K- 1

Jlm3

m-l·~·s-2

Vim

m•kg•A- 1 •s-3

coulomb per

cubic meter

C/m

3

m-3•A•s

coulomb per square meter

C/m

2

m-2•A•s

 

Flm

m-3.kg-l•A2•s-4

specific energy thermal conductivity energy density electric field strength electric charge density electric flux density permittivity current density magnetic field strength permeability molar

molar

energy entropy, molar heat capacity

farad per meter ampere per square meter ampere per meter henry per meter

joule per

mole

joule per

mole kelvin

radiant intensity

watt

per

steradian

radiance

watt per square meter

steradian

A/m2

Alm

Him

m•kg•A- 2 •s- 2

J/mol

m 2 •kg•s-2•mo1- 1

Jl(mol•K)

m 2 •kg•s-2•K- 1 •mol- 1

Wlsr

m 2 •kg•s-3•sr- 1

W/m 2 •sr

kg•s- 3 •sr- 1

2.5.1 Weight. Considerable confusion exists in the

use of the term weight as quantity to mean either gravitational force or mass. In commercial and everyday use, the term weight nearly always means mass; thus, when one speaks of a person's weight, the

quantity referred to is mass.

In science and technology, the term weight of a body has usually meant the force that if applied to the body would give it an acceleration equal to the local acceleration of free fall.

Because of the dual use of the term weight as both a force and a mass, this term should be avoided in technical practice.

To ensure complete understanding we should use the terms mass and force in place of weight.

It should be understood that where the term weight is used in machine specifications, etc., it has meant

mass and to provide clarity in these uses for the general public we should specify mass followed by weight in parenthesis and specify the value in grams or kilograms. Example: Machine mass (weight) 1 500 kilograms.

2.5.2 Mass. In engineering calculations involving

structures, vehicles, or machines on the surface of the earth, the mass in kilograms is multiplied by 9.8 to obtain the approximate force of gravity in newtons. (The force of gravity acting on a mass of 1 kilogram varies from about 9.77 newtons to 9.83 newtons in

various parts of the world).

2.6 Rules for Writing SI Symbols.

2.6.1 SI Symbols (see Table 9-1 for SI computer

symbols):

(1) Shall be printed in roman (upright) type re- gardless of the type used in the rest of the text

AGMA 904-C96

(2) Shall be written in lower-case letters except that the first letter is written in upper case when the name of the unit is derived from a proper name, and the symbol for liter is a capital L. See Tables 2-1 through 2-5. Examples: m meter, s second, A am- pere, Wb weber (3) Shall remain unaltered in the plural

(4)

Shall be written without a final full stop (pe-

riod) except at the end of a sentence (5) Shall be placed after the complete numerical value in the expression for a quantity, leaving a space between the numerical value and the first letter of

the symbol Example: 32 lm, not 321m, for 32 lumens (6) Symbols are the same in all languages

2.6.2 Practice. It is recommended that the symbols

for SI units, and not written words, be used in written text; e.g., 16 m2, not 16 square meters. Spelled-out

unit names and prefixes are treated as common

nouns in English.

is not capitalized except at the beginning of a sentence or in capitalized material such as a title. An exception to this is degree Celsius. The unit name is degree and modified by the adjective Celsius and is

Thus, the first letter of a unit name

written degree Celsius.

Metric Usage

NOTE:

A dot shall

not be used

as

the

multiplication

symbol

in

conjunction

with

numerals.

Example:

234 x 126.7, not 234•126.7

2.7.2 Division. A slash (oblique stroke /), a

horizontal line, or negative powers may be used to

express a derived unit formed from others by division.

Example:

2.7.2.1 Use of Parenthesis and Negative Exponents.

The slash must not be repeated in the same expression. Ambiguity is avoided by parenthesis or by the use of negative powers.

Examples:

m/s2

or ms- 2 , but not m/s/s;

m•kg/(s3•A)

or

m•kg•s-3•A-1

,

but

not

m•kg/s 3 /A

2.7.2.2 Use of"Per". When names of units are used,

division is indicated by the word "per", and not the slash.

Example:

In text,

a symbol

should not be used to start a

50 kilograms per square meter,

sentence.

not 50 kilograms/square meter.

2.7 Units Formed by Multiplication and Division.

2.7.1 Multiplication. The product of two or more

units in symbolic form can be indicated by a dot. In

the international recommendation the dot may be dispensed with when there is no risk of confusion with any other symbol. The dot may be placed on the line if the preferred position cannot be produced as on a computer printout, or an asterisk may be used.

