AGMA 904C96
(Revision of
AGMA 904889)
Reaffirmed January 2017
AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION
Metric Usage
AGMA INFORMATION SHEET
(This Information Sheet is NOT an AGMA Standard)
=·.
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Reproduced By GLOBAL
ENGINEERING DOCUMENTS
_ffe.With The Pennission Of AGMA
Under Royalty Agreement
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Contents
AGMA 904C96
Page
Foreword . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
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iv 
1 Scope 
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2 SI Units 
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3 Multiples and Submultiples of SI Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
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4 Units Outside the International System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
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5 Definitions of the SI Base Units and Dimensionless Derived 
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6 Preferred Dimensions and Tolerances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
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7 Conversion  Nonmetric to Metric . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
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8 Module System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
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9 Multiples for Use in AGMA Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
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1o Gear Symbols for Use in Metric Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . 
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Figures 

Figure 51 Angular Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
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Figure 71 Total Variation Incurred by Rounding Off 
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Tables 

. Table 22 Dimensionless Derived Units Table . 21 Base Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
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Table 23 Examples of SI Base Units . . . 
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Units Derived from Derived Units With . . . Units Derived . . . . . . . . . . . . From SI . . . . . . . Table Table Table 31 SI Prefixes Table 24 25 . 41 Other Units of Measurement Used with SI . . Examples of SI Examples of SI Special Names . Units With Special Names . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
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Table . 61 Preferred Metric Tolerances and their Inch Equivalent 
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Table 71 Possible Difference Due to Rounding 
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Table . Table 73 Conversion of Other Units and Recommended Rounding Method Table 72 Round Off Practice for Toleranced Dimensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 Metric Modules 
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. Table 91 Multiples and Conversion Factors for Use in AGMA Standards 
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iii
AGMA 904C96
Foreword
[This foreword, footnotes, and appendices, if any, are provided for informational purposes only and should not be construed as a part of American Gear Manufacturers Association Information Sheet 904C96, Metric Usage.]
In 1972, the AGMA Technical Division Executive Committee (TDEC) started the formation of a committee referred to as the Metric Study Committee. The first meeting of this Metric Study Committee was on January 23, 1973. In March 1974, the AGMA Board of directors instructed its Technical Division to:
• Form a standing Metric Resource and Advisory Committee.
• Establish detailed procedures to effect a changeover, i.e., create a metric usage standard.
The first meeting of the Metric Resource and Advisory Committee was held on November 4, 1974. A proposed AGMA Information Sheet, Guide for Use of SI (Metric) Units in Gearing, AGMA 600.XX was drafted over the next years. On September 21, 1977, the Metric Resource and Advisory Committee changed the name of the proposed standard 600.:XX to AGMA Standard for Metric Usage. The standard 600.01 was issued in March
1979.
On September 12, 1979, the first draft of Procedural Guidelines for Metrication of AGMA Standards was written. This document was released on June 4, 1980 as Policy and Practice guide Number 040.17,
Procedure for the Metrication of AGMA Standards. The Guidelines for Metrication were AGMA Board on November 2, 1977.
In 1988, the TDEC converted this revision to an Information Sheet and assigned compliance review to AGMA Headquarters Staff. In 1996, it was uptdated and the symbols tables 10.1 and 10.2 were removed, which can be found in AGMA 900F96.
approved by the
This Information Sheet is to be used as an editorial guide when preparing the AGMA metric standards and information sheets. It describes the SI system of units and the multiples and submultiples to be used in AGMA standards.
The guidelines for metrication are as follows:
(1} The intent of the process is conversion to SI units, not the revision of content.
(2) 
The purpose of these guidelines is to assure uniformity of metric terms and abbreviations. 
(3) 
Generally, metrication will be performed by the responsible committee. Exception will be at the 
discretion of the TDEC.
(4) There shall be two methods of generating metric standards, the choice of which shall be at the
discretion of the originating committee. All standards on which revision is begun after January 1, 1991 shall be prepared in accordance with one of the two following methods.
(a) 
Standards may be developed in hard metric only. 
(b) 
Parallel standards, in which both hard conversion SI and conventional inch versions of standards will 
be available for the same purpose.
(5) 
Metrication shall conform to AGMA 904C96 which references ANSI/IEEE 2681982 and ISO 1000. 
(6) 
Preparation of a hard metric document shall be approved by the TDEC prior to starting work. 
(7) The documents shall be reviewed for conformance to the Information Sheet concurrently with
committee comment.
This addition, AGMA 904C96, was approved by the TDEC on October 28, 1996.
Suggestions for the improvement of this information sheet will be welcome. They should be sent to the American Gear Manufacturers Association, 1500 King Street, Suite 201, Alexandria, Virginia, 22314.
iv
AGMA 904C96
PERSONNEL of the AGMA Committee for Metric Resource and Advisory Committee (at the time of AGMA 600.01 development)
J.M. Lange, Chairman (American Pfauter) 0. Thurman, Vice Chairman (Caterpillar)
ACTIVE MEMBERS
W. A. Bradley (Consultant)
M. 
R. Chaplin (Contour Hardening) 
P. 
M. Dean, Jr. (Honorary Member) 
R. 
Green (Eaton/Transmission Division) 
L. 
J. Smith (Invincible Gear) 
ASSOCIATE MEMBERS
L. V. Campbell (Spar Aerospace)
J. T. Cook (Power Tech International, Inc.)
E. 
H. Diedrich (Rockwell) 
C. 
R. Firestone (Reliance Electric/Reeves) 
W. 
H. Heller (PeerlessWinsmith) 
T. 
J. Krenzer (Gleason) 
J. 
R. Kuehnel (Rockwell) 
T. 
Meyer {Harnischfeger) 
C. 
E. Overton (Overton Gear) 
J. 
R. Partridge (Lufkin Industries) 
A. E. Phillips (Emerson Power Transmission/Browning)
G. 
R. Schwartz (Power Tech International, Inc.) 
H. 
A. Swierczynski (Fellows) 
G. 
Sykes (Falk) 
J. 
D. Szynkiewicz (Farrel) 
J. 
0. Tennies (Renold) 
H. 
Wedler (ferry Corporation) 
V
AGMA 904C96
(This page has been left blank)
vi
Metric Usage
I.Scope
This editorial manual describes the SI system of units to be used in AGMA standards. Where necessary, specialized metric dimensions, tolerances and units are used which are specifically suited to the gear industry and may not be part of the referenced documents.
1.1 Historical Background. The 11th Conference Generale des Poids et Mesures (1960) (CGPM), by its Resolution 12, adopted the name International System of Units, with the international abbreviation SI, for this practical system of units of measurement and laid down rules for the prefixes, the derived and dimensionless derived units and other matters, thus establishing a comprehensive specification for units of measurement. The expressions _{S}_{I} _{U}_{n}_{i}_{t}_{s}_{,} _{S}_{I} _{P}_{r}_{e}_{}
fixes and Dimensionless Derived Units as used in this
Information Sheet, are in accordance with the metric practices in ANSI/IEEE Std. 2681982.
2. SI Units
AGMA 904C96
2.5 Mass and Force Units. The principal departure
of SI from the previous gravimetric form of Metric Engineering Units is the separate and distinct units for mass and force. In previous Metric Systems, the kilogram was used as both a force and mass unit. Technically, units should have been labeled as kilogramforce or kilogrammass but it was com mon practice to ignore such labeling, which often re sulted in confusion as to whether mass or force was intended. The same practice was true in the non metricinchpound system where the pound was also used as both a mass or force unit and rarely labeled. In SI, the kilogram is restricted to the unit of mass. The newton is the unit of force and should be used in place of kilogramforce. Likewise, the newton, instead of kilogramforce, should be used in com bination units which include force.
Example:
Pressure or Stress (N/m2 = Pa), Energy (N•m = J), and Power (N•m/s = m2kg•s3= W).
Table21 

