APPLICATIONS
Introductory Statistics: A ProblemSolving Approach,
2e presents a wide variety of applications from diverse
disciplines. The following li st indicates the Example
and Exerci se numb ers related to different field s. Note that some items ap p ea r in more th an one c at ego r y.
EXAMPLES BY APPLICATION
Biology and Environmental Science
1.11 , 2.7, 3.2, 3.3, 3.8, 3.9, 3 .1 7, 5. 1, 5.2, 6.8, 7.4, 8.5, 9 .8, 9.15 , 9.19 , 10 .9, 10.16 , 11. 2, 11.6, 12.9, 13.1, 14 .5
Business and Management
3.5, 4.7, 4.31 , 4 .3 6, 4.39, 5 .2, 7.3, 7 .8 , 7.9, 7. 11 , 9.16 , 9.18, 11.3 , 14. 7, 14.8, 14.9
Demographics and Population Statistics
1. 2, 4.1 , 4 .31, 4. 32, 7. 1, 9.14, 12.7,
12.8
Economics and Finance
4.14 , 10 . 15,
12. 14, 14 . 1, 14 .6, 14 .8, 14 . 10
Education and Child Development
2 .3, 3.15, 4.6, 5. 11 , 6.7, 7.6
Fuel Consumption and Cars
2.13, 3. 11 , 4.20, 4.38, 8.2, 8. 11 , 10 . 10 , 12. 11 , 12 .1 3
Manufacturing and Product Development
1.1 2, 2 .10 , 2. 11 , 4.26 , 5 .2, 5.2 0 , 6.2 , 6.11 , 8.7, 8. 13, 9.3, 9.4, 9.6 , 10.3, 10.5, 12.5
Marketing and Consumer Behavior
1.1 2, 2.2, 2.3, 2.8, 3. 16, 4.4, 4.8 , 4 . 13, 4. 15, 4.17 , 4.18, 4.19 , 4.23, 4.30 , 4.34, 4.35, 5.5, 5 .14 , 5 .1 5, 5.18, 7. 1,
7.
Medicine and Clinical Studies
10 , 8. 11 , 9.14 , 10 . 13 , 11.4
1. 3,
5.7,
1. 5, 1. 8, 2 .9 , 3.6, 3. 10 , 3. 14 , 3. 19 , 4.33, 4.37, 5 .2, 5. 16 , 6.9, 6 . 10, 9. 1, 9.5 , 9.7, 9 .9, 9.17 , 10.4, 10 .8,
12.3, 12.4, 13.3, 14.4
Physical Sciences
1.4 , 5.6, 8.10, 10 .9, 11. 5
Psychology and Human Behavior
1. 5, 1.6 , 1. 8, 1.9 , 2.3, 3.6, 4.6, 7.2, 8 .8, 9 . 11 , 9.18, 10 . 1, 10.8, 10.11 , 13.2, 14 .8
Public Health and Nutrition
2. 13, 2 .14 , 4.37 , 5 .1 , 5.7, 5. 10 , 6.7, 8.1 , 8 .3, 8.4, 10 .2,
12.2, 12.7, 12.8, 12 .1 2,
10.6 , 10 . 11 , 10 . 15, 11.1 , 11. 2, 13.3, 14 .2, 14.3, 14.4
Public Policy and Political Science
1.10, 3.7, 4.2 , 4.3, 4.16, 4.25, 5.4, 5. 17, 6.3 , 7. 1, 8. 1, 9.13, 9.15
Sports and Leisure
1. 7, 2. 1, 3.2,
3.3, 3.12, 3. 18, 3 .20 , 4.10 , 4.18 , 4.2 1,
4 .22, 4.24 , 5.8, 5. 12, 5. 19 , 6.1 , 9.10, 10 .7, 12. 1,
12. 10
Technology and the Internet
4.9, 4.19 , 8.8, 9.17, 10.1
Travel and Transportation
1.1 , 2.3, 2.4, 2.5, 2.6, 2.8, 2. 12, 3.3, 3.7, 3. 13 , 3. 17,
3.18, 3.20, 4.2 , 4.3, 4.7 , 4 .27, 4 .3 8, 5.9 , 6.1 , 6.6, 7. 1, 7.7, 8.9, 9.2, 9 .12, 10 . 12 , 12.6, 13.4
EXERCISES BY APPLICATION
Biology and Environmental Science
0.7, 0.9, 1.30, 1.36, 1.41 , 1.42, 1.43, 2.7, 2.8, 2.9, 2. 12 , 2 .1 4, 2.22, 2.4 0 , 2.6 0 , 2.63, 2 .65, 2.67, 2.86, 2.92, 2.94, 2.109, 3. 14, 3. 19, 3.2 1, 3 .3 1, 3.54, 3 .55, 3.59, 3.65, 3.84, 3.8 6, 3.112, 3. 134 , 4.123, 4. 130,
4. 146, 4.15 1, 4. 164, 4. 177, 5.9, 5. 12, 5. 15,
6.47 , 6.53, 6.55 , 6.58 , 6.82 , 6.109, 7. 16 , 7.42, 7.45,
7.46, 7.48, 7.8 0 , 7.9 1, 7. 10 5, 8. 12, 8. 13, 8. 14, 8.37,
8.44 , 8.69 , 8.8 6, 8.149, 8. 157, 8. 173, 8. 177, 9.14 ,
9.15 , 9.73, 9.79 , 9.92 , 9.121, 9 .142, 9.144 , 9 .157,
9 .159 , 9.229 , 9.236 , 9.249, 9.254, 10.47, 10 .57,
5.16, 5.39 ,
10. 72,
10.74, 10. 82, 10.92, 10 . 137, 10. 154, 10. 155, 10 . 159,
10.161 , 10.168, 10.169, 11. 2 1, 11. 25, 11. 26,
11. 53, 11. 55, 11.60, 11.62, 11. 77, 11.81 , 11.9 8,
11.100 , 12. 18 , 12.22, 12.28, 12.4 9, 12 .5 6, 12.57'
12 . 146, 12. 14 7,
12 .60, 12.78, 12 .81
12. 149 , 12. 153, 12. 156, 12. 159, 12. 165, 13. 14, 13.25,
13. 70, 14 .19, 14. 2 1, 14.38, 14.63, 14. 76, 14. 114 ,
14 . 11 5,
14.145, 14 . 153
11. 52,
, 12. 10 7,
12. 11 5,
14.116 , 14 . 118 , 14.1 23, 14 . 124, 14 . 128,
INTRODUCTORY
STATISTICS
Omar Harran/Moment/Getty Images
Stephen Kokoska
Bloomsburg University
• 
w. H. FREEMAN 
• 
&COMPANY 
l
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Li brary of Preassigned Control N umber· 2014950583
Stu dent
ISBN13: 97814641 11693 IS BN I0: 1464 1 11 693
Editio n Ha rdcover (packaged wi th EE SEE, Crunch It! access card):
Student Edi tt on Looseleaf (packaged wuh EESEE1Crunchll ! access card):
ISBN 13: 978 1464 157523 ISBN10: l46H 57529
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ISBN 13: 9781464179860 ISBN I0: 1464 179867
c 2015, 20 1 1 by W. 11. F r eema n and Com p any All rights reserved
Printed in the Umted States of America
First printing
W. H. F reeman and Com p any
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www.whfrecmun.com
Chapter 0 
Why Study Statistics 
1 

