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REFERENCE FOR

UNDERWRITERS – 6
RISK MANAGEMENT OF
TEXTILE MILLS
HDFC ERGO GENERAL INSURANCE CO LTD

TEXTILE MILLS
PROCESSES OF TEXTILE MANUFACTURING

Textile manufacturing begins with the production or harvesting of raw fiber. Fiber used
in textiles can be harvested from natural sources (e.g. wool, cotton) or manufactured
from regenerative cellulose materials (e.g. rayon, acetate), or it can be entirely
synthetic (e.g. polyester, nylon). After the raw natural or manufactured fibers are
shipped from the farm or the chemical plant, they pass through four main stages of
processing :

 Yarn production

 Fabric production

 Wet process

 Garment Manufacturing

In addition to garment as final product of these process stages, stock yarn


(final customer product) and carpets are also manufactured within these stages but in
different ways as shown in the process chart below:

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Garme Finished yarn or


nt stock

Textile manufacturing processes. A,B,C are the processes categories


YARN FABRICATION

Yarn fabrication is the process, which converts raw fiber into yarn or thread. The
fibers are prepared and then drawn out and twisted to form the yarn, which is then
wound onto a bobbin or cone. The yarn fabrication is entirely dry, although some
yarns maybe dyed and finished as a final customer product.r

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Main steps in yarn production of cotton and wool

Natural Fibers
Natural fiber must be opened, blended, carded and/or combed, and drafted
before spinning. The main steps for processing wool and cotton are illustrated
in figure above. Although equipment used for the production of cotton is
designed somewhat differently from that used for wool, the machinery operates in
essentially the same fashion.

Opening/Blending

Row material (cotton and synthetic) are received in


compact bales. Opening is the first operation required
to carried out to open material from highly pressed
cotton/synthetic bales. The second generation of

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machines is traveling type, which extract material from


each bale and open into the smallest flock gently. The
advantages of this traveling type are that, more bales
can be processes at a time and thus have long term
blending.

Cleaning

Cotton fiber must be cleaned to remove foreigen matter


such as plant parts, seed hulls, dirt, etc, from the fibers.
Cleaning is performed in successive steps from course
to fine. Coarse cleaning remove heavy trash
particles and fine opener removes the smaller trash
particles. Cotton is passed through a series of machines
(beaters) where opening and claening take place
simultinusly. Speed of beater and clearance setting may
be varied to achive the desired level of cleaning.

Carding

The blow room only opens the row material to flock


whereas the card opens the flock into individual fibers.
During this individualization process, coarse trash
particles are removed in the licker-in zone and fine trash
particles/ dust sucked away. The sheet of carded fibers
i s removed through a funnel into a loose rope like strand
called a sliver.

Combing

Combing process serves to improve the row material in production of medium,


medium to fine and fine yarns. This in turn reflects into better yarn evenness,
strength, cleanliness, smoothness and visual appearance. In the wool system,
combed sliver is used to make worsted yarn, while cards sliver is used for woolen
yarn. In cotton system, the term combed cotton applies to the yarn mad from
combed sliver. The function of comber is:

 To eliminate pre-determine quantity of short fiber

 To eliminate remaining impurities.

 To eliminate large proportion of naps.

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 To form a sliver of maximum possible evenness.

Drawing

The task of drawing process is to improve evenness


over short, medium and especially long term level by
straightening and paralyzing the fiber. In addition also for
blending of different fibers (Blending of Polyester /
Cotton, Polyester / Viscose, Polyester / Wool Etc.) The
drawing frame contains several pairs of rollers that
rotate at successively faster speed. As the slivers
pass through, they are further drawn out and
lengthened, to the point where they may be five to six
times as long as they were originally. In this process 4
to 8 carded or combed slivers are fed to the drafting
arrangement.

Rove formation (Roving)

The main function of the roving is to attenuate the sliver. In this process draw
frame sliver is fed to the drafting arrangement, which attenuate the sliver with a
draft of between 5-20. The delivered strand is too thin to hold, which is
strengthened by imparting twist immediately at the exit form the drafting
arrangement. The twisted (rove) is finally wound on the bobbin, so that it is easy to
transport to next process, stored and crelled on ring frame.