2.1 
Classes of Units. SI units are divided into three 
Base Units 
classes:
(1) Base units (2) Derived units (3) Dimensionless derived units
2.2 Base Units. SI consists of seven base units shown
with their symbols in Table 21.
through 5.1.7 for definitions of base units.
Refer to 5.1.1
Dimensionless
derived units are shown in Table _{2}_{}_{2}_{.} Refer to _{5}_{.}_{2}_{.}_{1}
and 5.2.2 for definitions of dimensionless derived units.
2.4 Derived Units. Derived units are expressed alge
braically in terms of base, or dimensionless derived units, or both by means of the mathematical symbols of multiplication and division. Several derived units have been given special names and symbols which may themselves be used to express other derived units in a simpler way than in terms of the base units.
2.3 Dimensionless Derived Units.
Derived units may therefore _{b}_{e} classified under three headings. Examples ofthem are given in Tables
23, 24 and 25.
Quantity 
Name of Base SI Unit 
Symbol 
length mass time electric current thermodynamic temperature* amount of substance luminous intensity 
meter 
m 
kilogram 
kg 

second 
s 

ampere 
A 

_{k}_{e}_{l}_{v}_{i}_{n} 
K 

mole 
mol 

candela 
cd 
* Temperature is in general expressed in degrees Celsius ( ^{0} C). The unit degree Celsius is equal to the
_{u}_{n}_{i}_{t} kelvin.
Table22
Dimensionless Derived Units
Quantity 
^{N}^{a}^{m}^{e} ^{o}^{f} 
Symbol 
SI Unit 