An Introduction to Statistics and Statistical Inference 
9 

Tables and Graphs for Summarizing Data 
27 
Chapter 3 
Numerical Summary Measures 
73 
Chapter 4 
Probability 
123 

Random Variables and Discrete Probability Distributions 
187 

Continuous Probability Distributions 
243 

Sampling Distributions 
295 

Confidence Intervals Based on a Single Sample 
333 

Hypothesis Tests Based on a Single Sample 
391 
Chapter 10 
Confidence Intervals and Hypothesis Tests Based on Two Samples or Treatments 
461 
Chapter 11 
The Analysis of Variance 
531 
Chapter 12 
Correlation and Linear Regression 
573 
Chapter 13 
Categorical Data and Frequency Tables 
651 
Chapter 14 
Nonparametric Statistics 
681 
Optional Sections (avai lable online at www.whfreeman.com/introstats2e and
on LaunchPad):
Section 6.5 
The Normal Approximation to the Binomial Distribution 
Section 12.6 
The Polynomial and Qualitative Predictor Models 
Section 12.7 
Model Selection Procedures 
v
_{C}_{h}_{a}_{p}_{t}_{e}_{r} _{0}
Why Study Statistics
The Statistical Inference Procedure _{P}_{r}_{o}_{b}_{l}_{e}_{m} _{S}_{o}_{l}_{v}_{i}_{n}_{g}
With a Little Ilelp from Technology
Chapter 1
An
Introduction to Statistics and
_{S}_{t}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{s}_{t}_{i}_{c}_{a}_{l} _{I}_{n}_{f}_{e}_{r}_{e}_{n}_{c}_{e}
_{1}_{.}_{1} Statistics Today
_{1}_{.}_{2} Populations, Samples. Probability, ^{a}^{n}^{d} ^{S}^{t}^{a}^{t}^{i}^{s}^{t}^{i}^{c}^{s}
_{1}_{.}_{3} Experiments and Random Samples
_{C}_{h}_{a}_{p}_{t}_{e}_{r} _{2}
_{T}_{a}_{b}_{l}_{e}_{s} _{a}_{n}_{d} _{G}_{r}_{a}_{p}_{h}_{s} _{f}_{o}_{r} Summarizing Data
1
2
_{3}
_{3}
_{9}
10
^{1}^{1}
19
27
_{2}_{.}_{1} _{T}_{y}_{p}_{e}_{s} _{o}_{f} _{D}_{a}_{t}_{a} 
_{2}_{8} 
2.2 Bar Charts and Pie Charts 
33 
2.3 StemandLeaf Plots 
45 
2.4 Frequency Distributions and Histograms 
_{5}_{3} 
Chapter 3
Numerical Summary Measures
73
_{3}_{.}_{1} _{o}_{f} _{C}_{e}_{n}_{t}_{r}_{a}_{l} _{T}_{e}_{n}_{d}_{e}_{n}_{c}_{y} _{M}_{e}_{a}_{s}_{u}_{r}_{e}_{s} 
_{7}_{4} 
_{3}_{.}_{2} of Variability Measures 
_{8}_{6} 
_{3}_{.}_{3} The Empirical Rule _{a}_{n}_{d} _{M}_{e}_{a}_{s}_{u}_{r}_{e}_{s} 

