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Philippine rebel, born in Bohol in date unknown and who died in this same island at
the end of the 18th century, who headed one of the most famous and long-lasting
insurrections against Spanish colonial rule, becoming a legendary figure in the history
of the Philippines.

Nothing is known about the life of Francisco Dagohoy before the rebellion, but on the
other hand if the reasons that caused this are well known. Apparently, murdered in
1744 the Jesuit parish priest of Inabangan, Gaspar Morales, because he had refused to
give a Christian burial to his brother, a Constable who had died due to injuries
received in the performance of their work. Whereas just his revenge, Francisco
refused to surrender to authorities and chose to flee, taking refuge in the mountains
between Inabangan and Talibon. Spread the news, many others fugitives from justice
and unhappy with the Spanish administration were gradually joining up to form a
small army of three thousand men able to cope successfully with the soldiers sent to
capture.

Emerged as undisputed leader of the insurrectionists, Dagohoy built fortifications to


defend themselves from attack by soldiers and organized regular expeditions of
plunder to the properties of the Spaniards in order to stock up on food. However, with
time learned to take advantage of the resources of the forests and also broken lands
for cultivation, enabling them to settle permanently in villages completely
autonomous. As it expanded, the rebellion also acquired a different twist: pretending
only escape justice, Dagohoy went on to proclaim the independence of Bohol, making
an appeal to all its inhabitants to support this cause and win their freedom from the
Spanish domain; It also governed following the customs of the datus of the pre-
colonial period, eliminating class differences by race, slavery and the payment of
taxes, etc.

In 1747 Dagohoy and his men rejected the attack of an armed expedition sent from
Manila by Governor Juan de Arrechedera. The failure of this and other measures of
force led to the Spanish authorities to attempt to negotiation, but Dagohoy nor
accepted the conditions offered to surrender by the Bishop of Cebu, Miguel Lino de
Ezpeleta, or years later by the Governor José Raon (1768), who offered full pardon
him and all his men if he gave. francisco Dagohoy persisted in this attitude for the rest
of his life, dying without having the Spanish sovereignty. His descendants and
followers kept alive the flame of rebellion until 1829, date in which the Governor
Mariano Ricafort managed finally to quell it by force.
The Boholano Revolution Against Spain
(By way of introduction: This is an attempt to put together and interpret some
references about the longest revolution against the Spaniards in the Philippines. This
story, however, is not complete. Some local references about the topic are not
accessible to me at this time. Hopefully, we can find time to gather other texts
(textual, oral or signs) so a better story can be told for our generation and those yet to
come).

Francisco Dagohoy led the longest revolt against the Spaniards in Philippine history.
The revolt took the Spaniards 85 years (1744-1829) to quell. Forced labor was one of
the causes of the revolt. But what triggered the decision to rise up in arms against the
Spanish authorities in Bohol was the refusal of a Jesuit priest to give a Christian burial
to Dagohoy.s brother.

Dagohoy was a cabeza de barangay of Inabanga. Upon the order of Father Gaspar
Morales, a Jesuit cura of Inabanga, Sagarino went to the mountains to arrest a
Boholano renegade. The fugitive, however, resisted arrest and killed Sagarino in a
fight before he himself died.

When Dagohoy learned about his brother.s death, he searched for his brother.s body.
He found it and brought the remains to Inabanga for a Christian burial. Father
Morales, however, did not agree saying the Sagarino died in a duel. Besides, Sagarino
did not receive the sacrament of extreme unction. Hence, giving him a Christian
burial was contrary to religious practices at that time. What complicated the situation
was the order of the priest to expose the rotting corpse for about three days in front of
Inabanga Church. It is also possible, however, that since the priest refused to grant the
request, Dagohoy decided to place the corpse there to force the priest to change his
mind. Dagohoy eventually buried his brother without the benefit of a Catholic burial.

These strings of events led Dagohoy to make a vow to correct the wrong done to his
brother. In the process, he stopped paying tribute to the Spaniards and refused to
render the required .forced. labor. He also called upon his relatives, friends and the
other residents to do the same and fight for their freedom.