plane angle 
radian 
rad 
solid angle 
steradian 
sr 
1
AGMA 904C96
Metric Usage
Table23
Examples of SI Units Derived from Base Units
Quantity
Name of SI Derived Unit
Symbol
area volume speed, velocity acceleration angular velocity angular acceleration wavenumber density, mass density Concentration (of amount of substance) activity (radioactive) specific volume luminance
square meter cubic meter meter per second meter per second squared radian per second radian per second squared 1 per meter kilogram per cubic meter mole per cubic meter 1 per second cubic meter per kilogram candela per square meter
m2
m3
m/S
m/s2
rad/s
rad/s ^{2}
m1
kg/m ^{3}
mol/m ^{3}
s1
m3/kg
cd/m2
Table24
Examples of SI Derived Units With Special Names
Quantity 
^{S}^{p}^{e}^{c}^{i}^{a}^{l} 
Symbol 
^{E}^{x}^{p}^{r}^{e}^{s}^{s}^{i}^{o}^{n} ^{i}^{n} ^{T}^{e}^{r}^{m}^{s} of Other SI Units Expression of SI Base _{i}_{n} _{T}_{e}_{r}_{m}_{s} _{U}_{n}_{i}_{t}_{s} 

Name 

frequency force pressure energy, work, quantity of heat 
_{h}_{e}_{r}_{t}_{z} 
_{H}_{z} 
sI 

newton 
N 
m•kg•s2 

pascal* 
Pa 
_{N}_{/}_{m} ^{2} 
mI •kg•s2 

_{j}_{o}_{u}_{l}_{e} 
_{J} 
_{N}_{•}_{m} 
m 
2 •kg•s2 

power, radiant flux quantity of electricity, electric charge, electric potential, potential difference, 
_{w}_{a}_{t}_{t} 
w 
_{J}_{/}_{s} 
m2•kg•s3 

_{c}_{o}_{u}_{l}_{o}_{m}_{b} 
_{C} 
A•s 

electromotive force capacitance electric resistance conductance magnetic flux magnetic flux density inductance luminous flux illuminance 
volt 
V 
_{W}_{/}_{A} 
m 
2 •kg•s3•A1 
_{f}_{a}_{r}_{a}_{d} 
_{F} 
_{C}_{N} 
m2•kgl•s4•A2 

ohm 
Q 
_{V}_{/}_{A} 
m2•kg•s3•A2 

siemens 
_{s} 
_{A}_{/}_{V} 
m2•kgl•s3•A2 

_{w}_{e}_{b}_{e}_{r} 
_{W}_{b} 
_{V}_{•}_{s} 
m2•kg•s2•A1 

tesla 
_{T} 
Wb/m2 
kg•s2•Al 

_{h}_{e}_{n}_{r}_{y} 
_{H} 
_{W}_{b}_{/}_{A} 
m2•kg•s2•A2 

_{l}_{u}_{m}_{e}_{n} 
_{I}_{m} 
cd•sr 

lux 
_{I}_{x} 
m ^{2} •cd•sr 

_{*} Bar was formerly used to express pressure: 1 bar = lOOkPa or lCP N/m2 
2
Metric Usage
Table25
AGMA 904C96
Examples of SI Units Derived From SI Units With Special Names
_{Q}_{u}_{a}_{n}_{t}_{i}_{t}_{y} 
_{N}_{a}_{m}_{e} 
SI Unit 
Expression in Terms 

Symbol 
of SI Base 
Units 

dynamic viscosity 
pascal second newton meter newton per meter watt per square meter joule per kelvin 
Pa•s 
m1 •kg•s1 

moment 
of force 
N•m 
m2•kg•s2 

surface tension heat flux density, irradiance heat capacity, entropy specific heat capacity, specific entropy 
Nim 
kg•s2 

Wlm ^{2} 
kg•s3 

J/K 
m2•kg•s2•K1 

joule per kilogram kelvin joule per kilogram watt per meter kelvin joule per cubic meter volt per meter 
Jl(kg•K) 
m2•s2•K1 