of Relative Standing 
_{9}_{8} 
3.4 FiveNumber _{S}_{u}_{m}_{m}_{a}_{r}_{y} _{a}_{n}_{d} _{B}_{o}_{x} _{P}_{l}_{o}_{t}_{s} 
_{1}_{0}_{9} 
Chai:>ter 4
^{P}^{r}^{o}^{b}^{a}^{b}^{i}^{l}^{i}^{t}^{y}
123
_{C}_{h}_{a}_{p}_{t}_{e}_{r} _{6}
Continuous Probability ^{D}^{i}^{s}^{t}^{r}^{i}^{b}^{u}^{t}^{i}^{o}^{n}^{s}
^{2}^{4}^{3}
_{6}_{.}_{1} 
Probability Distributions for a Continuous Random Variable 
244 
6.2 
The Normal Distribution 256 

^{6}^{.}^{3} 
^{C}^{h}^{e}^{c}^{k}^{i}^{n}^{g} ^{t}^{h}^{e} ^{N}^{o}^{r}^{m}^{a}^{l}^{i}^{t}^{y} ^{A}^{s}^{s}^{u}^{m}^{p}^{t}^{i}^{o}^{n} 
^{2}^{7}^{2} 
_{6}_{.}_{4} 
The Exponential Distribution 282 
_{C}_{h}_{a}_{p}_{t}_{e}_{r} _{7}
Sampling Distributions
295
_{7}_{.} _{1} 
Statistics, Parameters. and Sampling 

_{D}_{i}_{s}_{t}_{r}_{i}_{b}_{u}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{s} 
_{2}_{9}_{6} 

_{7}_{.}_{2} 
The Sampling Distribution of the 

Sample Mean and the Central Limit Theorem 
304 

7.3 
The Distribution of the Sample 

Proportion 
318 
_{C}_{h}_{a}_{p}_{t}_{e}_{r} _{8}
_{C}_{o}_{n}_{f}_{i}_{d}_{e}_{n}_{c}_{e} _{I}_{n}_{t}_{e}_{r}_{v}_{a}_{l}_{s} _{B}_{a}_{s}_{e}_{d} on a Single Sample
333
_{8}_{.}_{1} 
_{P}_{o}_{i}_{n}_{t} _{E}_{s}_{t}_{i}_{m}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n} 
_{3}_{3}_{4} 
_{8}_{.}_{2} 
A Confidence Interval for a Population 

_{8}_{.}_{3} 
Mean When CT Is Known _{3}_{3}_{9} A Confidence Interval for a Population Mean When CT Is Unknown _{3}_{5}_{3} 

8.4 
A LargeSample Confidence Interval for a Population Proportion 
365 
_{8}_{.}_{5} 
A Confidence Interval for a Population Variance or Standard Deviation 
374 
4.1 Experiments, Sample Spaces, and Events 
_{1}_{2}_{4} 
4.2 An Introduction to Probability 
^{1}^{3}^{4} 
4.3 Counting Techniques 
147 
4.4 Conditional Probability 
158 
_{4}_{.}_{5} _{I}_{n}_{d}_{e}_{p}_{e}_{n}_{d}_{e}_{n}_{c}_{e} 
_{1}_{6}_{8} 
Chapter 9
Hypothesis Tests Based on a Single Sample
The Parts of a Ilypothesis Test and Choosing the Alternative Ilypothesis ^{I}^{l}^{y}^{p}^{o}^{t}^{h}^{e}^{s}^{i}^{s} ^{T}^{e}^{s}^{t} ^{E}^{r}^{r}^{o}^{r}^{s}
9.3 Hypothesis Tests Concerning a Population
9.1
^{9}^{.}^{2}
Chapter 5
Random Variables and Discrete
Probability Distributions 187 _{M}_{e}_{a}_{n} _{W}_{h}_{e}_{n} _{C}_{T} _{I}_{s} _{K}_{n}_{o}_{w}_{n}
_{5}_{.}_{1} Random Variables 
_{1}_{8}_{8} 
9.4 
p Values 