Spinning Roving
Spinning

In this process rove is fed to drafting arrangement, which further attenuate to spin
into final yarn. The delivered stand of fine fiber from the drafting arrangement, is

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strengthened by inserting twist in it. This twist is generated by the spindle, which
rotate at a higher speed. Each revolution of spindle import one turn of twist to the
strand. Finally the yarn (twisted fiber strand) is wound on bobbin mounted on
spindle with the help of traveler.

Manmade fibers
Manmade fibers are often shipped as staple (similar
in length to natural fibers), which is ready for spinning,
or as filament yarn, which may be used directly or
following further shaping or texturising. Both synthetic
and cellulose are manufactured by processes that
simulate or resemble the manufacture of silk (i.e.,
forcing a liquid through a small opening where the
l i q u i d solidifies to form a continuous filament). Three
main methods of fiber manufacture are described
below:

Wet spinning

In wet spinning, the polymer used to form the fiber


is dissolved in solution. The solution is forced
under pressure through an opening into a liquid bath in
which the polymer is insoluble. As the solvent is
dissipated in the bath the fibers are formed. Wet
spinning produces rayon, acrylic, and modacrylic.

Dry spinning

Dry spinning uses a solvent that evaporates in air. The dissolved polymer is
extruded through the spinnerete into a chamber of heated air or gas; the solvent is
generally recovered for reuse. Acrylic is produced by dissolving the polymer in
dimethyl formamide before dry spinning. Other fibers formed by dry spinning
include acetate, triacetate, spandex, and aramid.

Melt spinning

Some polymeric fibers are spun by melting the polymer to a liquid state. The liquid

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is forced through the spinner opening under pressure and cooled by a jet of air to
form the filament. Melt spinning requires no chemical reactions and no solvent
recovery system.

FABRIC PRODUCTION

Fabric production, the second step, involves weaving, knitting, tufting and non-
woven. Tufting and non-woven are used in the fabric manufacturing but not as
widely as weaving and knitting.

Weaving

Weaving is the most common method used for producing


fabrics. The process is carried out of two sets of threads,
which interlaces lengthwise yarns (warp yarns) with
widthwise ones (weft or filling yarns).

To prevent the warp yarns from braking during weaving,


the warp threads are coated with a size before
weaving, to increase their tensile strength and
smoothness. Natural starches are the most commonly
used sizes, although compounds such as polyvinyl
alcohol (PVA), resins, alkali-soluble cellulose
derivatives, and gelatine glue have been used. The
sizing compound is dried on the threads and remains a
part of the cloth until it is removed in the subsequent
processes. Other chemicals, such as lubricants, agents,
and fillers, are often added to impart additional properties
to a fabric.

Knitting

In knitting fabric is formed through interlocking series


of yarn loops. Rows of stitches are formed so that each
row hangs on the row behind it, usually using
sophisticated, high-speed machinery.

Tufting

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Tufting is the process of inserting additional yarns into fabric to create a pile fabric. The
substrate fabric can range from a thin backing to heavy burlap-type material and may
be woven, knitted, or web. In modern tufting machines, a set of hollow needles
carries the yarn from a series of spools held in a creel and inserts the yarn through the
substrate cloth. Patterns may be formed by varying the height of the tuft loops. Tufting
is used for apparel fabrics, upholstery, and blankets, although most tufting machines
are used for carpeting. Well over 90 percent of broadloom carpeting is made by tufting.

Non-woven

Non-woven fabrics are comparatively new in the range of fabrics manufactured. Non-
woven fabric has a strong appeal to both the manufacturer and the public for generally;
it can be produced rapidly and cheaply and gives consumer satisfaction. Non-woven is
described as a fiber products arranged in parallel, cross or randomly distributed, bonded
either by mechanical means or by adhesive or thermoplastic fibers under the influence
of heat and pressure. For the production of non-woven fabrics, initially a mixture of
different type of fibers is made. One of the fibers which is evenly distributed within the
mixture is a special type of fiber which can, at any suitable stage of processing, be
brought into a tacky condition, enabling it to play the role of an adhesive or bonding
substance. Then the fiber mixture is brought into the form of a comparatively thick layer
or web of width corresponding to the desired width of the fabric, which will ultimately be
formed. In the final stage, the fiber layer is hot pressed, so that the special fibers within
it partially melt and become securely bonded together.When the pressure is removed,
the non-woven fabric is formed in which the fibers are simply held together by the
bonding fibers.