J/kg 
m2•s2 

W/(m•K) 
m•kg•s3•K ^{1} 

Jlm3 
ml·~·s2 

Vim 
m•kg•A ^{1} •s3 

coulomb per 
cubic meter 
C/m 
^{3} 
m3•A•s 

coulomb per square meter 
C/m 
^{2} 
m2•A•s 

_{F}_{l}_{m} 
m3.kgl•A2•s4 
_{s}_{p}_{e}_{c}_{i}_{f}_{i}_{c} _{e}_{n}_{e}_{r}_{g}_{y} thermal conductivity energy density electric field strength electric charge density electric flux density _{p}_{e}_{r}_{m}_{i}_{t}_{t}_{i}_{v}_{i}_{t}_{y} current density magnetic field strength permeability _{m}_{o}_{l}_{a}_{r}
molar
_{e}_{n}_{e}_{r}_{g}_{y} entropy, molar heat capacity
_{f}_{a}_{r}_{a}_{d} _{p}_{e}_{r} _{m}_{e}_{t}_{e}_{r} ampere per square meter ampere per meter henry per meter
joule per 
mole 
joule per 
mole kelvin 
radiant intensity 
watt 
per 
steradian 
_{r}_{a}_{d}_{i}_{a}_{n}_{c}_{e} 
watt per square meter 
steradian
A/m2
Alm
Him 
m•kg•A ^{2} •s ^{2} 
J/mol 
m ^{2} •kg•s2•mo1 ^{1} 
Jl(mol•K) 
m ^{2} •kg•s2•K ^{1} •mol ^{1} 
Wlsr 
m ^{2} •kg•s3•sr ^{1} 
W/m ^{2} •sr 
kg•s ^{3} •sr ^{1} 
2.5.1 Weight. Considerable confusion exists in the
use of the term weight as quantity to mean either gravitational force or mass. In commercial and everyday use, the term weight nearly always means mass; thus, when one speaks of a person's weight, the
quantity referred to is mass.
In science and technology, the term weight of a body has usually meant the force that if applied to the body would give it an acceleration equal to the local acceleration of free fall.
Because of the dual use of the term weight as both a force and a mass, this term should be avoided in technical practice.
To ensure complete understanding we should use the terms mass and force in place of weight.
It should be understood that where the term weight is used in machine specifications, etc., it has meant
mass and to provide clarity in these uses for the general public we should specify mass followed by weight in parenthesis and specify the value in grams or kilograms. Example: Machine mass (weight) 1 500 kilograms.
2.5.2 Mass. In engineering calculations involving
structures, vehicles, or machines on the surface of the earth, the mass in kilograms is multiplied by 9.8 to obtain the approximate force of gravity in newtons. (The force of gravity acting on a mass of 1 kilogram varies from about 9.77 newtons to 9.83 newtons in
various parts of the world).
2.6 Rules for Writing SI Symbols.
2.6.1 SI Symbols (see Table 91 for SI computer
symbols):
(1) Shall be printed in roman (upright) type re gardless of the type used in the rest of the text
3
AGMA 904C96
(2) Shall be written in lowercase letters except that the first letter is written in upper case when the name of the unit is derived from a proper name, and the symbol for liter is a capital L. See Tables 21 through 25. Examples: m meter, s second, A am pere, Wb weber (3) Shall remain unaltered in the plural
(4)
Shall be written without a final full stop (pe
riod) except at the end of a sentence (5) Shall be placed after the complete numerical value in the expression for a quantity, leaving a space between the numerical value and the first letter of
the symbol Example: 32 lm, not 321m, for 32 lumens (6) Symbols are the same in all languages
2.6.2 Practice. It is recommended that the symbols
for SI units, and not written words, be used in written text; e.g., 16 m2, not 16 square meters. Spelledout
unit names and prefixes are treated as common
nouns in English.
is not capitalized except at the beginning of a sentence or in capitalized material such as a title. An exception to this is degree Celsius. The unit name is degree and modified by the adjective Celsius and is
Thus, the first letter of a unit name
written degree Celsius.
Metric Usage
NOTE: 
A dot shall 
not be used 
as 
the 
multiplication symbol 
in conjunction 
with 

numerals. 
Example:
234 x 126.7, not 234•126.7
2.7.2 Division. A slash (oblique stroke /), a
horizontal line, or negative powers may be used to
express a derived unit formed from others by division.
Example:
2.7.2.1 Use of Parenthesis and Negative Exponents.
The slash must not be repeated in the same expression. Ambiguity is avoided by parenthesis or by the use of negative powers.
Examples:
m/s2
or ms ^{2} , but not m/s/s;
m•kg/(s3•A) 
or 
m•kg•s3•A1 
, 
but 
not 
m•kg/s ^{3} /A 
2.7.2.2 Use of"Per". When names of units are used,
division is indicated by the word "per", and not the slash.
Example:
In text, 
a symbol 
should not be used to start a 
50 kilograms per square meter, 
sentence. 
not 50 kilograms/square meter. 
2.7 Units Formed by Multiplication and Division.
2.7.1 Multiplication. The product of two or more
units in symbolic form can be indicated by a dot. In
the international recommendation the dot may be dispensed with when there is no risk of confusion with any other symbol. The dot may be placed on the line if the preferred position cannot be produced as on a computer printout, or an asterisk may be used.
Examples:
for newton meter; N•m or N.m or N*m, but not mN, the symbol for millinewton:
for meter per second; m/s or m•slor m•s1, but not ms ^{1} , the symbol for one per millisecond
2.7.3 Scalar Multiplier. The scalar multiplier dot or
a slash must be used when the unit symbols m (meter) and T (tesla) are followed by other unit symbols (ex cept kg).
Examples:
Volt meter second may be written V•m•s (preferred), or Vm•s, but not V•ms, which means volt millisecond; Volt meter per second may be written V•m•s ^{1} (preferred), Vm•s1 or Vm/s, but not V•ms ^{1} , vms1 or V/ms, which means volt per millisecond
3. Multiples and Submultiples ofSI Units
3.1 SI Prefixes. The prefixes given in Table 31 and
their symbols are used to form names and symbols of
4
Metric Usage
AGMA 904C96
decimal multiples and submultiples of the SI units. Prefix symbols are shown without spacing between the prefix symbol and the unit symbol. The prefix name is attached directly to the unit name.
3.1.1 SI Prefixes Symbols. The symbol for a prefix is
combined with the unit symbol to form a new symbol which can be provided with a positive or negative ex ponent. The exponent indicates that the multiple or submultiple of the unit is raised to the power ex
pressed by the exponent. Compound units may be expressed by combining this new symbol with other unit symbols.
Examples:
1
1
1 mm ^{2} /s
µs1
cm3
=
1 (cm) ^{3}
= I (µs)1
= 1 (mm)2/s
= (102m)3 =
=(lo6s)1 =
= (103m)2/s =
106m 3
1
1a6s
rn6mZ.s 1
NOTE: Compound prefixes should not be used.
Example:
Write
(millimicrometer)
nm
(nanometer),
not
mµm
3.1.2 Unit Symbol. The term "unit symbol" means a
symbol for a base unit, a derived unit with a special name or a dimensionless derived unit. For example, the "unit symbol" for power is W (watt); kW (kilowatt) is not a unit symbol because it is a multiple of the unit.
3.1.3 Exceptions. The name of the base unit for mass, the kilogram, is the only one containing a prefix. The names of the decimal multiples and submultiples are the word gram and words formed by adding the prefixes to the word gram.
Examples:
mg (milligram), not µkg (microkilogram); Mg (megagram), not kkg (kilokilogram)
3.2 Selection of Multiples, Prefixes and Exponents.
The choice of the appropriate multiple (decimal multiple or submultiple) of an SI unit is governed by convenience, the multiple chosen for a particular application being the one which will lead to numerical values within a practical range. See Section 9 for multiples approved for use in AGMA Standards.
Table31
SI Prefixes
SI 
Symbol 
Factor by which Unit is Multiplied 

