K.S. Thyagarajan
Introduction to Digital Signal Processing Using MATLAB with Application to Digital Communications
K.S. Thyagarajan Extension Program University of California, San Diego San Diego, CA, USA
ISBN 9783319760285
ISBN 9783319760292 (eBook)
Library of Congress Control Number: 2018935280
© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019 This work is subject to copyright. All rights are reserved by the Publisher, whether the whole or part of the material is concerned, speciﬁ cally the rights of translation, reprinting, reuse of illustrations, recitation, broadcasting, reproduction on microﬁlms or in any other physical way, and transmission or information storage and retrieval, electronic adaptation, computer software, or by similar or dissimilar methodology now known or hereafter developed. The use of general descriptive names, registered names, trademarks, service marks, etc. in this publication does not imply, even in the absence of a speciﬁ c statement, that such names are exempt from the relevant protective laws and regulations and therefore free for general use. The publisher, the authors and the editors are safe to assume that the advice and information in this book are believed to be true and accurate at the date of publication. Neither the publisher nor the authors or the editors give a warranty, express or implied, with respect to the material contained herein or for any errors or omissions that may have been made. The publisher remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional af ﬁliations.
Printed on acidfree paper
This Springer imprint is published by the registered company Springer International Publishing AG part of Springer Nature. The registered company address is: Gewerbestrasse 11, 6330 Cham, Switzerland
Preface
The ﬁ eld of digital signal processing is well matured and has found applications in most commercial as well as household items. It started in the 1960s when computers were used only in the academic institutions. Moreover, these computers were built around vacuum tubes with limited memory and slow processing power. This situa tion was not conducive to rapid advancements in digital signal processing theory. As the computer technology advanced due to the invention of microprocessors and semiconductor memories, the ﬁ eld of digital signal processing also simultaneously progressed. Today, digital signal processing is used in a myriad of ﬁ elds such as communications, medicine, forensics, imaging, and music, to name a few. It is, therefore, necessary for an aspirant to learn the basics of digital signal processing so as to be able to apply his or her knowledge in this ﬁ eld to career advancement. There are many excellent textbooks on digital signal processing in the market. This book, though, is meant to serve working professionals who are looking for online courses to complete certi ﬁ cate programs in areas such as electrical engineer ing, systems engineering, communications, and embedded systems. Since these professional engineers are timeconstrained, it is important that the textbook they are supposed to follow should be easy to understand, brief, and up to the point, and should contain the necessary supplements as aids to understanding the materials. With these factors in mind, this book is based on my online course in digital signal processing at the University of California Extension Program, San Diego. This book uses MATLAB tools to make understanding of the materials easier. In my experi ence in teaching this online course, I found that students come from different ﬁ elds, but mostly from digital communications – hardware and software. Therefore, I ﬁ nd it appropriate to include applications of digital signal processing in digital communications. The students are required to have a collegelevel math background to fully understand the topics discussed in this book. After a brief introduction to areas such as audio/speech processing, digital communications, and digital image processing, Chap. 2 starts with the discussion
v
vi
Preface
on discretetime signals and systems. It characterizes the various discretetime signals and systems in mathematical terms followed by examples to clarify the subject matter. Chapter 2 also describes the process of converting continuoustime signals to discretetime sequences. The Ztransform is introduced in Chap. 3 . Since Ztransform is very useful in both analysis and design of discretetime systems, its properties are elaborated with several examples. Next the representation of discrete time signals and systems in the frequency domain is discussed in Chap. 4 . Here, the connection between the Ztransform and discretetime Fourier transform is explained. Several examples are worked out to make the subject matter clearer. Since digital signal processing implies computational methods, Chapt. 5 introduces the concept of discrete Fourier transform. It also deals with the relationship between discretetime Fourier transform and discrete Fourier transform. Again, MATLAB based examples are included. Once the signals and systems are described in the time and frequency domains, Chap. 6 then deals with the design of in ﬁnite impulse response (IIR) digital ﬁ lters. It treats the design of IIR digital ﬁ lters based on analytical methods as well as on computerbased techniques. In addition, reallife systems are simulated using MATLAB/Simulink tool. Continuing further, Chap. 7 discusses the design of ﬁ nite impulse response (FIR) digital ﬁ lters using both the analytical and computerbased methods. Many examples are included to aid the students in understanding the
material better. It is not enough just to learn the design of IIR and FIR digital ﬁ lters.
A professional engineer must know how to implement these ﬁ lters in various real
time applications. Therefore, Chap. 8 is included, which deals with the signal ﬂ ow
graphs of digital ﬁ lters. It describes both canonical and noncanonical structures to implement IIR and FIR digital ﬁ lters. Knowing how to draw the signal ﬂow graphs
of digital ﬁ lters makes one to implement them either in software or hardware. Even
though discrete Fourier transform (DFT) is introduced in Chap. 5 , it does not deal with the ef ﬁ cient implementation of the DFTs. Chapter 9 describes ef ﬁ cient com putational methods to calculate the DFT of a sequence. It further deals with short time Fourier transform, zoom FFT, etc. So far these chapters describe discretetime signals and systems and various
design techniques. In Chap. 10 , the application of digital signal processing methods
in wireless communications in general and digital communications in particular is
discussed. The chapter deals with reducing the intersymbol interference, pulse shaping, detection of binary data using matched ﬁ lters, channel equalization, phaselocked loop, orthogonal frequency division multiplexing, and software
de ﬁned radio, all using digital signal processing. Examples based on MATLAB
are presented along with SIMULINKbased digital communications system. Codes for all MATLAB and SIMULINK. I thank Tony Babaian for giving me the opportunity to teach the online courses titled DSP I and DSP for wireless communications . My sincere thanks to Sveteslav Maric for editing the book draft. I also thank the students for their feedback on the contents of the application of DSP in wireless communications. I am indebted to
Preface
vii
Mathworks for their continued support in providing MATLAB license, which enabled me to develop this and my other books. My thanks go to Springer Publishing Company and their staff for publishing my book. I am extremely grateful to my wife Vasú, for suggesting to write this book. Without her kind and gentle encouragement, I would not have been able to even think of writing this book, let alone completing it.
San Diego, CA, USA
K.S. Thyagarajan
Contents
1 Introduction 
1 