FABRIC PROCESSING (WET PROCESSING)

The fabric produced from the weaving or knitting is in rough condition and is often
termed 'grey' fabric. The material is rough to the touch and contains impurities, which
are either natural in the fibers or added to facilitate the process of fabric manufacture.
Fabric processing (wet processing) is done to improve the appearance and
serviceability of the fabric in many ways. The main operations carried out in this step
include pre-treatment, dyeing, printing and finishing as given below in the process
charts:

As is evident from the description of the textile manufacturing process, the first two
stages of manufacturing, that is, yarn manufacture and fabric preparation, involve
mainly dry operations, which consume very little water and chemicals. The third
stage of manufacturing, that is, wet processing, involves wet operations. The quantum
of waste generated is relatively high in this stage.
Pre-treatment

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The pre-treatment process is carried out to prepare the textile material for subsequent
processing, which includes dyeing, printing and finishing. The main operations include:

Desizing

In this process, the sizing ingredients are removed from the grey fabric by dissolving
them. Desizing, with acid or enzymes etc., then removes size from the fabric, so that
chemical penetration of the fabric in later stages is not inhibited.

Scouring

The scouring process is carried out to remove impurities such as wax, fatty acids, oils,
etc, present in the fabric. Scouring is carried out in alkaline conditions (with sodium
hydroxide) under high pressure and temperature (above 100oC).

Bleaching

Bleaching is used to whiten fabrics and yarns. Different chemicals such as


hypochlorites, hydrogen peroxides, etc, are used as bleaching agents. The process
conditions during bleaching vary with the type of agent used. Once bleaching is
complete, the bleaching agent must be completely removed, either by thorough
washing or through the use of enzymes.

Mercerizing

Mercerizing increases the tensile strength, luster and dye uptake of the cotton fabric or
yarn. In this process, the cotton yarn or fabric is treated with cold sodium hydroxide
solution. This causes swelling of the fiber, which results in an increase in the dye
intake. Excess sodium hydroxide is normally recovered for reuse in either the scouring
or other mercerization stages.
Dyeing

Dyeing is employed to give an all-over shade to the fabric. It basically involves


diffusion of dye molecules into the textile fabric, which imparts the required color. In
the dyeing process these dye particles quickly come into contact with the surface of
each fiber, form a thin layer and diffuse into it. There are essentially two techniques
available for dyeing the textile material. These are:

Batch technique:

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The liquor and the textile are placed together in a vessel and the required amount of
dye is added.

Continuous technique:

The dye is dissolved or dispersed in the liquor. A definite quantity of dye liquor is
locally applied to the textile.

The major classes of dyestuffs used in the textile industry are as follows:

• Acid Dyes: Mainly used on wool, silk and polyamide fibers. They give very
bright colors, whose fastness ranges from very poor (allowing colors to run) to very
good.

• Basic Dyes: Usually applied to acrylics and polyesters to produce very


bright colors.

• Direct Dyes: Commonly applied to rayon and cotton.

• Disperse Dyes: Applied to cellulose acetate, polyamide and polyester fibers.

• Reactive Dyes: This group produces a range of bright shades, and commonly
used for cellulose textiles.

• Sulphur Dyes: Most commonly used for dyeing cotton, rayon and cotton-
synthetic blends and produce strong, deep colors in the final fabric.

• Vat Dyes: These cover an almost full range of shades and are particularly
important in the dyeing of cellulose fibers (such as cotton).

• Azoic Dyes: Produce deep shades of blue, violet, yellow, orange and reddish.

Printing

Printing is a process by which colored patterns are produced on the fabric. Unlike
dyeing, it is usually only carried out on prepared fabric where it is applied to specific
areas to achieve a planned design. The color is applied to the fabric and then treated
with steam, heat or chemicals to fix the color on the fabric. The most commonly used
printing techniques are:

• Pigment printing: Commonly used for all fabric types.

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• Wet printing: Uses reactive dyes for cotton and generally has a softer feel
than pigment printed fabrics.

• Discharge printing: Creates patterns by first applying color to the fabric and
then removing selected areas.

Final washing of the fabric is carried out to remove excess paste and leave a uniform
color.