Examples:

for newton meter; N•m or N.m or N*m, but not mN, the symbol for millinewton:

for meter per second; m/s or m•s-lor m•s-1, but not ms- 1 , the symbol for one per millisecond

2.7.3 Scalar Multiplier. The scalar multiplier dot or

a slash must be used when the unit symbols m (meter) and T (tesla) are followed by other unit symbols (ex- cept kg).

Examples:

Volt meter second may be written V•m•s (preferred), or Vm•s, but not V•ms, which means volt millisecond; Volt meter per second may be written V•m•s- 1 (preferred), Vm•s-1 or Vm/s, but not V•ms- 1 , vms-1 or V/ms, which means volt per millisecond

3. Multiples and Sub-multiples ofSI Units

3.1 SI Prefixes. The prefixes given in Table 3-1 and

their symbols are used to form names and symbols of

Metric Usage

AGMA 904-C96

decimal multiples and sub-multiples of the SI units. Prefix symbols are shown without spacing between the prefix symbol and the unit symbol. The prefix name is attached directly to the unit name.

3.1.1 SI Prefixes Symbols. The symbol for a prefix is

combined with the unit symbol to form a new symbol which can be provided with a positive or negative ex- ponent. The exponent indicates that the multiple or sub-multiple of the unit is raised to the power ex-

pressed by the exponent. Compound units may be expressed by combining this new symbol with other unit symbols.

Examples:

1

1

1 mm 2 /s

µs-1

cm3

=

1 (cm) 3

= I (µs)-1

= 1 (mm)2/s

= (10-2m)3 =

=(lo-6s)-1 =

= (10-3m)2/s =

10-6m 3

1

1a6s-

rn-6mZ.s- 1

NOTE: Compound prefixes should not be used.

Example:

Write

(millimicrometer)

nm

(nanometer),

not

mµm

3.1.2 Unit Symbol. The term "unit symbol" means a

symbol for a base unit, a derived unit with a special name or a dimensionless derived unit. For example, the "unit symbol" for power is W (watt); kW (kilowatt) is not a unit symbol because it is a multiple of the unit.

3.1.3 Exceptions. The name of the base unit for mass, the kilogram, is the only one containing a prefix. The names of the decimal multiples and sub-multiples are the word gram and words formed by adding the prefixes to the word gram.

Examples:

mg (milligram), not µkg (microkilogram); Mg (megagram), not kkg (kilokilogram)

3.2 Selection of Multiples, Prefixes and Exponents.

The choice of the appropriate multiple (decimal multiple or sub-multiple) of an SI unit is governed by convenience, the multiple chosen for a particular application being the one which will lead to numerical values within a practical range. See Section 9 for multiples approved for use in AGMA Standards.

Table3-1

SI Prefixes

SI

Symbol

 

Factor by which Unit is Multiplied

Prefixes

exa

E

1018

= 1 000 000 000 000 000 000 = 1 000 000 000 000 000 = 1 000 000 000 000 = 1 000 000 000

peta

p

1015

tera

T

1012

giga

G

109

*mega

M

1()6

=1000000

*kilo

k

u>3

= 1000

hecto

h

102

= 100 = 10 = 0.1 = 0.01 = 0.001 = 0.000 001

deka

da

10

deci

d

10-1

*centi

C

10-2

*milli

m

10-3

*micro

µ

10-6

nano

n

10-9

= 0.000 000 001 10-12 = 0.000 000 000 001 10-15 = 0.000 000 000 000 001 10- 1 8 = 0.000 000 000 000 000 001

pico

p

femto

f

atto

a

* preferred prefixes

AGMA 904-C96

The multiple can

usually be chosen so that the numerical values will be

between 0.1 and 1 000.

Examples:

3.2.1 Selection of Multiples.

1.2 x 1<>4N 0.003 94m 1401 Pa

3.lx 10- 8 s

can be written as 12 kN can be written as 3.94 mm can be written as 1.401 kPa can be written as 31 ns

However, in a table ofvalues for the same quantity or in a discussion of such values within a given context, the same multiple for all items should be used, even when some of the numerical values will be outside the range 0.1 to 1000. For certain quantities in particular applications, the same multiple is customarily used even though this means exceeding the range of0.1 to 1 000. For example; the millimeter is used for all linear dimensions on Mechanical Engineering Drawings; the kilopascal is used for all values of pressure.

3.2.2 Selection of Prefix.

only one prefix be used in forming a multiple of a

It is recommended that

Metric Usage

compound SI unit. The prefix should preferably be attached to the unit in the numerator except when the base unit kilogram appears in the denominator.