1.1 What Is Digital Signal Processing 
1 

1.2 A Few Applications of Digital Signal Processing 
5 

1.3 A Typical Digital Signal Processing System 
10 

1.4 ContinuousTime Signals and Systems 
11 

1.5 Summary 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
19 

1.6 Problems 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
19 

References 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
19 

2 DiscreteTime Signals and Systems 
21 

2.1 Introduction 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
21 

2.2 Typical DiscreteTime Signals 
22 

2.3 DiscreteTime Systems 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
23 

2.4 Convolution Sum 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
25 

2.5 Linear Difference Equation 
30 

2.6 Sampling a ContinuousTime Signal 
39 

2.7 Conversion of ContinuousTime Signals to Digital Signals 
44 

2.8 Performance of A/D Converters 
51 

2.9 Summary 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
59 

2.10 Problems 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
62 

References 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
63 

3 ZTransform 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
65 

3.1 ZTransform De ﬁ nition . 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
65 

3.2 Properties of ZTransform 
69 

3.3 ZTransform and Difference Equation 
74 

3.4 Poles and Zeros 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
76 

3.5 Inverse ZTransform 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
77 

3.6 MATLAB Examples 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
83 
ix
x
Contents
3.7 Summary 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
101 

3.8 Problems 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
104 

References 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
105 

4 Frequency Domain Representation of DiscreteTime 

Signals and Systems 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
107 

4.1 Introduction 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
107 

4.2 DiscreteTime Fourier Transform 
110 

4.3 Inverse DiscreteTime Fourier Transform 
113 

4.4 Properties of DTFT 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
113 

4.5 Frequency Domain Representation of LTI DiscreteTime Systems 
118 

4.6 Summary 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
147 

4.7 Problems 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
148 

References 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
149 

5 Discrete Fourier Transform 
151 

5.1 Introduction 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
151 

5.2 De ﬁ nition of DFT 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
151 

5.3 Relationship Between DTFT and DFT 
152 

5.4 Inverse DFT 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
153 

5.5 Effect of Sampling the DTFT on the Reconstructed 

Sequence 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
155 

5.6 Circular Convolution 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
158 

5.7 Properties of the DFT 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
161 

5.8 Linear Convolution Using Circular Convolution 
166 

5.9 Linear Convolution of a FiniteLength Sequence with an In ﬁniteLength Sequence 
168 

5.10 Discrete Transforms 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
176 

5.11 Summary 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
184 

5.12 Problems 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
186 

References 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
187 

6 IIR Digital Filters 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
189 

6.1 Introduction 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
189 

6.2 Impulse Invariance Technique 
190 

6.3 Design of IIR Digital Filters in the Frequency Domain 
194 

6.4 Design of IIR Digital Filters Using Frequency 

Transformation 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
211 

6.5 ComputerAided Design of IIR Digital Filters 
220 

6.6 Group Delay . 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
224 

6.7 Simulation Using Simulink 
231 

6.8 Summary 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
238 

6.9 Problems 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
242 

References 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
243 
Contents
xi
7 
FIR Digital Filters 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. . 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
245 

7.1 Types of LinearPhase FIR Filters 
245 

7.2 LinearPhase FIR Filter Design 
247 

7.3 ComputerAided Design of LinearPhase FIR Filters 
276 

7.4 DiscreteTime Hilbert Transformer 
299 

7.5 Summary 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. . 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
308 

7.6 Problems . 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
310 

References 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. . 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
311 

8 
Digital Filter Structures . 
. 
. 
. 
. . 
. 
. 
. 
. . 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
313 

8.1 Signal Flow Graph 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
313 

8.2 IIR Digital Filter Structures 
315 

8.3 FIR Filter Structures 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
325 

8.4 Finite Word Length Effect 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
332 

8.5 FIR Lattice Structure 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
365 

8.6 Summary 
. 
. 
. 
. 

Molto più che documenti.
Scopri tutto ciò che Scribd ha da offrire, inclusi libri e audiolibri dei maggiori editori.
Annulla in qualsiasi momento.