Finishing
This stage includes the final operations necessary for making the textile presentable
and attractive. It imparts the final aesthetic, chemical and mechanical properties to the
fabric as per the end use requirements. The finishing operations include:

Drying
Drying removes the moisture from the fabric using the drying machine.

Providing Dimensional Stability

This is one of the most important finishing operations. The fabric, which is in a
distorted condition, is brought to the required dimensions of width and length.

Calendering

A kind of glossy skin is formed on the fabric surface during calendering. The damp
fabric is pressed hard against a hot, polished metal surface until it dries.

Softening

After calendering, the fabric becomes a little stiff. Breaking down this stiffness is called
softening. The fabric is led through the softening machine so that it touches the
studded rollers lightly and drags them around. In this way, the surface of the fabric is
lightly disturbed making it much softer.

Apart from the above mentioned finishing operations many other special properties
depending upon requirements such as protection from rain, wind, cold, sunlight, fire
resistance, etc., are provided. The properties are done by passing the fabric through a
trough of chemicals (for providing special finishes) followed by drying.

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Depending upon the type of fabric to be processed and the final product, any or all of
the above processing operations can be carried out. Each of these operations
involves consumption of huge quantities of water and chemicals.

Summary of the main operating condition in textiles manufacturing.

Conditions
Process
Size formulation depends on the type of
yarn. Size concentration is governed by the
Sizing yarn count (8-15%). Temperature ranges
from 80- 90 °C. Drying at 100-130 °C.
Singeing Direct or indirect flames are used to remove
fuzzy fibers, followed by quenching.
Desize formulation depends on the nature
of the sizing agents, i.e. enzymatic or
oxidative treatments are used for starch
sized fabrics, whilst CMC, CMS or acrylate
Desizing sizes can be removed by hot water (80-90
°C). PVA can be removed by using hot
water in the presence or absence of
peroxygens.

Kier boiling: NaOH 30g/l, wetting agent


(2g/1), temperature 120 °C, time (12
hours).
Scouring
Continuous scouring: NaOH 30-50g/1,
wetting agent (2g/1), temperature 90 °C.

Hypochlorite bleaching: 1.5-2g active


chlorine/1,2g Na2C03/l, room temperature,
time (2 hours).
Peroxide bleaching: 10-16g H2O2/l
Bleaching (100%), 2.5g NaOH/l, 2-
5gNa2Si03/l, 4 g organic stabilizer/l, 2g
non-ionic wetting agent/l, temperature 90-
95 °C, time (45-60 min).

20-30% NaOH, 1-2g non-ionic wetting


Mercerization °
agent/I, temperature 18 C , time (20-40
seconds)

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A range of different dyestuff classes can be


used for 100% cellulose fibers (e.g.
direct, reactive, sulphur, vat, indigo).
Dyeing
Dye bath formulation and dyeing
conditions depend on the class used.

The same classes of dyestuffs used in


dyeing can also be used in printing.
Printing
Pigments can also be used.

Soft finishing: By using different types of


softening agents (e.g. cationic,non-ionic,
silicone elastomers) different types of
application (exhaustion or padding
techniques) can be used. Exhaustion
Finishing formulation - 2-4% softening agent at 40-50
°C for 15-20 minutes at pH 6. Resin
finishing: Using N-methylol finishing agents
in the presence of an acid catalyst using the
padding technique.

GARMENT MANUFACTURING / FABRICATION

The finished cloths are fabricated into a variety of apparel and household industrial
products. The simpler of these products, such as bags, sheets, towels, blanket, and
draperies often produced by the textile mills themselves, but apparel or more complex
house-wares are usually fabricated by cutting trades.

STOCK AND YARN FABRICATION

Yarn dyeing and finishing are different from woven fabric finishing because there is no
sizing and desizing operation. They are different from knit fabric finishing because of
their mercerising operation and water use. The main processes involved are
cleaning, scouring, bleaching, mercerizing, dyeing and special finishing. Sewing
thread, textile and carpet yarn are typical product in this category. Several techniques
are available for processing raw yarn into the finished product. The most common
process is probably package dyeing, but other processes, such as space dyeing, are
widely used. In package dyeing, yarn wound on perforated tubes is placed in a large
vessel, which is sealed. The dye solution, at an appropriate temperature, is circulated
through the yarn.