5.2 Probability Distributions for Discrete _{R}_{a}_{n}_{d}_{o}_{m} _{V}_{a}_{r}_{i}_{a}_{b}_{l}_{e}_{s} 
_{1}_{9}_{3} 
9.5 
Hypothesis Tests Mean When u Is 
Concerning a Population UnknO\\ n 

5.3 Mean. Variance. and Standard Deviation 
9.6 
LargeSample Ilypothesis Tests Concerning 

for a Discrete 
Random Variable 
_{2}_{0}_{2} 
a Population Proportion 

5.4 The Binomial 
Distribution 
_{2}_{1}_{1} 
9.7 
Hypothesis Tests Concerning a Population 

5.5 Other Discrete Distributions 
_{2}_{2}_{4} 
Variance or Standard Deviation 
391
_{3}_{9}_{2}
^{3}^{9}^{8}
_{4}_{0}_{4}
417
_{4}_{2}_{6}
438
447
vi
CONTENTS
Vii
Chapter 10 Confidence Intervals and Hypothesis Tests Based on 
Notes and Data Sources 
N1 

Two Samples or Treatments 
461 
Tables Appendix 
_{T}_{}_{1} 
L0.1
Comparing Two Population Means Using Independent Samples When
Population Vari ances Are Known 
463 
10.2 Comparing Two Population Means Using Independent Samples from Normal Populations 
474 
10.3 Paired Data 
490 
10.4 Comparing Two Population Proportions Using Large Samp les 
501 
10.5 Comparing Two Population
Varia nces
or Standard Deviations 5 13
Chapter 11
The Analysis of Variance
11.1 OneWay ANOVA
11.2 Isolating Differences
11.3 TwoWay ANOVA
Chapter 12 Correlation and Linear Regression
531
532
544
555
573
12.1 Simple Linear Regression 574
12.2 Hypothesis Tests and Correlation 
59 1 
12.3 Inferences Concerning the Mean Value 

and an Observed Value of Y for x = x* 
605 
12.4 Regression Diagnostics 6 14
624
12.5 Multiple Linear Regression
Chapter 13
Categorical Data and Frequency Tables
651
13.1 Univariate Categorical Data. GoodnessofFit Tests 652
13.2 Bivariate Categorical Data, Tests fo r Homogeneity and Jndependence _{6}_{6}_{2}
Chapter 14
Nonparametric Statistics
681
14.1 The Sign Test 
682 