The ground was fertile for Dagohoy.s call. Around 3,000 Boholanos rallied to his call
and joined him in a revolt against Spanish injustice and tyranny. Together with other
leading members of the Tagbilaran, Baclayon and Dauis principalia, Dagohoy
proclaimed the .Independence of Bohol. in the mountains of Talibon and Inabanga.
The concept of independence, however, might not be applicable at that time. What is
most likely is that the revolutionaries stopped submitting themselves to the dictates of
the Spanish authorities and decided to move to the mountains where they can live on
their own in peace.

Up there in the mountains, the revolutionaries established their headquarters, which


they fortified with trenches of big rocks. Just like the way some upland farmers pile
up big rocks on top of another in their farms. They also build dwellings for their
families and cleared up some of the forest areas so that they can plant crops for their
subsistence. Since Dagohoy has experience in leading a community being a cabeza de
barangay, it is safe to assume that he set some rules and norms to maintain peace and
order in the new community. When the other Boholanos heard about the revolt, they
expressed their sympathy by joining the revolutionaries or by supplying them with
arms and money.

From time to time, the revolutionaries would raid the costal towns, assault the Spanish
garrisons, loot churches and kill Spaniards. In one of these raids, they killed the cura
of Jagna, an Italian Jesuit priest, and Father Morales. Dagohoy fulfilled the promise
he made over the grave of his brother and continued to lead the revolt until his death.
It is unknown when and how he died. It is probable that he died of old age or sickness
a little before or after the 1800s. What is certain is that the revolution did not end with
his death.

The Spaniards were not happy with the Dagohoy-led revolt. In fact, there were several
attempts to suppress it. The historian Gregorio Zaide has this to say:

News of the remarkable success of Dagohoy worried the Spanish authorities in


Manila. In 1747 Bishop Juan de Arrechederra, acting Governor-General of the
Philippines (1745-1750), dispatched a punitive expedition to Bohol under the
command of Don Pedro Lechuga. Commander Lechuga won a few skirmishes but
failed to crush the rebellion. In desperation, he sent a commando unit into the
mountains to kill or capture Dagohoy, his sister Gracia, and other leaders. The
commandos returned empty-handed because they could not penetrate Dagohoy.s
fortified stronghold (p. 154)..

The nationalist historian Renato Constantino also narrated Spanish efforts to quell the
revolt. He said:

Perhaps the best indication of the importance and the success of this rebellion may be
seen in the persistent efforts exerted by both the State and the Church to negotiate
with Dagohoy. After the unsuccessful military attempts to suppress the revolt, it was
the Church.s turn to make the effort. Bishop Espeleta of Cebu tried to persuade the
rebels to give up their resistance by promising to secure a general amnesty, to find
remedies for the abuses of government officials, and to assign secular priests instead
of Jesuits to the Bohol parishes. The rebels refused the offer..

The revolt continued. By 1770, five years before the waging of the American War for
Independence against Great Britain, there were already about 30,000 revolutionaries
in Bohol.
It was only in April 1828, three years after the arrival of Governor-General Mariano
Ricafort, that the Spaniards sent its strongest expedition to Bohol. This is
understandable because Spain experienced problems in its other colonies in the 1800s.
For instance, the Spanish American colonies revolted in 1810 until 1826, thus
severing the link between Acapulco and Manila. It was, therefore, a hard time for
Spain. It was no longer a world superpower as it was in the 16th century. And it could
not quell the Dagohoy revolution in Bohol.

Probably to help save its face after its defeats from the forces of Dagohoy and its loss
of colonies, Spain decided to put an end to the revolt using Spanish and native (like
Cebuanos) troops. According to Zaide:

Fighting with desperate courage, the indomitable Boholanos resisted the enemy,
whose heavy artillery pieces caused much havoc to their fortifications and took a
terrible toll of human lives. Wearied by the ceaseless combat, weakened by hunger
and thirst, and depleted in numerical strength, they made their last stand in the
mountain of Boasa under the command of the valiant brothers, Handog and Auag. In
June 1829, they fought their last battle and were crushed by Spain.s superior arms.
The survivors fled into the forest, where they grimly continued to carry on their
hopeless cause (p. 156).

