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EXPERIMENT 2: PRODUCTION OF PECTIN JELLIES

INTRODUCTION

According to D.A. Smith (2003), jams, jellies, preserves, and related products are
palatable, shelf – stable, fruit – flavoured condiments made from fruit or fruit juice, sugar, and
pectin. Each such product possesses a consistency characteristic of that product. Jelly is clear,
transparent, sparkling, and quivers rather than flows when removed from its container. Pectin
is a natural substance which is present in great amount in many vegetable foodstuff such as
fruits and vegetables. As structural element in the growth generating tissue and main
component of the middle lamella in plants it provides cohesion and stability in tissues and cells.
Pectin as a name is derived from the Greek word “pectos”, which means gelatinated, or
solidified.

OBJECTIVES

1. To prepare a pectin jelly product.


2. To indicate the best quality of jelly product.

APPARATUS

Stove, analytical balance, top loading balance, pH meter, thermometer, hand – held
refractometer, spoon, vessel, ladle.

MATERIALS

9.5g (6.5g pectin + 3g sodium citrate) pectin powder, 200g fine sugar, 175g glucose
syrup, 9.5g (4.75g citric acid : 4.75g water) citric acid (ratio 1:1), 225g water, 0.5g flavour,
0.5g colour.
METHODS

Using dry mixing, the pectin powder was mixed together with 100g sugar before the
dry mix was added in water and boiled. The remaining sugar was then added and continue to
boil. Next, the glucose syrup was then added and the mixture was continued to boil up to 107ºC.
The colour and the flavour was next added followed by the addition of the citric acid solution.
The mixture was finally cooled down in the refrigerator after transferring it into a container.

RESULTS

Table 2.1: Final Outcome of the Quality of the Jellies

Jelly Flavour Sharpness Stickiness Firmness Tenderness


Orange No Yes Yes No
Pineapple Yes Yes Yes Yes
Strawberry No Yes No No

Figure 2.1: shows the texture and quality of the orange flavour jelly.
Figure 2.2: Pineapple Jelly Figure 2.3: Strawberry Jelly

DISCUSSION

Pectin is today an indispensable component in many products, mainly in the food sector,
but also in the non – food sector, since it is a universally applicable, naturally gelling,
thickening and stabilizing substance. Pectin gels have been aptly described as intermediate
between a solid and a liquid state, consisting of a three-dimensional network of pectin
immobilizing the aqueous component (Oakenfull, 1987). The solvent water, pH, and
accompanying co – solutes, usually sugar, influence the intermolecular forces contributing to
gel structure. Conversely, the gel structure prevents the aqueous phase from separating.

The essential ingredients for a successful preserve are sugar, acid, and pectin. These
three ingredients lower the pH of the preserve and bind available water, thus creating an
environment in which the growth of microorganisms is retarded. In some cases the fruit can
provide all the pectin and acid that are needed. If the acid content of the fruit is low, external
sources such as lemon juice can be added. Similarly, if the planned mix of fruit is low in pectin,
a commercial source may be used. Sugar is always added, and in general all of the three
essential ingredients have to be added in order to create a successful product

Sugar is essential to help gel to form and contributes to flavour and taste. The type of
sugar used in this experiment is granulated white sugar. The amount of sugar must be in proper
proportion with pectin and acid to make a good gel. Reducing the amount of sugar in the recipe
contributes to poor gelling or the lack of gelling.

In this experiment, we failed to produce the perfect quality of jellies as three of the
jellies produced was lacking in some aspects. As for the orange flavoured jelly, it turned out to
be hardened with candy – like texture with no tenderness. The pineapple flavoured jelly is the
most acceptable to the jelly texture and the strawberry flavoured jelly is far from jelly texture.
These may because of the uncontrolled amount of water used within the procedure and wrong
ratio used to mix the sugar and pectin that leads to poor gelling.

CONCLUSION

This experiment was conducted to prepare a pectin jelly product as well as to indicate
the best quality of jelly product. Three flavoured jelly were prepared and the jelly with the best
quality prepared was the pineapple flavoured jelly. The objectives of the experiment were
successfully achieved.

REFERENCES

1. D.A. Smith. (2003). JAMS AND PRESERVES | Methods of Manufacture, Editor(s):


Benjamin Caballero, Encyclopedia of Food Sciences and Nutrition (Second Edition),
Academic Press, Pages 3409 – 3415, ISBN 9780122270550, https://doi.org/10.1016/B0-
12-227055-X/00660
X.(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B012227055X00660X)
2. Oakenfull, D. (1987). Gelling agents. CRC Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 26: 1–25.