14.2 The 
SignedRank Test 
690 
_{1}_{4}_{.}_{3} The RankSum Test 
_{6}_{9}_{8} 

14.4 The 
KruskalWallis Test 
_{7}_{0}_{6} 
14.5 The 
Runs Test 
7 12 
Table I 
Binomial Distribution Cumulative 

Probabi Ii ties 
_{T}_{}_{2} 

Table II 
Poisson Distribution Cumu lative 

Probabilities 
_{T}_{}_{4} 

Table Ill 
Standard Normal Distribution 

Cumulative Probabilities 
_{T}_{}_{7} 

Table 
IV 
Standard ized Norma l Scores 
T9 

Table V 
Cri tical Values 
for the 

1 Di stri bution 
_{T}_{} _{1}_{0} 

Table 
VI 
Crit ical Values 
fo r the ChiSquare 

Distribution 
T 11 

Table VII 
Critical Values for the 

F Distribution 
_{T}_{}_{1}_{3} 

Table VIII 
Critical Values for the Studentized 

Range Distribution 
T16 

Table 
IX 
Critica l Val ues fo r the 
Wilcoxon 

SignedRank Statistic 
T19 

Table 
X 
C ri tica l Val ues for the 
Wilcoxon 

RankSum Statistic 
_{T}_{}_{2}_{2} 

Table 
XI C ri tica l Values for the 
Runs Test 
_{T}_{}_{2}_{5} 

Table XII 
Greek Alphabet 
_{T}_{}_{2}_{7} 
Answers to OddNumbered Exercises 
A1 
Index 
11 
Optional Sections
(available online at www.whfreeman.com/ introstats2e and on LaunchPad ):
Section 6.5 
The Normal Approximation to the Binomial Distribution 
Section 12.6 
The Polynomial and Qual itative Predictor Models 
Section 12.7 
Model Selection Procedures 
_{1}_{4}_{.}_{6}
Spearman 's Rank Correla ti on
718
S tudents frequent ly ask me why they need to take an introductory statistics course. My answer is simple. In almost every occupation and in ordinary daily life, you will have
to make datadriven decisions, inferences, as we ll as assess risk. In addition, you must be able to translate complex problems into manageable pieces, recognize patterns, and most
important, solve problems. This text helps students develop the fundamental lifelong tool
of so lving problems and interpreting solutions in realworld
One of my goals was to make this problemsolving approach accessible and easy to
beauty of statistics
and the connections to so many other disciplines. However, it is even more important for students Lo be able Lo apply problemsolving skills to a wide range of academic and career pursuits, including business. science and technology, and education.
!11troducto1y Statistics: A ProblemSolving Approach. Second Edition, presents long
term, universal skills for students taking a one or twosemester introductorylevel statistics course. Examples include guided, explanatory Solution Trails that emphasize problemsolving techniques. Example solutions are presented in a numbered, stepby step format. The generous collection and variety of exercises provide ample opportunity for practice and review. Concepts, examples, and exercises are presented from a practical. realistic perspective. Real and rea listic data sets are current and relevant. The text uses mathematically correct notation and symbols and precise definitions to illustrate statisti cal procedures and proper communication.
the steps in basic statistical ar
apply in many situations. T certainly want students to appreciate the
terms.
This text is designed to help students fu ll y understand
guments, emphasizing the importance of assumptions in order to follow valid arguments or identify inaccurate conclusions. Most important, students will understand the process of statistical inference. A fourstep process (Claim, Experiment, Likelihood, Conclusion) is used throughout the text to present the smaller pieces of introductory statistics on which the larger, essential statistical inference puzzle is built.
NEW TO THIS EDITION
In this thoroughly updated new edition, Steve Kokoska again combines a classic ap proach to teaching statistics with contemporary examples, pedagogical features, and use of technology. He blends solid mathematics with lucid, often humorous, writing and a distinctive stepped "Solution Trail" problemsolving approach, which helps students understand the processes behind basic statistical arguments. statistical inference. and databased decision making.
LaunchPad
/11troducto1y Statistics is accompanied by its own dedicated version of W. H. Freeman's breakthrough online course space. which offers the following:
• Prebuilt Units for each chapter, curated by experienced educators, with media for each chapter organized and ready to assign or customize to suit the course.
• All online resources for the text in one location, including an interactive eBook, LearningCurve adaptive quizzing, Try It Now exercises, StatTutors, video technology manuals, statistical applets, Crunchlt! and JMP statistical software, EESEE case stud ies, and statistical videos.
• Intuitive and useful analytics, with a Gradebook that allows instructors to see how the class is progressing. for individua l students and as a whole.
• A streamlined and intuitive interface that lets instructors build an entire course in minutes.
ix
X
PREFACE
New Solution Trail Exercises
