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1 The fundamental theorem of Arithmetic

Definition 1. Divisibility
We say d divides n and write d | n whenever

∃ k ∈ N : dk = n

If d does not divide n, we write d 6 | n


Theorem 1. Divisibility properties
There are some obvious properties of divisibility I will skip. I will prove
n
d | n ∧ d 6= 0 =⇒ |n
d
Proof. Let c be such integer that n = dc. Clearly c | n.
But
n dc
= =c
d d

Definition 2. Common divisor


For any integers a, b there always exists at least one integer n such that n | a ∧
n | b. We call this integers common divisors.
Theorem 2. Common divisor as a linear combination
Given a, b, there exists d such that d is common divisor of a, b and

d = ax + by

for some x, y ∈ Z.
Moreover: every common divisor of a, b divides it.
Proof. First lets assume a, b ≥ 0. We will use induction on n where n = a + b.
For n = 0 we take d = x = y = 0.
Without loss of generality assume a ≥ b. If b = 0 then d = a, x = 1, y = 0. If
b ≥ 0:we have
(a − b) + b = n − b
By inductive hypothesis

d = (a − b)x + by = ax + b(y − x)

We found our d. Now we need to show its the largest common divisor: it follows
from linearity. Assume c is common divisor. Then

c | ax ∧ c | b(y − x) =⇒ c | d

Now assume a < 0 ∨ b < 0. From previous result we now there exists

d = |a|x + |b|y

If a < 0 then |a|x → a(−x). Similar argument for b. Thesis follows.

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Theorem 3. There exists the largest common divisor of a, b
Suppose a, b ∈ Z then there exists largest common divisor d of a, b
Proof. From previous theorem we get existence. Now we have d, −d that sat-
isfied the relation based on divisibility. We can choose positive one since their
modules are equal (they both divide each other).
Definition 3. GCD
We call the greatest common divisor of a, b gcd. We denote it gcd(a, b). If
gcd(a, b) = 1 we say a, b are relatively prime.
Theorem 4. GCD properties
GCD has following properties:
• gcd(a, b) = gcd(b, a)
• gcd(a, gcd(b, c)) = gcd(gcd(a, b), c)
• gcd(ca, cb) = |c| gcd(a, b)
• gcd(a, 1) = 1
Proof. Second: Observer that left and right sides both represent largest x such
that x divides a, b, c.
Third: let d = gcd a, b then
d = xa + yb
But this means
cd = x(ca) + y(ca)
But then
gcd ca, cb = |cd| = |c|d

Theorem 5. Euclid lemma


Let a | bc and gcd(a, b) = 1 then a | c
Proof. Since gcd a, b = 1 we can write

1 = xa + yb

After multiplying by c we get

c = x(ac) + y(bc)

Also a | x(ac) and a | y(bc) therefore a | c.


Definition 4. Prime numbers
An integer p > 1 is called prime if 1, p are its only positive divisors. If integer
is not prime we call it composite.
Theorem 6. Every number is a product of prime numbers

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Proof. We will use induction. First few numbers are obvious. So lets jump
to induction step. We have number a. If a is prime, we have nothing to do.
Assume its not, then ∃ x, y > 1 : xy = a clearly x, y < a therefore x, y are a
products of primes numbers and so is a.
Theorem 7. Infinite number of primes
Euclid’s proof.
Proof. Assume there is a finite number of prime numbers. Then consider their
product plus one
p1 p2 . . . pn + 1
clearly its a prime: contradiction.
Theorem 8. If p is prime and p 6 | a then gcd(p, a) = 1.

Proof. Since gcd(p, a) ∈ {p, 1}, we can have p iff p | a.


Theorem 9. If p prime divides a1 a2 . . . an then p divides one of the factors.
Proof. We use induction: In case a = a1 a2 this follows from Euclid lemma.
Therefore let a = a1 a2 . . . an , suppose

b = a2 . . . an

then a = a1 b follows from induction immediately.


Theorem 10. Fundamental theorem of arithmetic
Every integer n > 1 can be represented uniquely as a product of prime factors.

Proof. By induction. For small cases the statement is obvious. Step lets take:
n. If n is prime: thesis follows. If its composite we get n = ab, but ab < n and
inductive hypothesis holds. We get

Y
a= pai i
i=0
Y∞
b= pbi i
i=0

then

Y
n= pai i +bi
i=0

since our operation is well-defined: thesis follows.

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Theorem 11. if

Y
n= pai i
i=0

the set of positive divisor of n is a set of numbers of a form



Y
pci i
i=0

where 0 ≤ ci ≤ ai
Proof. Assume there is a number with ci > ai then pci would divide that number
and not n: contradiction.