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The dyed yarn is washed, rinsed and dried. Finally, the yarn is unraveled and then
wound on cons for the subsequent use by other mills.

CARPET FABRICATION

Carpet mills use mostly manmade fibers (synthetic fibers: nylon, acrylic and polyester),
but some wool and cotton is also processed. This category is characterized by any or
all of the following operational units: bleaching, scouring, carbonizing, dyeing, printing
resin treatment, water proofing, flam proofing, soil repellency, backing with
foamed and unfoamed latex or jute. Carpet backing without other carpet
manufacturing operation may be included in the dry processing mill category. Some
carpet is backed with latex in a separate plant, other carpet mills do latexing in the
same plant with the finishing.

Tufted carpet consist of face yarn that is looped through a woven mat backing (mostly
polypropylene some jute) dyed or printed and then backed with either latex foam or
coated with latex and a burlap-type woven fabric backing but over latex.

The dominant face yarn is nylon, followed by acrylic and polyester. The latter two
groups taken together are about equal to nylon. Since dyeing of these fibers in carpet
differs little from dyeing fabric, the dyeing description for these fibers is similar to the
one described in. The yarn is tufted into woven or non-woven polypropylene or jute
primary backing in a dry operation. Following this, the tufted carpet can be either
printed or dyed. If printed, a semi continuous screen printing operation is performed,
followed by wash and rinse in the same machine. If dyed, the most common method
is beck dyeing, in manner quite similar to that described in previous categories for yarn
and goods. After it is dyed the carpet is dried in a tunnel drier. The carpet is then ready
for application of adhesive and secondary backing.

Fire Prone Areas

 Machinery
 Ginning & Cleaning Section, Spinning Section, Weaving Section, Knitting
Section,Fabrication Section, Finishing Section the detailed processes of which
are explained above.
 Storage Godowns for Raw Material and Finished Products.
 Electrical Distribution Assembly & Panels.
 DCS Control Panels.

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Loss Prevention Measures

 The electrical distribution control panels and DCS control panels should be
housed in a noncombustible construction.

 Approved automatic total-flooding fire extinguishing system should be provided to


protect the panels, and in the electronic switchgear.

 Adequate audible alarms should also be provided.

 Provide automatic sprinklers throughout all areas where there is combustible


occupancy or construction.

 Fire compartments with a maximum length of 100 m should be constructed in the


cable tunnels by building fire retarding walls, making sure that fire spread is not
possible through any wall penetrations created by pipes or cables. Monitoring
these compartments with a fire alarm is desirable.

 Ancillary buildings should be secured by means of fire resistant structures. If the


fire load is high, the installation of fire-fighting equipment like a deluge or water
fog extinguishing system may be necessary.

 All the structural elements of the building and all installations should be fire-
proofed up to a height of 0.5 m. Some of the fire-proof bricks used in refractory
linings like dolomite are very delicate. If they are stored improperly, they may
absorb moisture from the atmosphere and disintegrate in a matter of days.
Particular attention must therefore be given to protecting them during storage.
Long periods of storage on construction sites should be avoided. Fire clay bricks
are less of a problem. Refractory linings must be dried carefully in accordance
with a set schedule.

 Outdoor transformers and furnace transformers must be monitored and


maintained with special care. Furnace transformers are situated in the direct
vicinity of the electric-arc furnace and must be protected against the radiant heat
by a concrete housing. Additional protection by an automatic sprinkler system is
also desirable.

 Maintenance and housekeeping are critical to reducing the frequency and


lowering the severity of fires in the textile industry. Loose fiber and oil mist can be
airborne and will collect above the ceiling, on the ceiling, on machinery, at the
floor, below the floor and inside ducts. Increased production demands can result

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in reduced or skipped housekeeping and increase the probability of a fire. Written


corporate and plant policies on housekeeping are needed to ensure cleaning
cycles are adequate, cleanings are not skipped, and spot cleaning is completed
as needed. Skipped cleanings must be rescheduled promptly. There must be a
documented line of authority for authorizing a cleaning delay and rescheduling.
As a general rule the maximum deposit thickness for loose fluffy lint is 1⁄2 in. (13
mm) over a maximum of 500 ft2 (46.5 m2). Dense deposits, should be limited to
1⁄4 in. (6 mm) and oil saturated deposits should be limited to 1⁄8 in. (3.2 mm).