Prefixes 

exa 
E 
1018 
= 1 000 000 000 000 000 000 = 1 000 000 000 000 000 = 1 000 000 000 000 = 1 000 000 000 
_{p}_{e}_{t}_{a} 
p 
1015 

tera 
T 
1012 

giga 
G 
109 

*mega 
M 
1()6 
=1000000 
*kilo 
k 
_{u}_{>}_{3} 
_{=} _{1}_{0}_{0}_{0} 
hecto 
h 
102 
_{=} _{1}_{0}_{0} _{=} _{1}_{0} _{=} _{0}_{.}_{1} _{=} _{0}_{.}_{0}_{1} _{=} _{0}_{.}_{0}_{0}_{1} = 0.000 001 
deka 
da 
10 

deci 
d 
101 

*centi 
_{C} 
102 

*milli 
m 
103 

*micro 
µ 
^{1}^{0}^{}^{6} 

nano 
n 
^{1}^{0}^{}^{9} = 0.000 000 001 1012 = 0.000 000 000 001 1015 = 0.000 000 000 000 001 10 ^{1} 8 = 0.000 000 000 000 000 001 

_{p}_{i}_{c}_{o} 
_{p} 

_{f}_{e}_{m}_{t}_{o} 
f 

atto 
a 
* preferred prefixes
5
AGMA 904C96
The multiple can
usually be chosen so that the numerical values will be
between 0.1 and 1 000.
Examples:
3.2.1 Selection of Multiples.
1.2 x 1<>4N 0.003 94m 1401 Pa
3.lx 10 ^{8} s
can be written as 12 kN can be written as 3.94 mm can be written as 1.401 kPa can be written as 31 ns
However, in a table ofvalues for the same quantity or in a discussion of such values within a given context, the same multiple for all items should be used, even when some of the numerical values will be outside the range 0.1 to 1000. For certain quantities in particular applications, the same multiple is customarily used even though this means exceeding the range of0.1 to 1 000. For example; the millimeter is used for all linear dimensions on Mechanical Engineering Drawings; the kilopascal is used for all values of pressure.
3.2.2 Selection of Prefix.
only one prefix be used in forming a multiple of a
It is recommended that
Metric Usage
compound SI unit. The prefix should preferably be attached to the unit in the numerator except when the base unit kilogram appears in the denominator.
Examples:
V/m, not mV/mm; MJ/kg, not kJ/g
3.2.3 Selection of Submultiples and Exponents.
Fewer errors will be made in calculations if prefixes are replaced by powers of 10.
Example:
mg•cm2/ns =
(106kg) X (10 ^{4} m2)/109s
= 1011cg.m2s1
4. Units Outside the International System
4.1 Units Used with SI. These units are given in
Table 41. The prefixes given in Table 31 may be attached to many of the units given in Table 41.
Example:
milliliter, mL; megapascal, MPa
Table41
Other Units of Measurement Used with SI
Quantity/Name 
Symbol 
Value in SI Units 