The revolt ended formally on August 31, 1829. Manuel Sanz, commander of the
Spanish forces, officially reported that 3,000 Boholanos escaped to other islands,
19,420 surrendered, 395 died in battle, 98 were exiled and around ten thousand
revolutionaries were resettled in the areas of Balilihan, Batuan, Bilar, Cabulao and
Catigbian. These figures all point to the fact that the revolt was widespread in the
province, hence, it was not simply a Dagohoy revolt. Dagohoy started it and
continued to be a source of inspiration to his comrades even after his death. But it was
a Boholano revolution against Spain.

Notes:

Some sources claim that the real name of Dagohoy was Francisco Sendrijas and that
he is called Dagohoy due to his ability to move like the wind. Literally, the name is a
combination of .dagon sa hoyohoy. that means .talisman from the breeze..
2. Constantino claimed that Dagohoy.s brother, Sagarino, was a renegade who had
abandoned the Christian religion and that Father Morales ordered a native constable to
arrest Sagarino. Sagarino resisted arrest and killed the constable before he himself
died.
Main References:

Agoncillo, Teodoro A. History of the Filipino People. GAROTECH Publishing, 1990


(8th Edition).
Constantino, Renato. The Philippines: A Past Revisited. Tala Publishing Series, 1975.

Zaide, Gregorio F. Great Filipinos in History: An Epic of Filipino Greatness in War


and Peace. Verde Bookstore, 1970.

Zaide, Gregorio. Dagohoy: Champion of Philippine Freedom. Manila: Enriquez,


Alduan and Co., 1941.
https://sites.ualberta.ca/~vmitchel/alan-article.html

THE DAGOHOY REBELLION


THE DAGOHOY REBELLION 1744–1829

The Dagohoy Rebellion was one of two significant revolts that occurred in Bohol,
Philippines during the Spanish Era. The other one was the Tamblot Uprising in 1621
led by Tamblot, a babaylan or native priest from Bohol which was basically a
religious conflict

Unlike the Tamblot revolt, the Dagohoy rebellion was not a religious conflict. Rather,
it was like most of the early revolts which were ignited by forced labor, Spanish
oppression,bandala, excessive tax collection and payment of tributes. On top of these
injustices of the Jesuit priests, what triggered Dagohoy most was the refusal of the
Jesuit priest to give a Christian burial to his brother who died in service while chasing
a fugitive who went against Christianity. This caused Dagohoy to call upon his fellow
Boholanos to raise arms against the oppressors. The rebellion outlasted several
Spanish Governor Generals and several missions.

In 1744, Father Gaspar Morales, the Jesuit curate of Inabanga, ordered a constable
name Sagarino, to capture a man who had abandoned his Christian religion. The brave
constable pursued the fugitive, but the latter resisted and killed him. His corpse was
brought to town. Father Morales refused to give the constable Christian burial because
he had died in a duel and this was banned by the Church.

Francisco Dagohoy, brother of the deceased Sagarino, became so infuriated at the


priest that he instigated the people to rise in arms. The signal of the uprising was the
killing of Father Giuseppe Lamberti, Italian Jesuit curate of Jagna on January 24,
1744. Shortly afterwards, Father Morales was killed by Dagohoy. The rebellion rolled
over the whole island. Bishop Miguel Lino de Espeleta of Cebu, who exercised
ecclesiastical authority over Bohol, tried vainly to mollify the rebellious Boholanos.

Dagohoy defeated the Spanish-Filipino forces sent against him. He established a free
government in the mountains, and had 3,000 followers, which subsequently increased
to 20,000. The patriots remained unsubdued in their mountains stronghold and, even
after Dagohoy's death, continued to defy Spanish power.