Ko koska's unique '·So lution Trai l" fra mewo rk a ppea rs in the tex t margi ns a longs ide se
by rev iewers, serves as a un ique guide for moving to the so lutio n steps wi thin the ex
a mple. To allow s tudents to put this guidance to use, exercise sets now Feature q uestions
that ask students to c reate th e ir own
lecte d ex ampl es. approaching and
Thi s fea ture, hi g hl y pra ised s olvi ng the problems before
so luti on tra ils.
New Concept Check Exercises
Stre ngthening the boo k's co nceptua l coverage, these exercises open eac h exercise set wi th
tru e/ fal se, fillinthe bl ank, and s ho rtanswe r questions
unde rsta nding of the reading and the essenti a l statistical ideas.
that he lp stude nts solid ify thei r
New Chapter 0
T his introdu ctory chapte r eases stud e nts into
the co urse a nd Kokos ka 's a pp roach. It in
c 
ludes abo ut 
a 
dozen exerc ises th at instructors ca n ass ign for the first day o f c lass, hel p ing 
s 
tud ents se ttl e 
into the co urse mo re eas il y. 
Revised Chapter Openers that include "Looking Forward/ Looking Back"
" Looking Back"
the key co ncepts to be covered w ithin the c ha pter.
recaps key concepts learned in prior c hapters. "Looking Forward" lists
New "Last Step" Exercises Based on Opening Scenarios
The c ha pte rope ning qu es tio n is p rese nted agai n as an exe rc ise a t the e nd of the chapter, to close the concept and appli ca ti on loop, as a last step. fn add it ion , th is gives instructors
the option o f making the scenarios
assign able a nd assessable.
Try It Now References
to a specific re la te d exercise in the endofc hapter se t.
With this, students can test thei r understanding of the exam p le's concepts and tec hn iques
Mos t exampl es include a refe re nce
imme di a te ly.
Approximately 40% New and Updated Exercises and Examples
Approx imatel y I 00 new exampl es and almost 800 new exercises are incl uded in this new edition.
More Statistical Technology Integration
In additi on to prese nting Excel, Mi ni tab, a nd T l o utput a nd instruct ion, th e new e d iti o n
W. H. Freeman 's a re ava ilab le free
webbased stat is ti ca l software, a nd J M P. (C runc hl t! a nd J MP packages of charge in Launch Pad.)
in co rp o r a t es sa mpl e o u tp u t sc r ee ns a nd g uid a n ce fo r b o
th C run c hit !,
FEATURES
Focus on Statistical Inference Th e ma in the me of this text is statisti cal i n fe re n ce a nd
dec is io n makin g throug h inte r pre ta ti o n of nume rical resu lts. T he process of stat is tical
in fe re nce is introdu ced in
four s te p a pproach: C la im, Ex pe rim e nt, Like lihood an d Co nc lusio n.
si m ila r, carefu lly del ineated,
a va ri e ty of contex ts, a ll usi ng a
Can the Florida Everglades be saved?
Burmese pythons have invaded the Florida Everglades and now threaten the
wildlife indi genous to the
pet> and somehow a few animals slithered into Everglades National Park. The first python was found in the Everglades in 1979, and these snakes became an officially established species 1n 2000. ^{1} The Everglades has an Ideal climate for the pythons, and the large areas of grass allow the snakes plenty of places to hide. In January 2013, the Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission started the Python Challenge The purpose of the contest was to thin the python popu· lation. wh!Ch could be tens of thousands, and help save the natural wildlife in
area It 1s likely that people w ere keeping pythons as
the Everglades. There were 800 particlpanu, with prizes for the most pythons captured and for the longest. At the end of the competition, 68 Burmese pythons had been harvested Suppose a random sample of pythons captured during the Challenge was obtained The length (in feet) of each python IS given in the following table.
_{9}_{.}_{3} 
3 .5 
5.2 
_{8}_{3} 
4.6 
111 
10.5 
3.7 
2.B 
5.9 
7.4 
14.2 
13.6 
8.3 
7.5 
5.2 
6.4 
12.0 
10.7 
4 .0 
11 . 1 
3.7 
7 .0 
12.2 
_{5}_{2} 
8 . 1 
4.2 
6.1 
_{6}_{.}_{3} 
13.2 
3 .9 
6.7 
33 
83 
10.9 
9.5 
94 
4.3 
4.6 
5.8 
4 .1 
5.2 
4.7 
5.B 
6.4 
3.8 
7.1 
4.6 
7.5 
6.0 
The tabular and graphical techniques presented In thlS chapter will be used to describe the shape, center, and spread of th IS distribution of python lengths and to identify any outliers.
PREFACE
xi
Chapter Opener Each chapter begins with a unique, realworld question, providing an interesting introduction to new concepts and an application to begin discussion. The chapter question is presented again as an exercise at the end of the chapter, to close the concept and application loop, as a last step.
.,. Looking Back
• Recall that x, ;;. and s' are the point esttmates for the paramete" µ
• Remember how 10 construct and interpret confidence 1n1erval>
• Think aboot the concept of a sampling d1stnbut1on for a sta11sllc and the process of
p, and 1,.:
standardization
~ Looking Forward