time 

minute 
min 
1 
min= 60 s 

hour 
h 
lh=3600s=60min 

day 
d 
ld=86400s=24h 

plane angle 

degree!) 
0 
1) 
1° = (n/180) rad 

minute 
, 1) 
1' = (~/10 800) rad= (1/60)° 

second 
,, 1) 
1" = (n/648 000) rad = (1/60)' 

capacity Iiter2) 
L 
1 
L = 1 dm3 = 
103m3 
temperature
degree Celsius3)
mass metric ton ^{6} _{)} pressure pascal pressure standard atmosphere
oc4) 5)
t
Pa
atm
an interval of 1°C = 1 K by definition 0°C = 273.15 K
lt=lOOOkg=lMg
lPa= N/m2
1 atm = 101.325 kPa
^{1} )
6
Decimal degree is preferred, but degrees, minutes, and seconds may be used where required.
Metric Usage
AGMA 904C96
Table 41 Notes (cont)
2) 
The CGPM in October 1979 approved Land I as alternative symbols for the liter. Since the letter symbol I can easily be confused with the numeral 1, only the symbol Lis recommended for USA use. Use of the script, t as a symbol for liter is discouraged. 
3 
The Celsius temperature scale (previously called centigrade, but renamed to avoid confusion with "centigrade" associated with angular measure) is the commonly used scale except for certain scientific and technological purposes where the thermodynamic temperature scale is preferred Note the use of upper case C for Celsius. 
4 ) 
No space is left between these symbols and the last digit of a number. 
5) 
°C is the symbol for degree Celsius (not ^{0} ). For example 3854°C not 38°54°C. 
6) 
Metric ton is the common name for the SI unit megagram (Mg) also called tonne (t). Due to possible confusion between the written and spoken word "tonne" versus "ton" meaning 2 000 pounds, the term "metric ton" is recommended for general use and consistency. 
5. Definitions of the SI Base Units and
Dimensionless Derived Units
5.1 Base Units.
5.1.1 Meter (m). The meter is the length equal to 1650763.73 wavelengths in vacuum of the radiation corresponding to the transition between the levels 2p10 and 5d5 of the krypton86 atom [adopted by 11th CGPM 1960, Resolution 6].
5.1.2 Kilogram (kg).
The kilogram is the unit of
mass; it is equal to the mass of the international prototype of the kilogram. [1st CGPM (1889) and
3rd CGPM (1901)]
5.1.3 Second (s). The second is the duration of
9 192 631 770 periods of the radiation corresponding to the transition between the two hyperfine levels of the ground state of the cesium133 atom. [13th CGPM (1967), Resolution 1]
5.1.4 Ampere (A). The ampere is that constant
electric current which, if maintained in two straight
parallel conductors of infinite length, of negligible circular crosssection, and placed 1 meter apart in vacuum, would produce between these conductors a force equal to 2x107 newton per meter of length. [9th CGPM (1948), Resolution 2)
5.1.5
thermodynamic temperature and is equal to 1/273.16
The
of
Kelvin
(K).
kelvin
is
a
unit
of the thermodynamic temperature of the triple point of water. [13th CGPM (1967), Resolution 4]
The 13th CGPM (1967, Resolution 3) also decided that the unit kelvin and its symbol K should be used to express an interval or a difference of temperature.
In addition to the thermodynamic temperature (symbol T) expressed in kelvins, use is also made of Celsius temperature (symbol t) defined, by the equation t = TTo wl:!ere To = 273.15 K (freezing point of water, absolute). The Celsius temperature is in general expressed in degrees Celsius (symbol °C). The unit "degree Celsius" is thus equal to the unit "kelvin" and is used in place of the kelvin for expressing temperature intervals.
5.1.6 Mole (mol).
The mole is the amount of
substance of a system which contains as many elementary entities as there are atoms in 0.012 kilogram of carbon 12. When the mole is used, the elementary entities must be specified and may be atoms, molecules, ions, electrons, other particles, or specified groups of such particles. [14th CGPM (1971), Resolution 3]
5.1.7 Candela (cct). The candela is the luminous
intensity in the perpendicular direction, of a surface of 1/600 000 square meter of a black body at the
temperature of freezing platinum under a pressure of 101 325 newtons per square meter. [13th CGPM (1967), Resolution 5]
7
AGMA 904C96
5.2 Dimensionless Derived Units.
5.2.1 Radian (rad).
between two radii of a circle which cut off on the circumference an arc equal in length to the radius.
See Fig 51. [ISO Recommendation R 31, Part 1, Second Edition, December 1965]
5.2.2 Steradian (sr). The steradian is the solid angle
which, having its vertex in the center of a sphere, cuts
off an area of the surface of the sphere equal to that of a square with sides oflength equal to the radius of the sphere. See Fig 51. [ISO Recommendation R 31, Part 1, Second Edition, December 1965]
The radian is the plane angle
_{Q}_{U}_{A}_{N}_{T}_{I}_{T}_{Y}
_{N}_{A}_{M}_{E}
PRONUNCIATION
SYMBOL
ANGLE
Fig 51 Angular Units
6. Preferred Dimensions and Tolerances
6.1 Basic Millimeter Dimensions. Select new or unique millimeter dimensions using increments in the order listed.
1st Choice 
 