The Francisco Dagohoy Cave in the town of Danao was the headquarters of Dagohoy.
One of the many crystal-studded passages within Dagohoy's cave has an underwater
route leading to dry land, and it is said that every time Spaniards would search the
cave, Dagohoy would swim underwater through this passage to hide in the breathing
space. [9] Twenty Spanish governors-general, from Gasper de la Torre (1739–45) to
Juan Antonio Martinez (1822–25), tried to quell the rebellion and failed. In 1825,
General Mariano Ricafort (1825–30), a kind and able administrator, became governor-
general of the Philippines. Upon his order, Alcade-mayor Jose Lazaro Cairo, at the
head of 2,200 Filipino-Spanish troops and several batteries, invaded Bohol on May 7,
1827. The brave Boholanos resisted fiercely. Alcalde-mayor Cairo won several
engagements, but failed to crush the rebellion. In April 1828, another Spanish
expedition under Captain Manuel Sanz landed in Bohol. After more than a year of
hard campaign, he finally subdued the patriots. By August 31, 1829, the rebellion had
ceased. Governor Ricafort, with chivalric magnanimity, pardoned 19,420 survivors
and permitted them to live in new villages at the lowlands. These villages are now the
towns of Batuanan, Cabulao, Catigbian, and Vilar.

There is little known information about Francisco Dagohoy ; the only information
known is that his real name was Francisco Sendrijas and that he was a native of
Inabanga, Bohol. He was a cabeza de barangay, or one of the barangay captains of the
town.

About Dagohoy , historians believe that his alias, Francisco Dagohoy, was derived
from a belief that he had an amulet (called “agimat” in Tagalog and “dagon” in the
Cebuano language) that protected him from being harmed by his enemies. The people
believed that he possessed the charm of a gentle wind or “hoyohoy” in the Cebuano
language that allowed him to jump from one hill to another and from one side of the
river to the other. He was believed to have a clear vision inside dark caves and be
invisible whenever and wherever he wants to. The Dagohoy surname was derived
from his local alias “Dagon sa hoyohoy.”
According to a local historian, Jes Tirol, the name Dagohoy is a concatenation of the
Visayan phrase dagon sa hoyohoy meaning talisman of the breeze.
(Picture )BUST OF FRANCISCO DAGOHOY

The typical flags of revolt used in the Archipelago were generally red so we can't
exclude that the flags used by Francisco Dagohoy and his men were red even if we
have no sure evidences.
www.watawat.net/the_dagohoy_rebellion.html

THE DAGOHOY REBELLION (1744-1829)


In 1744 the island of Bohol became once more the arena of a serious insurrection
against Spain. In that year Father Gaspar Morales, Jesuit curate of Inabangan, ordered
a constable to capture a man who had abandoned his Christian religion. The brave
constable pursued the fugitive, but the later resisted and killed him. His corpse was
brought to town. Father Morales refused to give the constable Christian burial because
he had died in a duel and this was banned by the Church.

Francisco Dagohoy, brother of the deceased, became so infuriated at the priest that
he instigated the people to rise in arms. The signal of the uprising was the killing of
Father Guiseppe Lamberti, Italian Jesuit curate of Jagna, on January 24, 1744. Shortly
afterwards Father Morales was killed by Dagohoy. The rebellion rolled over the whole
island like
a tropical typhoon. Bishop Miguel Lino de Espeleta of Cebu, who exercised
ecclesiastical authority over Bohol, tried vainly to mollify the rebellious Boholanos.

Dagohoy defeated the Spanish-Filipino forces sent against him. He established a


free government in the mountains, and had 3,000 followers, who subsequently
increased to 20,000. The patriots remained unsubdued in their mountains stronghold,
and, even after Dagohoy's death, continued to defy Spanish power.

Twenty Spanish governors-general, from Gasper de la Torre (1739-45) to Juan


Antonio Martinez (1822-25), tried to quell the rebellion and failed. In 1825, General
Mariano Ricafort (1825-30), a kind and able administrator, became governor-general
of the Philippines. Upon his order, Alcade-mayor Jose Lazaro Cairo, at the head of
2,200 Filipino-Spanish troops and several batteries, invaded Bohol on May 7, 1827.
The brave Boholanos resisted fiercely. Alcade-mayor Cairo won several engagements,
but failed to crush the rebellion. In April, 1828, another Spanish expedition under
Captain Manuel Sanz landed in Bohol. After more than a year of hard campaign, he
finally subdued the patriots. By August 31, 1829, the rebellion had ceased. Governor
Ricafort, with chivalric magnanimity, pardoned 19,420 survivors and permitted them
to live in new villages at the lowlands. These villages are now the towns of Batuanan,
Cabulao, Catigbian, and Vilar.