Examples:

V/m, not mV/mm; MJ/kg, not kJ/g

3.2.3 Selection of Submultiples and Exponents.

Fewer errors will be made in calculations if prefixes are replaced by powers of 10.

Example:

mg•cm2/ns =

(10-6kg) X (10- 4 m2)/10-9s

= 10-11cg.m2s-1

4. Units Outside the International System

4.1 Units Used with SI. These units are given in

Table 4-1. The prefixes given in Table 3-1 may be attached to many of the units given in Table 4-1.

Example:

milliliter, mL; megapascal, MPa

Table4-1

Other Units of Measurement Used with SI

Quantity/Name

Symbol

Value in SI Units

time

minute

min

1

min= 60 s

hour

h

lh=3600s=60min

day

d

ld=86400s=24h

plane angle

degree!)

0

1)

1° = (n/180) rad

minute

, 1)

1' = (~/10 800) rad= (1/60)°

second

,, 1)

1"

= (n/648 000) rad = (1/60)'

capacity Iiter2)

L

1

L =

1 dm3 =

10-3m3

temperature

degree Celsius3)

mass metric ton 6 ) pressure pascal pressure standard atmosphere

oc4) 5)

t

Pa

atm

an interval of 1°C = 1 K by definition 0°C = 273.15 K

lt=lOOOkg=lMg

lPa= N/m2

1 atm = 101.325 kPa

Metric Usage

AGMA 904-C96

Table 4-1 Notes (cont)

2)

The CGPM in October 1979 approved Land I as alternative symbols for the liter. Since the letter symbol I can easily be confused with the numeral 1, only the symbol Lis recommended for USA use. Use of the script, t as a symbol for liter is discouraged.

3

The Celsius temperature scale (previously called centigrade, but renamed to avoid confusion with "centigrade" associated with angular measure) is the commonly used scale except for certain scientific and technological purposes where the thermodynamic temperature scale is preferred Note the use of upper case C for Celsius.

4 )

No space is left between these symbols and the last digit of a number.

5)

°C is the symbol for degree Celsius (not 0 ). For example 38-54°C not 38°-54°C.

6)

Metric ton is the common name for the SI unit megagram (Mg) also called tonne (t). Due to possible confusion between the written and spoken word "tonne" versus "ton" meaning 2 000 pounds, the term "metric ton" is recommended for general use and consistency.

5. Definitions of the SI Base Units and

Dimensionless Derived Units

5.1 Base Units.

5.1.1 Meter (m). The meter is the length equal to 1650763.73 wavelengths in vacuum of the radiation corresponding to the transition between the levels 2p10 and 5d5 of the krypton-86 atom [adopted by 11th CGPM 1960, Resolution 6].

5.1.2 Kilogram (kg).

The kilogram is the unit of

mass; it is equal to the mass of the international prototype of the kilogram. [1st CGPM (1889) and

3rd CGPM (1901)]

5.1.3 Second (s). The second is the duration of

9 192 631 770 periods of the radiation corresponding to the transition between the two hyperfine levels of the ground state of the cesium-133 atom. [13th CGPM (1967), Resolution 1]

5.1.4 Ampere (A). The ampere is that constant

electric current which, if maintained in two straight

parallel conductors of infinite length, of negligible circular cross-section, and placed 1 meter apart in vacuum, would produce between these conductors a force equal to 2x10-7 newton per meter of length. [9th CGPM (1948), Resolution 2)

5.1.5

thermodynamic temperature and is equal to 1/273.16

The

of

Kelvin

(K).

kelvin

is

a

unit

of the thermodynamic temperature of the triple point of water. [13th CGPM (1967), Resolution 4]

The 13th CGPM (1967, Resolution 3) also decided that the unit kelvin and its symbol K should be used to express an interval or a difference of temperature.

In addition to the thermodynamic temperature (symbol T) expressed in kelvins, use is also made of Celsius temperature (symbol t) defined, by the equation t = T-To wl:!ere To = 273.15 K (freezing point of water, absolute). The Celsius temperature is in general expressed in degrees Celsius (symbol °C). The unit "degree Celsius" is thus equal to the unit "kelvin" and is used in place of the kelvin for expressing temperature intervals.