Ten millimeter increments 
2nd Choice 
 
Five millimeter increments 
3rd Choice 
 
Whole millimeter increments 
4th Choice 
 
Half millimeter increments 
(smallest division on shop scales) 5th Choice  Select as required to express precision fits or established inch sizes
NOTE:
as established stock sizes may dictate other basic dimensions.
Commercial
items
available
Metric Usage
6.2 Tolerances. Table 61 lists tolerance values to be
specified in conjunction with new millimeter dimen sions. The table shows the inch equivalent
'!able 61 Preferred Metric Tolerances and their Inch Equivalent
_{*}
Inch
_{*}
Inch
^{m}^{m} 
Equivalent 
^{m}^{m} 
Equivalent 
0.003 
0.005
0.008
0.010
0.013
0.015
0.020
0.025
0.030
0.035
0.040
0.045
0.05
0.08
0.1
0.13
0.15
0 
0.00012 
0.2 
0.008 
0 
0.00020 
0.25 
0.010 
0 
0.00031 
_{0}_{.}_{3} 
_{0}_{.}_{0}_{1}_{2} 
0.0004 
_{0}_{.}_{4} 
0.016 

0.0005 
_{0}_{.}_{5} 
0.020 

0.000 6 
_{0}_{.}_{6} 
_{0}_{.}_{0}_{2}_{4} 

0.000 8 
_{0}_{.}_{8} 
_{0}_{.}_{0}_{3}_{1} 

0.0010 
_{1} 
_{0}_{.}_{0}_{3}_{9} 

0.0012 
_{1}_{.}_{3} 
_{0}_{.}_{0}_{5}_{1} 

0.0014 
_{1}_{.}_{5} 
0.059 

0.0016 
_{2} 
_{0}_{.}_{0}_{7}_{9} 

0.0018 
2.5 
0.098 

0.002 
_{3} 
_{0}_{.}_{1}_{1}_{8} 

0.003 
_{3}_{.}_{5} 
_{0}_{.}_{1}_{3}_{8} 

0.004 
_{4} 
_{0}_{.}_{1}_{5}_{7} 

0.005 
_{5} 
_{0}_{.}_{1}_{9}_{7} 

0.006 
_{6} 
0.236 
* If it is necessary to specify a tolerance that is not listed, be sure to show enough decimal places so that the rounded inch equivalent reflects the required accuracy. For example 0.07 mm should not be used because it converts to 0.003 inch the same as 0.08 mm. However 0.070 converts to
0.0028 inch.
6.3 Nonmillimeter Units. Preferred increments of
10, 5,
or 1 can usually be used.
Large calculated
quantities generally do not require specification of
more than 3 significant digits.
Example:
Calculated Value
Rounded to3 Significant Figures
452.61 
453 
4526.1 
4530 
45261 
45300 
It must be remembered that these are guides and some applications may require greater accuracy than the general recommendation.
6.3.1 Kilopascal (kPa). A unit used for measure
ment of pressure. A kilopascal is a small unit and
8
Metric Usage
pressure values in this unit can normally be rounded more than most other nonmillimeter units.
kPa Values 
Specify to 

_{o}_{v}_{e}_{r} 
incl 
nearest 
_{0} 
500 
_{5} 
500 
1000 
10 
1000 
5000 
50 
_{5}_{0}_{0}_{0} 
10000 
_{1}_{0}_{0} 
_{1}_{0}_{0}_{0}_{0} 
50000 
500 
_{5}_{0}_{0}_{0}_{0} 
100 000 
1000 
6.3.2 Megapascal (MPa). A unit used to measure
material stress. Recommended rounding for values are listed below:
MPa Values 
Specify to 

over 
incl 
nearest 
0 
5 
0.05 
5 
10 
0.1 
10 
50 
0.5 
50 
100 
1 
100 
500 
5 
500 
1000 
10 
1000 5 000
50
6.3.3 Degree Celsius ( ^{0} C). A unit used to measure
temperature. Values can generally be rounded according to the table below. The symbol for identifying degrees Celsius is ^{O} C. When specifying a temperature and a tolerance, show 20°C±2°C, not 20° ±2°C.
°CValues
over
50
100
incl
50
100
and up
Specify to
nearest
_{1}
_{5}
_{1}_{0}
The
units used to measure mass. Values can usually be
rounded according to the following table:
6.3.4 Kilogram and Megagram (kg and Mg).
kg or Mg Values
Specify to
over 
incl 
nearest 