• Use the available 1nformat1on 1n a sample to make a specific decision about a populauon
parameter.
• Understand the formal dec1s1on process and learn the four·part hypothesis test procedure
• Condua formal hypothesis tests concerning the populatton paramete rs µ. , p, and " ^{1}
r
Looking Back and Looking Forward At the beginning ofalmost every chapter, "Look ing Back" includes reminders of specific concepts from ear lier chapters that will be used to develop new skills. " Looking Forward" offers the learning objectives for the chapter.
Solution Trail The Solution Trail is a structu red technique and visual aid for solving prob lems that appears in the text margins a longside selected examples. Solution Tra ils serve as guides for approaching and solving the problems before moving to the solution steps within the example. The four steps of the Solution Trail are
_{1}_{.} _{F}_{i}_{n}_{d} _{t}_{h}_{e} keyll'ords .
2. Correctly translate these words into statistics.
3. Determine the applicable concepts.
4. Develop a vision for the solution.
The keywords lead to a translation into statistics. Then, the statistics question is solved with the use of specific concepts. Finally, the keywords, translation. and concepts are all used to develop a vision for the solu tion. This method encourages students to think con ceptua lly before making calcu lati ons. Selected exercises ask students to write a formal Solution Trail.
StepbyStep Solutions The solutions to selected examples are presented in logical, systematic steps. Each line in a calculation is explai ned so that the reader can clearly fol low each step in a solution.
xii
PREFACE
Technology Solutions Whereve r possible, a tech no logy so lutio n us ing C runc hll L J MP, the T I84 , M initab, or Exce l is presented at the end of each text exampl e. T hi s a llows s tude nts lo fo cus on concepts a nd inte rpre ta tio n.
Th e de tails p rovided in th ese sec tio ns offer straightfo rward exp la
na ti o ns of va 1io u s d e finiti o n s a nd co n cep ts. Th e i tem ized s pe c i fic s , i ncluding h ints, tips. a nd re minders. make it easier for the reader lo comprehend and learn important stat istica l ideas.
A Closer Look
Theory
Symbols More
ad vanced mate rial, w hic h may be fo und in "A Closer Look" and regular ex
appropria te,
is o ffset with a blue tri
angle. This material can be skipped by the typical reade r. but provides mo re
to
vari ous
co mple te
position as
expla natio ns
topics.
How to Construct a Standard Box Plot
GiH!n a
,cl
of n
obscrv::nioru.
.t _{1} •.t _{1} •
• .c.
1. Find the fivenumber summnry x"u"· Q,. i. Q _{3}
.
.\ _{1}_{1}_{1}_{1} ,.
2 . Draw u (hori zo ntn l ) mcmmrc mc nt nxis. Ca refully sketc h u box with edges nt the q uar
utes: ten edge 31 Q _{1} • ngln edg.: 31Q _{1} .11l1e heigh1 of1he bo' i> zrrele\ant l
3. Ora\\ a vcnic.11 lmc in the bo\ al lht: mecJinn.
4 . Dra" a hon1ontn l tme (whisker) from the ten edge of lhe lx" 10 the minimum \Jlue
(from Q _{1} tox"'
ma.:\imum va l ue (fmm Q1 to.t,_,}
). Drawn hon7onl nl l mc (wh isker) fro m the right edge of 1he box to the
Definition/Formula Boxes Defi nition s a nd fo rmul as a re c learly marked and outlined w ith clean, crisp colorcoded li nes .
How To Boxes Th is feature prov ides c lea r s tep s fo r co n 
o r pe rform ing
How To boxes are colorcoded and easy to lo cale with in
each chapte r.
essential ca lculations.
structing bas ic g raphs
PREFACE
xiii
Technology Corner This feature, at the end of most sec tions, presents stepbystep instructions for using Crunch It!, the Tl84, Minitab. and Excel to solve the examples presented in that section. Keystrokes. menu items, specific functions, and screen illustrations are presented.
ITechnology Corner
Procedure: Compu1c 1ht: "1mplc mean, ~pie med ian_ a rnmmcd rnt:2n. and 1hc roodc.
Reconsider: l umr!C' J .!, ~olutaon. 11nJ m1~1 1on11
Flgunt l .9
bi
I
Helpful Icons
CUBETIME
STATISTICAL APPLET
MEAN AND MEDIAN
~ STEPPED TUTORIAL
~ BOX PLOTS
VIDEO TECH MANUA LS
SAMPLING FROM
ADATA SET
Data Set icons indicate when a data set is available on line. and also the name of the data set.
Statistical Applet icons indicate statistical applets that are available in LaunchPad .
Stepped Tutorial icons indicate
detailed tutorials for specific calcu lations.
Video Tech Manual icons indi cate video instructions for solving certain kinds of problems using sta tistical soflware.
Solution Trail icons within the exercise sets in dicate the opportunity for students to create their own Solution Trails.
Grouped Exercises Kokoska offers a wide variety of interesting, engaging exercises on relevant topics. based on current data, at the end of each section and chapter. These problem pro' ide plenty of opportunity for practice, review, and application of concepts. Answers to oddnumbered section and chapter exercises are given at the back of the book. Exercises are grouped according to:
concept Chedc 