5.1.6 Mole (mol).

The mole is the amount of

substance of a system which contains as many elementary entities as there are atoms in 0.012 kilogram of carbon 12. When the mole is used, the elementary entities must be specified and may be atoms, molecules, ions, electrons, other particles, or specified groups of such particles. [14th CGPM (1971), Resolution 3]

5.1.7 Candela (cct). The candela is the luminous

intensity in the perpendicular direction, of a surface of 1/600 000 square meter of a black body at the

temperature of freezing platinum under a pressure of 101 325 newtons per square meter. [13th CGPM (1967), Resolution 5]

AGMA 904-C96

5.2 Dimensionless Derived Units.

5.2.1 Radian (rad).

between two radii of a circle which cut off on the circumference an arc equal in length to the radius.

See Fig 5-1. [ISO Recommendation R 31, Part 1, Second Edition, December 1965]

5.2.2 Steradian (sr). The steradian is the solid angle

which, having its vertex in the center of a sphere, cuts

off an area of the surface of the sphere equal to that of a square with sides oflength equal to the radius of the sphere. See Fig 5-1. [ISO Recommendation R 31, Part 1, Second Edition, December 1965]

The radian is the plane angle

QUANTITY

NAME

PRONUNCIATION

SYMBOL

PLANE radian 'rade an rad ANGLE Sta ra' de an SOLID steradian sr
PLANE
radian
'rade an
rad
ANGLE
Sta ra' de an
SOLID
steradian
sr

ANGLE

rad ANGLE Sta ra' de an SOLID steradian sr ANGLE Fig 5-1 Angular Units 6. Preferred

Fig 5-1 Angular Units

6. Preferred Dimensions and Tolerances

6.1 Basic Millimeter Dimensions. Select new or unique millimeter dimensions using increments in the order listed.

1st Choice

-

Ten millimeter increments

2nd Choice

-

Five millimeter increments

3rd Choice

-

Whole millimeter increments

4th Choice

-

Half millimeter increments

(smallest division on shop scales) 5th Choice - Select as required to express precision fits or established inch sizes

NOTE:

as established stock sizes may dictate other basic dimensions.

Commercial

items

available

Metric Usage

6.2 Tolerances. Table 6-1 lists tolerance values to be

specified in conjunction with new millimeter dimen- sions. The table shows the inch equivalent

'!able 6-1 Preferred Metric Tolerances and their Inch Equivalent

*

Inch

*

Inch

mm

Equivalent

mm

Equivalent

0.003

0.005

0.008

0.010

0.013

0.015

0.020

0.025

0.030

0.035

0.040

0.045

0.05

0.08

0.1

0.13

0.15

0

0.00012

0.2

0.008

0

0.00020

0.25

0.010

0

0.00031

0.3

0.012

0.0004

0.4

0.016

0.0005

0.5

0.020

0.000 6

0.6

0.024

0.000 8

0.8

0.031

0.0010

1

0.039

0.0012

1.3

0.051

0.0014

1.5

0.059

0.0016

2

0.079

0.0018

2.5

0.098

0.002

3

0.118

0.003

3.5

0.138

0.004

4

0.157

0.005

5

0.197

0.006

6

0.236

* If it is necessary to specify a tolerance that is not listed, be sure to show enough decimal places so that the rounded inch equivalent reflects the required accuracy. For example 0.07 mm should not be used because it converts to 0.003 inch the same as 0.08 mm. However 0.070 converts to

0.0028 inch.

6.3 Non-millimeter Units. Preferred increments of

10, 5,

or 1 can usually be used.

Large calculated

quantities generally do not require specification of

more than 3 significant digits.

Example:

Calculated Value

Rounded to3 Significant Figures

452.61

453

4526.1

4530

45261

45300

It must be remembered that these are guides and some applications may require greater accuracy than the general recommendation.

6.3.1 Kilopascal (kPa). A unit used for measure-

ment of pressure. A kilopascal is a small unit and

Metric Usage

pressure values in this unit can normally be rounded more than most other non-millimeter units.

kPa Values

Specify to

over

incl

nearest

0

500

5

500

1000

10

1000

5000

50

5000

10000

100

10000

50000

500

50000

100 000

1000

6.3.2 Megapascal (MPa). A unit used to measure

material stress. Recommended rounding for values are listed below:

MPa Values

Specify to

over

incl

nearest

0

5

0.05

5

10

0.1

10

50

0.5

50

100

1

100

500

5

500

1000

10

1000 5 000

50

6.3.3 Degree Celsius ( 0 C). A unit used to measure

temperature. Values can generally be rounded according to the table below. The symbol for identifying degrees Celsius is O C. When specifying a temperature and a tolerance, show 20°C±2°C, not 20° ±2°C.