 Changes in production scheduling can result in overloaded and inadequately


protected storage areas. Protection is needed for the worst case storage
arrangement (storage height and depth, aisle width, flue width and spacing, and
aisle storage). In process storage in production areas should be protected by the
applicable storage standard. Excessive storage should be relocated to a properly
protected storage room or warehouse.

 Plastic tubs and trays have become common and need appropriate protection.
Enclosed production equipment has resulted in the need for internal protection
systems in many situations.

 Plant interdependencies are common in the textile industry. One or more


operations in the manufacturing process may take place in a different plant(s), for
example yarn mills, weaving, tufting, knitting, and finishing plants.

 Automatic sprinkler protection is needed throughout the mill and in equipment


containing large quantities of fiber. Protection for equipment such as
compressors and cooling towers also is necessary.

 Compressors are essential to continued operation of air jet looms; cooling towers
are needed to maintain temperature and humidity within operating limits.

 Make floors water resistant above valuable storage or sensitive high value
equipment.

 Provide special protection for cotton processing in enclosed systems from


opening to chute fed cards. Install infrared (IR) detection in the duct downstream
of equipment. Arrange extinguishing agent (dry chemical or a gaseous agent) to
discharge into equipment downstream of the detectors, where there is fiber hold-
up.

a) Shut down process equipment to prevent fire spread.


b) Interlock exhaust fans to shutdown if they would be likely to reduce agent
concentration in the protected space.

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c) If a keyed abort switch is used for maintenance have the key under the
control of either the department head or maintenance personnel.
d) Have replacement agent available on site to enable protection to be
restored immediately.

Insurance Aspects

Erection All Risk

The first thing is to determine whether the process is a conventional one or whether it is
still a form of prototype. The erection of this type of plant involves large scale
construction sites with high sums insured. As with all long-term projects, a construction
time schedule should be obtained for the purpose of risk assessment.

The physical weight of the furnaces, reactors and other machines is high, therefore
quality of the subsoil and the type of foundations used should be taken into
consideration. A subsoil report should be obtained.

Danger of flooding always exists at construction sites as the drainage system comes at a
later stage. The windstorm risk is also high on account of the many lifting operations
using heavy cranes.

Machinery Insurance

The first step is to find out whether the process is a conventional one or a prototype. A
more general list of plants is more suitable. The deductible should not be too low in this
case.

Refractory linings have a very limited service life and must be replaced regularly,
therefore depreciation should be applied adequately or if possible there should be a
predefined schedule for the same mentioned in the policy.

The usual maintenance and depreciation endorsements for electric motors, transformers
are to be applied. Risk inspections are recommended.

Machinery Loss of Profits Insurance

Based on the type of processes involved, spare machines are often on stand – by and
there is usually a stock of spare parts is maintained the same reason. It is common to
have a relatively large maintenance and inspection department. In the event of a
breakdown in operations, it is often possible to purchase semi-finished products from
other manufacturers. These factors are important in rating the risk.

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Policies Coverage Severity Frequency


[Low/Moderate/High] [Low/Moderate/High]
Standard Fire and
Fire and allied perils High High
Special Peril Policy
For breakdowns
Machinery Insurance High Moderate to High
losses
Marine Insurance For transit losses High High
For storage cum
EAR Insurance High High
erection work

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RISK MANAGEMENTRISK ENGINEER
OF TEXTILE Naresh Sharma
DEPARTMENT
Disclaimer: The information
MILLS contained herein isRisk
not Consulting Services
meant to imply that every possible hazard has been identified, or that no other
hazard exists. The HDFC ERGO General Insurance
EMAIL Co Ltd specifically disclaims any warranty or representation that compliance
Naresh.sharma@hdfcergo.com
with any advice contained herein will make any premises or operations safe or healthful, or in compliance with any law, rule or
MOBILE
regulation. Nothing contained 91 9711859905
herein shall be construed as indicating the existence or availability of coverage under any policy for
WEBSITE
any property or type of loss or damage. HDFC www.hdfcergo.com
ERGO General Insurance Co. Ltd should make any interpretation of data contained
herein. http://www.hdfcergo.com/Commercial/RiskConsultingServices.html