Dagohoy will always live in the pages of Philippine history, not only as a good
brother and a heroic man, but also as a leader of the longest Filipino insurrection on
record. His revolt lasted 85 years (1744-1829).
www.aenet.org/bohol/boholhis.htm

The Rebellion of Dagohoy


The oppressive methods of the Jesuits once more led to a serious insurrection against
Spain. In the year 1744, Francisco Sendrijas alias Dagohoy started a revolt that was to
last more than eighty nine years. The cause of this was an incident, in which the
brother of Dagohoy was killed. Father Gaspar Morales, the Jesuit curate of Inabanga
ordered a this brother, who was a constable, to capture a man who had left the
Christian religion. The constable pursued the fugitive, but then was killed by him in a
duel. However, when his body was brought back to town, the Jesuit refused the
constable a Christian burial.
Infuriated at the priest, Francisco Dagohoy organised the people in an armed
rebellion. The uprising started on 24 January 1744 with the killing of the Italian Jesuit
curate of Jagna, Father Guiseppe Lamberti. Not long after that, Dagohoy also killed
Father Morales, and the rebellion swept over the entire island. In vain, the Bishop of
Cebu, Miguel Lino de Espeleta, attempted to calm down the situation, and restore
Spanish rule. Dagohoy defeated the troops of Spanish and Filipino forces sent to
subdue him. He established a free government in the mountains, and with his
followers, was able to control much of the island. Even after Dagohoy's death, his
rebellion continued, while the Spanish were only able to maintain their power in some
settlements along southern coast.
In the span of 89 years, no less than twenty Spanish governors-generals, from Gasper
de la Torre (1739-45) to Juan Antonio Martinez (1822-25), failed to suppress the
uprising. In 1825, general Mariano Ricafort (1825-30), became governor-general of
the Philippines. He send alcade-mayor Jose Lazaro Cairo to re-establish Spanish
power in Bohol. With an army of 2,200 Spanish-Filipino men, he invaded Bohol on
May 7, 1827. However, it took more than a year of fierce fighting, and another
Spanish expedition under Capitain Manuel Sanz, who landed on Bohol in April 1828,
before the patriots were defeated. He captured last remnants of Francisco Dagohoy's
rebel forces from their hideout in the Cave of Caylagon. So, finally, by August 31,
1829, the rebellion was ceased. Most of the followers of Dagohoy were pardoned and
resettled in new villages in the lowlands. These villages have now become the towns
of Batuanan, Cabulao, Catigbian, and Vilar.
In the mean time, in 1768, the Jesuits had been expelled from the country, and their
missions taken over by Augustinian Recollects headed by their former Provincial,
Fray Pedro de Santa Barbara. Under their leadership, by 1800, the towns of
Tagbilaran, Dimiao, Guindulman, Panglao and Loon had been founded.
historyofboholpart1.blogspot.com/2008/03/rebellion-of-dagohoy.html?m=1