°CValues

over

50

100

incl

50

100

and up

Specify to

nearest

1

5

10

The

units used to measure mass. Values can usually be

rounded according to the following table:

6.3.4 Kilogram and Megagram (kg and Mg).

kg or Mg Values

Specify to

over

incl

nearest

 

0

3

0.25

3

5

0.5

5

50

1

50

250

5

250

500

10

500

and up

50

AGMA 904-C96

6.3.S Newton and kilonewton (N and kN). The units

used to measure force. Values can generally be rounded as follows:

N or kN Values

Specify to

over

incl

nearest

0

50

1

50

250

5

250

500

10

500

1000

50

The unit used to

measure torque. Values can generally be rounded as follows:

6.3.6

Newton-meter (N•m).

N•m Values

Specify to

 

over

incl

nearest

0

5

0.2

5

10

0.5

10

30

1

30

60

2

60

125

5

125

250

10

250

500

20

500

1400

50

1400

and up

100

6.3.7

Liter (L).

The unit to measure volumes.

Values can generally be rounded as indicated below:

L Values

Specify to

over

incl

nearest

0

10

0.1

10

50

1

50

250

5

250

and up

10

6.3.8 Cubic centimeter (cm3). The unit used to

measure small volumes. Values can generally be rounded as follows:

cm3

Values

Specify to

over

incl

nearest

0

100

1

100

500

5

500

and up

10

6.3.9 Kilowatt (kW). The unit used to measure

power. Values can generally be rounded as indicated below:

kW Values

Specify to

over

incl

nearest

0

50

1

50

150

5

150

500

10

500

and up

50

AGMA 904-C96

7. Conversion -

Non-metric to Metric

7.1 Application. This Section provides guidance for converting dimensions and tolerances in standards from non-metric units to metric units in accordance with SI.

7.2 lnterchangeabili~ Conversions of non-critical dimensions may be rounded to ideal metric units as long as functional interchangeability is retained. Good judgment is required in this area and consider- ation must also be given to the round off effect on existing tooling, gauging, patterns, and dies.

Example:

(1) Use standard metric hole sizes de- fined in Metric Standards rather than direct conversions of inch sizes. Consideration of existing tooling and part interchangeability may require direct conversion in a few instances.

(2) Dimensions that are normally mea- sured with shop scales are rounded to whole and half millimeter. For dimensions such as hole and thread depths, use the practical di- mensions shown in metric standards instead of direct conversions if functional inter- changeability is not affected

(3) Specify metric material sizes when the design permits.

(4) Round non-critical dimensions such as casting and forging outline to whole and half millimeters.

7.3 Round Off Practice.

7.3.1

below:

When first digit dropped is:

Practice. Round all decimal values as shown

The last digit retained is:

Examples

5

or less

unchanged

1.500 49-1.500

morethan5

increased by 1

1.500 61-1.501

5

followed

unchanged

1.502 50-1.502

only

if even

by zeros

increased

1.501 50-1.502

by 1 if odd

Metric Usage

7.3.2 Round Off Accura~ When the millimeter value is rounded off, a small difference may exist between the millimeter value and the inch value which was converted, depending on the number of decimal places retained. Table 7-1 shows the maximum difference that can occur. The difference in the maximum or minimum limit of a bilateral or unilateral dimension is twice that possible for the maximum or minimum limit of a limit dimension because both the dimension and tolerance are converted individually and each may have a rounding difference. The maximum difference rarely occurs in both the dimension and tolerance at the same time and in many cases the differences in the conversions of the dimension and tolerance are in opposite directions and cancel out.

7.4. Conversion -

Inch to Millimeter Dimensions.

Table 7-1 Possible Difference Due to Rounding

Maximum Difference mm (inch)

No. of Decimal Places in Rounded mm Dimensions

Bilateral or

Unilateral

Limit

Toleranced

Dimensions

Dimensions

4

0.0001

0.00005

(0.000 004)

(0.000 002)

3

0.001

0.000 5

(0.000 04)

(0.000 02)

2

0.01

0.005

(0.000 4)

(0.000 2)

1

0.1

0.05

(0.004)

(0.002)

7.4.1 Toleranced Dimensions. The total tolerance

applied to an inch dimension shall be the basis for rounding the converted millimeter values of the dimension and tolerance. The number of decimal places to be retained in the conversion based on total tolerance is shown in Table 7- 2. Total tolerance is the difference between the maximum and minimum limits of size.

Metric Usage

Examples:

Tolerance

Specified Inch

Total