0 
3 
0.25 

3 
5 
0.5 

5 
50 
_{1} 

50 
250 
_{5} 

250 
500 
_{1}_{0} 

500 
and up 
_{5}_{0} 
AGMA 904C96
6.3.S Newton and kilonewton (N and kN). The units
used to measure force. Values can generally be rounded as follows:
N or kN Values 
Specify to 

over 
incl 
nearest 
0 
50 
1 
50 
250 
5 
250 
500 
10 
500 
1000 
50 
The unit used to
measure torque. Values can generally be rounded as follows:
6.3.6
Newtonmeter (N•m).
N•m Values
Specify to
over 
incl 
nearest 

0 
5 
0.2 

5 
10 
0.5 

10 
30 
_{1} 

30 
60 
_{2} 

60 
125 
_{5} 

125 
250 
_{1}_{0} 

250 
500 
_{2}_{0} 

500 
1400 
_{5}_{0} 

1400 
and up 
_{1}_{0}_{0} 

6.3.7 
Liter (L). 
The unit to measure volumes. 
Values can generally be rounded as indicated below:
L Values 
Specify to 
over incl 
nearest 
0 10 
0.1 
10 50 
_{1} 
50 250 
_{5} 
250 and up 
_{1}_{0} 
6.3.8 Cubic centimeter (cm3). The unit used to
measure small volumes. Values can generally be rounded as follows:
cm3 
Values 
Specify to 

over 
incl 
nearest 

0 
100 
_{1} 

100 
500 
_{5} 

500 
and up 
_{1}_{0} 
6.3.9 Kilowatt (kW). The unit used to measure
power. Values can generally be rounded as indicated below:
kW Values 
Specify to 

over 
incl 
nearest 
0 
50 
_{1} 
50 
150 
_{5} 
150 
500 
_{1}_{0} 
500 
and up 
_{5}_{0} 
9
AGMA 904C96
7. Conversion 
Nonmetric to Metric
7.1 Application. This Section provides guidance for converting dimensions and tolerances in standards from nonmetric units to metric units in accordance with SI.
7.2 lnterchangeabili~ Conversions of noncritical dimensions may be rounded to ideal metric units as long as functional interchangeability is retained. Good judgment is required in this area and consider ation must also be given to the round off effect on existing tooling, gauging, patterns, and dies.
Example:
(1) Use standard metric hole sizes de fined in Metric Standards rather than direct conversions of inch sizes. Consideration of existing tooling and part interchangeability may require direct conversion in a few instances.
(2) Dimensions that are normally mea sured with shop scales are rounded to whole and half millimeter. For dimensions such as hole and thread depths, use the practical di mensions shown in metric standards instead of direct conversions if functional inter changeability is not affected
(3) Specify metric material sizes when the design permits.
(4) Round noncritical dimensions such as casting and forging outline to whole and half millimeters.
7.3 Round Off Practice.
7.3.1
below:
When first digit dropped is:
Practice. Round all decimal values as shown
The last digit retained is:
Examples
5 
or less 
unchanged 
1.500 491.500 
morethan5 
increased by 1 
1.500 611.501 

5 
followed 
unchanged 
1.502 501.502 
only 
if even 

by zeros 
increased 
_{1}_{.}_{5}_{0}_{1} _{5}_{0}_{}_{1}_{.}_{5}_{0}_{2} 

by 1 if odd 
Metric Usage
7.3.2 Round Off Accura~ When the millimeter value is rounded off, a small difference may exist between the millimeter value and the inch value which was converted, depending on the number of decimal places retained. Table 71 shows the maximum difference that can occur. The difference in the maximum or minimum limit of a bilateral or unilateral dimension is twice that possible for the maximum or minimum limit of a limit dimension because both the dimension and tolerance are converted individually and each may have a rounding difference. The maximum difference rarely occurs in both the dimension and tolerance at the same time and in many cases the differences in the conversions of the dimension and tolerance are in opposite directions and cancel out.
7.4. Conversion 
Inch to Millimeter Dimensions.
Table 71 Possible Difference Due to Rounding
Maximum Difference mm (inch)
No. of Decimal Places in Rounded mm Dimensions 
_{B}_{i}_{l}_{a}_{t}_{e}_{r}_{a}_{l} _{o}_{r} 

Unilateral 
Limit 

Toleranced 
Dimensions 

Dimensions 

4 
0.0001 
0.00005 
(0.000 004) 
(0.000 002) 

3 
0.001 
0.000 5 
(0.000 04) 
(0.000 02) 

2 
0.01 
0.005 
(0.000 4) 
(0.000 2) 

1 
0.1 
0.05 
(0.004) 
(0.002) 
7.4.1 Toleranced Dimensions. The total tolerance
applied to an inch dimension shall be the basis for rounding the converted millimeter values of the dimension and tolerance. The number of decimal places to be retained in the conversion based on total tolerance is shown in Table 7 2. Total tolerance is the difference between the maximum and minimum limits of size.
10
Metric Usage
Examples:
_{T}_{o}_{l}_{e}_{r}_{a}_{n}_{c}_{e} 
Specified Inch 
Total 

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