Dagohoy Revolution - Philippines’ Longest Revolt

One of the most famous revolts in the Philippines is called the Dagohoy Revolution
or also known as the Dagohoy Revolt. It is famous in Philippine history for being the
longest of its kind. The rebellion was led by Francisco Sendrijas or better known as
Francisco Dagohoy. The revolt happened in Bohol and lasted for 85 years from 1744
to 1829. It occurred in the Spanish era. The Dagohoy revolt was a sequel to a prior
rebellion known as the Tamblot uprising which was headed by Tamblot in 1621. But
the Tamblot revolution was a religious one because it was led by a native priest.
The Dagohoy revolution was unlike the Tamblot revolution. It was not a spiritual
rebellion but a conflict which was a retaliation to oppression, forced labor and too
much tax collection and requests for tribute payments. To make matters worse, it was
the Jesuit priests who headed these abuses.
In the year 1744, Bohol was prepared for another fight against Spain because of its
oppression. In the same yearm a Jesuit priest called Gaspar Morales commanded a
constable named Sagarino to hunt a man guilty of abandoning Christianity. When the
constable caught the man, the fugitive murdered him. When Sagarino was found he
was brought to Morales for a Christian burial. But the priest refused to give it to him
because according to the Church at that time, death by duel was banned from rights to
a Christian burial.
The brother of Sagarino was Francisco Dagohoy. He was furious when he heard of
the news and searched and found his brother’s body. He then went to Morales and
persuaded him to give his brother a proper Christian burial. But the priest denied him
saying that Sagarino did not deserve it for dying in a duel. What made it worse was
when the priest ordered for Sagarino’s corpse to be exposed in Inabanga for three days
until it rots.
This was the final straw to the Dagohoy revolution. It was Jesuits’ refusal to offer
Christian’s brothers a burial even when the dead person died in service by chasing
fugitives who fought Christianity. Because of this Dagohoy called on his fellow
Boholanos to gather and fight against the oppressions. Spanish Governors and
missions were outlasted by this rebellion.
Today, the Dagohoy Rebellion is featured in Bohol’s provincial flag showing two
bolos or the country’s native swords with hand guards drawn on top of them. The
Dagohoy Revolution represents one of the swords while the Tamblot represents the
other. It is a symbol that says that Boholanos would always rise and fight the
oppressors whoever they may be.
To honor Franscisco, one of the towns in Bohol was named Dagohoy after him. The
name was proposed by Carlos P. Garcia who was a former Vice President of the
country. Francisco Dagohoy is considered as a Boholano hero.
www.magtxt.com/article/36/dagohoy-revolution-philippines-longest-revolt

Situated in the high-altitude town of Magtangtang, Danao in Bohol, the Francisco


Dagohoy Historical Park serves as a remembrance of the heroism of Francisco
Dagohoy, who led the island of Bohol to a successful rebellion. In 1744 to 1829, the
Filipino patriot established an independent government on this site, which is between
the towns of Inabanga and Talibon. Francisco Dagohoy holds the distinction of having
led the longest revolt in Philippines history.
Born as Francisco Sendrijas in Inabanga, Bohol, information of the origin of Dagohoy
is limited. He became a Barangay Captain in one of the towns of Bohol before his
rebellion against the Spanish colonial government took into action.

Dagohoy came from the Visayan phrase, Dagon sa huyuhoy or talisman (a trinket or
piece of jewellery thought to be a protection against evil) of the breeze in English.
Francisco Dagohoy’s 85-year revolt is a big part of the Philippines’ history. The local
government unit, headed by Congressman Aumentado and Municipal Mayor
Cepedoza, built the historical park in Magtangtang, Danao to remember the patriotism
of Dagohoy.
www.phtourguide.com/francisco-dagohoy-historical-park/

(Flag)
The Dagohoy rebellion features in the Bohol provincial flag as one of the two bolos or
native swords with handle and hand-guards on top. These two bolos, which are
reclining respectively towards the left and right, depict the Dagohoy and Tamblot
revolts, symbolizing that "a true Boholano will rise and fight if supervening factors
embroil them into something beyond reason or tolerance."[3]

Dagohoy is an important figure Philippine history, not only as dure to his reputation
as good brother and a heroic man, but also as a leader of the longest Filipino
insurrection on record. His revolt lasted 85 years (1744–1829).[1]

The town of Dagohoy, Bohol is named in his honor. It was Vice President Carlos P.
Garcia who proposed the name "Dagohoy" in honor of Francisco Sendrijas alias
Dagohoy. The name Dagohoy is a concatenation of the Bisayan phrase, Dagon sa
huyuhoy or talisman of the breeze in English.[4]

The Dagohoy Memorial National High School in Dagohoy, Bohol is also named in his
honor and memory. https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dagohoy_rebellion