Theorem 12. Suppose



Y
a= pai i
i=0
Y∞
b= pbi i
i=0

Then we have

min(ai ,bi )
Y
gcd(a, b) = pi
i=0

Proof. Clearly given product is a divisor. Assume there is a product that’s


larger. This means ∃ ci such that ci > min(ai , bi ) and pci i is a part of this
number. But then this number is not a divisor anymore.
P∞
Theorem 13. The infinite series n=0 pn diverges
Proof. Assume it converges. Then we can choose such k that

X 1 1
<
pn 2
n=k+1

Let
Q = p1 . . . pk
and consider the numbers 1 + nQ for n ∈ Z+ . None is divisible by any of the
primes p1 . . . pk therefore all prime factors are among primes pk< .
For each r ≥ 1 we have
r ∞ ∞
!t ∞
X 1 X X 1 X
≤ ≤ 2−t
n=1
1 + nQ t=0
pm t=0
m=k+1

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(center includes all the terms from the left side, right side from previous equation
is larger)
Since the largest series converges we arrive at the fact that all three do. But
the smallest of them is asymptotically similar to harmonic series, therefore it
diverges: contradiction.

Theorem 14. Division Algorithm

∀n ∈ N, q ∈ N+ : ∃m r ∈ N :
0 ≤ r < q and n = mq + r

Proof. Induction on n.
Base:
0 = 0q + 0
Step:

base: n = m0 q + r 0
s(n) = m0 q + r0 + 1
if s(r) = q
s(n) = s(m0 )q + 0
Else s(r) < q so:
s(n) = m0 q + s(r0 )

Theorem 15. Euclidean algorithm


Given positive integers a, b let r0 = a, r1 = b and apply division algorithm to
get

r0 = r1 q + r2
r1 = r2 q + r3
...
rn−2 = rn−1 qn−1 + rn
rn−1 = rn qn

then rn = gcd(a, b).


Proof. Clearly rn | rn−1 and it quickly follows that rn | ri where 0 ≤ i ≤ n.
Now consider d = gcd(a, b). Clearly d | r0 and d | r1 it follows that d | ri and
in particular d | rn but then
d = rn

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Definition 5. Generalized gcd
We define gcd(a1 , a2 . . . an ) in the following way:

gcd(a1 , a2 . . . an ) = gcd(a1 , gcd(a2 . . . an ))

Theorem 16. Linear combination generalized


Let a1 . . . an ∈ Z then there exists x1 . . . xn such that
n
X
gcd(a1 . . . an ) = ai xi
i=1

Proof. We can see that

gcd(a1 . . . an ) = xa1 + y gcd(a2 . . . an )

Recursively repeating this procedure we get only terms with ai in it (simple


induction).
Theorem 17. Every n ≥ 12 is a sum of two composite numbers
Proof. This property is obvious:

2 | n → n = (n − 4) + 4
2 6 | n → n = (n − 9) + 9

In both cases the first term is even.


Theorem 18. Prove that if 2n − 1 is prime then n is prime
Proof. Suppose n is not prime
n = ab
Then we can write !
b−1
X
2ab − 1ab = (2a − 1) 2ia
i=0

contradiction.
Theorem 19. The series !
n
X 1
6∈ Z
i=1
i
where n > 1
Proof. TODO
Definition 6. LCM: least common multiple
We define
lcm(a, b)
as a smallest number such that both a, b divides it.

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Theorem 20. LCM as infinite product
Suppose we have
n
Y
a= pai i
i=0
Yn
b= pbi i
i=0

Then
n
max(ai ,bi )
Y
lcm(a, b) = pi
i=0

Proof. Clearly a, b divides newly created number.


Suppose there is some number different smaller then newly created one that is
divisible by both a, b. This means there must exists pci where c < max(ai , bi )
but this means new number can’t be divide by either a, b. Contradiction.
Theorem 21. LCM from GCD
We have following identity.
ab
lcm(a, b) =
gcd(a, b)
Proof. Suppose
n
Y
a= pai i
i=0
Yn
b= pbi i
i=0

Then
n
max(ai ,bi )
Y
lcm(a, b) = pi
i=0
n
a +bi −min(ai ,bi )
Y
= pi i
i=0
n
Y pai i pbi i
=
i=0
pmin(ai ,bi )
ab
=
gcd(a, b)

Definition 7. We can generalize lcm in a similar manner to gcd. The equations


from previous two theorems still hold.

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2 Arithmetical Functions and Dirichlet Multi-
plication
Definition 8. Arithmetical Function
The function on R or C is called arithmetical function iff its defined on positive
integers.
Definition 9. The Möbious function µ(n)
Suppose
Yk
n= pci i
i=1

We define this function as follows

µ(1) = 1
(
µ(n) = −1k if a1 = a2 · · · = an = 1
µ(n) =
µ(n) = 0 otherwise

In other words: µ(n) = 0 iff n has at least one square factor.


Theorem 22. For n ≥ 1 we have
  (
X 1 1 if n = 1
µ(d) = =
n 0 if n > 1
d: d | n
Qm
Proof. This formula is clearly true for 1. Lets assume n = i=1 pci i , then
X m
X X
µ(d) = µ(1) + µ(d)
d: d | n i=1 {d : d | n where d is a product of i primes}

We choose only products of primes to first power, since all others are zero
m  
X m i
= (−1)
i=0
i

From binomial identity


m
= (1 − 1)
=0

Definition 10. Euler totient function ϕ(n)


Euler function is defined as the number of positive integers not exceeding n
which are relatively prime to n. Thus

ϕ(n) = card{i : i ≤ n ∧ gcd(i, n) = 1}

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Theorem 23. If n ≥ 1 we have
X
ϕ(d) = n
d: d | n

Proof. TODO