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FIG.

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Physical Constants

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FIG. 23-2 (Cont’d)
Physical Constants

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FIG. 23-2 (Cont’d)
Physical Constants

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FIG. 23-2 (Cont’d)
Notes and References for the Table of Physical Constants

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FIG. 23-2 (Cont’d)
Notes and References for the Table of Physical Constants

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FIG. 23-2 (Cont’d)
Notes and References for the Table of Physical Constants

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FIG. 23-2 (Cont’d)
Notes for the Table of Physical Constants

a. Va l u es in pa r e n t h es es a r e e s t im a t e d v a l u es . p. An ex tr a pola t ed va l ue .
b. Th e t em p er a t u r e is a b ov e t h e cr i t ic a l po in t . q. G a s a t 60° F a n d t h e l iq u i d a t t h e nor m a l boi li n g p oi n t .
c. At s a t u r a t i on pr e ss u r e (t r i pl e p oi n t ). r. F i xe d p oi n t s on t h e 1 96 8 I n t e r na t i on a l P r a c t ica l Te m pe r a t u r e
d. S ub lim a tion p oin t. Sca le (IP TS-68).
e. Th e + s ig n a n d n u m b er f ol low i n g s pe ci fy t h e n u m b er o f cm3 of s. F i xe d p oi n t s on t h e 19 90 I n t er n a t i on a l Te m pe r a t u r e S ca l e
TEL added per gallon to achieve the ASTM octane number of (ITS-90).
100, which corresponds to that of Isooctane (2,2,4-
Trimet hylpent a ne). t. Densities at the normal boiling point are: Ethane, 4.540 [29];
P ropan e, 4.484 [28]; P ropene, 5.083 [5]; Hydr ogen C hloride,
f. Th es e com pou n ds for m a g la s s .
9.948 [43]; H ydr ogen S ulfid e, 7.919 [25]; Amm onia , 5.688 [43];
g. Average value from octane numbers of more than one sample. Sulfur Dioxide, 12.20 [43].
h. S a t u r a t ion pr es su r e a n d 60° F .
u. Technically, wat er has a heating value in two cases: net (–1060.
i. I n de x of re fr a ct i on of th e g a s . B tu/lb) when w at er is liquid in the rea ctant s, and gross
j. D e n si t ie s of t h e l iq u i d a t t h e nor m a l b oi li n g p oi n t . (+ 50.313 B tu /ft 3) when wa ter is gas in the reacta nts. The value
k. H ea t of s ub lim a t ion . is the ideal heat of vaporizat ion (entha lpy of the ideal ga s less
m. Equa tion 2 of the reference wa s refitted to give: the enthalpy of the saturated liquid at the vapor pressure).
a = 0.7872957; b = 0.1294083; c = 0.03439519. This is a ma tter of definition; wa ter does not burn.
n. N or m a l h y d r og en (2 5% p a r a , 7 5% or t h o). v. E x t r em e v a l ue s of t h o se r e por t e d b y r ef er e nc e 19 .

A. Molar mass (molecular weight) is based upon the following J. The liquid value is not rigorously C P , but rather it is the heat ca-
a tomic weights: C = 12.011; H = 1.00794; O = 15.9994; N = pacity along the saturation line C S   defined by: C S = C P – T
14.0067; S = 32.066; Cl = 35.4527. The values wer e rounded (∂V/∂T)P (∂P /∂T)S . For liquids far from the critical point, C S  ≈ C P .
off after calculating the molar ma ss using all significant figures K. The heating value is the negative of the enthalpy of combustion
in the at omic weights. at 60°F and 14.696 psia in an ideal reaction (one where all
B. B o il in g p oi n t : t h e t em p er a t u r e a t e q u i li br i um b e t w ee n t h e li q - ga sses are ideal gasses). For an arbitra ry orga nic compound,
uid and vapor phases a t 14.696 psia. the combustion rea ction is:
C. Freezing point: the temperature at equilibrium between the crys- C n H m O h S jN k (s,l,or,g) + (n + m/4 – h/2 + j ) O2(g) →
talline phase and the air saturated liquid at 14.696 psia. n C O 2(g) + m/2 H 2O (g or l) + k/2 N 2(g) + j SO2(g),
D. The refractive index reported refers to the liquid or gas and is where s, l a nd g denote respectively solid, liquid and ideal ga s.
measur ed for light of wa velength corresponding to the sodium For gross heat ing values, the wat er formed is liquid; for net
D-line (589.26 nm). heat ing values, the wat er formed is ideal ga s. Values reported
E. ar e on a dry ba sis. To account for wa ter in the heating value,
The relative density (specific gravity): ρ(liqu id, 60° F)/ρ(water,
see GP A 2172. The B tu/lb or gal. liquid column a ssumes a re-
60°F ). The density of wa ter a t 60°F is 8.3372 lb/ga l.
action wit h the fuel in the liquid sta te, while the B tu/ft 3 ideal
F. The temperature coefficient of density is related to the expan-
ga s column assum es the gas in the ideal gas sta te. Therefore,
sion coefficient by : (∂ρ/∂T)P /ρ = –(∂ρV/∂T)P /V, i n unit s of 1/T.
the values are not consistent if used in the same calculation,
G. Pitzer acentric factor: ω   = –log 10(P /P c) –1, P a t T = 0.7 Tc e.g. a gas plant bala nce.
H. Compressibility factor of the real gas, Z = PV/RT, is calculated L. Th e h ea t of v a p or i za t i on i s t h e en t h a l py o f t h e s a t u r a t e d v a p or
using the second virial coefficient. at the boiling point at 14.696 psia minus the enthalpy of the
I. Th e d en s it y o f a n i d ea l g a s r e la t i v e t o a i r is c a lc ul a t e d by d i - satura ted liquid at the same conditions.
viding the molar ma ss of the of the ga s by 28.9625, the calcu-
 M. Air required for the combustion of ideal gas for compounds of
lat ed average molar ma ss of air. See ref. 34 for the avera ge
formula C n H m O h S jN k  is:
composition of dry a ir. The specific volume of a n idea l gas is
V(ai r)/V(ga s) = (n + m/4 ( h/2 + j)/0.20946.
calculated from the ideal ga s equat ion. The volume ratio is:
V(idea l ga s)/V(liquid in v a cuum).

COMMENTS

Un its: reported values ar e based upon the following units with energy: B ritish therma l unit (I.T.)
their equiva lent corresponding SI units: B tu = 251.9958 cal (I.T.) = 1055.056 J
ma ss: P ound (a vdp), lbm = 0.45359237 kg Ga s constant, R:
lengt h: foot, ft = 0.3048 m 1.985887 B t u (I. T.)/(R lb m ol)
temperat ure: degree Fa hrenheit 10.73164 ft 3 psia /(R lb m ol)
t/° F) = 32 = [1.8(t/° C)].
8.314510 J /(K(mol)
The Celsius scale is defined by t he Int ernat ional Temperatur e Conversion factors:
of 1990 (ITS-90), wh ere 0° C = 273.15 K.
1 f t 3 = 7.480520 gal.
Other derived units are: 3 3
3
volume: cubic foot, ft  = 0.02831685 m
3 1 lb m /ft  = 0.1336806 lbm /ga l = 16.018462 kg/m
gallon = 231 in  = 0.0037854512 m 3
3 1 psia = 0.06804596 at m = 6.894757 kPa
pressure: pound per square inch absolute 1 at m = 14.69595 psia = 760 Torr = 101.3250 kPa
psia = 6894.757 kPa 1 B tu (I .T.) = 252.1644 cal th

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FIG. 23-2 (Cont’d)
References for the Table of Physical Constants

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