2.73 True/False 
A h"l"l!rtllll can be ui.cd to descnbc the 

r 2.74 lrnpc.!. center, Jnt.I vJr1Ubili1y ofu t11.,1ribution. Shon Answer 

a. When " • dcn•ot} h1"ogmm appmpnatc"! 

b. In u dcn.,lly h1,1ogrnm. '"h•ll 1s the sum ofnrea~ of all 

basic concepts presented in the section. 

2.75 Fiii in the Blank 

a. The! mo 
1 c.:ommon unimodal t.ltstnbuuon tlii n 

b . A ummnJal J1.,lnhu11on 1\ \Cr1n.:al line of ~ymmctry 
1fthcrc 1s 3 

c Ir a um!lll~I J1.1nbu1u,ln" no1 'ymmc1nc. then u 1' 
Practice Basic, introductory problems to familiar ize students with the concepts and solu tion methods.
Concept Check True/ False, FillintheBlank, and Short
Answer exercises designed to reinforce the
Practice
2.n
Consider the data pl\·cn an the foll°"'"~ !able .
van
87 
HI 
86 
'IC) 
HR 
t(5 
7'1 
'II 
87 
82 
'II 
H6 
87 
HM 
HS 
Q2 
85 
X7 
86 

91 
_{S}_{I} 
8'1 
X'I 
X3 
'IO 
83 
HO 
'10 
RO 
89 
85 
86 
'10 
'10 
8'1 
:'H 
'I) 
83 
'12 
ummanl'C
11>mg the c1.,,, ant<rval' 7H MO. HO 82 , 82 N4 • ••
Con~truct a frequi:ni;y J1
1nbu11on
to
th~ dua
2.78 Cons1Jcr the t.lata ~1\cn on 1hc text \\.Cb ue . t'on,truc:t a
frequency d1stnbu11on 10 summanl'c thc:i.c d;.un
DCl71
xiv
PREFACE
CHALLENGE
2 .107 Sports a nd U!isu r@
An ugn
,.
ur,
11,,,uf1J1nc rl'l'111u•
/~411wrn po/1.,.,m. tit. another type ot '11r,ual repn:sentation of a
frequency J1,tnbutton To con
1ruct
an np:1\C
• Plot c.tch ru1n1 (upper endp.11nt of da
'.,
mien.ti, cumulall\C
rcl.ill\e frequency)
• l ·c.mna.:l the pomb \\ nh line ~gmcnh
f ·~urc> 2.52 nnd 2.53 ;ho" J frcqucnc) d1smhu11on and the com:spdn!Jmg O~l\.C. n1c ob\Cr"\at1nn' an: 1.1g~'l.The value' to
be U\Cd m 1hc p1m nrc "'hown m hold 111 1hc mblc
( 
umu111h e 

_{R}_{r} _{l}_{a}_{l}_{h}_{t} 
rTl11he 
_{1}_{2} 
_{1}_{6} 
IUIK 
0.08 

1!> 10 
10 
o.tn 
O. lft 

20 24 
_{2}_{0} 
0211 
0.38 

N 
28 
JO 
cuo 
0 .68 
_{l}_{N} 
_{l}_{2} 
_{1}_{5} 
0 .8.l 

l2 36 
10 
0.10 
0.93 

.1210 
ll.07 
t.00 
fo1~i
llMJ
J.IMJ
Figu re 2 . 52 Frequency d•strobutK>I'
10
~
_{j}
0.8
~ 06
i
_{~}
_{i}
<.>
0.4
02
Ace
Fi gu re 2 . 5 3
R"' 1ltm9 <>gf\le
A random '3.ItlJ\IC of g:unc \Core~ lnlm Abb) Sl:1u1u·, C\C"mng
lWhn~ Jl"r ~l\.CRon lhc IC\l
b
league \\llh
S1s1cr
Ro~ 1tn Y.J\ obt.iincd. and the da t u
\\dhl h:
IOWUN<"
a. Cons1ruc1 a frequency cJ1111itnbuuon for 1h1:'C darn
b. Dr'"' 1he re>uhmg ll!!" e for tli<.,., Jau
Applications
Rea listi c, appea lin g exercises to bui ld confide nce a nd prom ote ro uti ne under stand ing. Many exerc ises a re based on interes ting a nd ca refu lly resea rc he d da ta.
Extended Applications
A ppli ed proble m s th at re quire extra care and tho ug ht.
Challenge
Additi o na l exe rc ises a nd tec hn ology proj ec ts tha t a llow stu dent s to di scove r m ore ad va nced co ncepts a nd co nn ectio ns .
Last Step
Each set of c hapte r exercises concludes with the "Last Step." This exercise is connected to the
c hapteropening question and
the solu tio n invo lves the ski lls
a 
nd concepts presented in the 
c 
hapter. 
LAST STEP
2 .109 Cun 1he f londa bl:IJ!ladc> be •<ncd ^{1} In Janu:iry
201:1. 1he r>uml.o I ,,hand\\ 1fJhfc <""""'
u"n
Comm'"'"" .i.ancJ the l')thon ( halkn~c The P"'l""" <•flhc
contcSl \\J'S hJ thin 1hc: py1hon populalmn ~h1ch could Ix h:mi,
of1hllu.anJ.,, and help '3\e the na1ural w1ldhfc m the [\\r· gfndc< At 1hc end ul !he «•mpc1111on. 6K Dunne«~ 1hun' haJ
~'CO h~1nc:itcJ ~Uf'lpll"«!a random ~mptc ot p~1hon~C•tplun!tl
during the t hailcngc ""' <'hla1ncd and !he length (In feel) of
cuch 1' g1\.c:n in the tulh.Y\1. mg table:
PYTHON
•u
74
_{I}_{I} _{I}
3.9
5.2 
KJ 
H• 
fl 
I 
_{I}_{l}_{l}_{'} 
37 
2.K 

_{1}_{4} _{2} 
lib 
KJ 
75' 
5.2 
h.4 
12.U 
fl) 7 
40 

3.7 
111 
_{1}_{2}_{}_{2} 
51 
X.I 
42 
hi 
l>J 
ll 2 

l>.7 
3 
l 
Kl 
f09 
9.5 
Q4 
43 
4h 
5.S 
_{4} _{I}
_{H}
. c.·,m, truc.:t a l~ucm
''
4 .7
a ;
hA
_{H}
7 f
4h
75
tJ1,1nbu11011. '\h:m•.uu.l·kat plut .
nnd hlMCJi.!l'illll for 1hcsc tlato
b.O
b .
1,.,.
the"" tabular and graph1Caf tc"<:hn1quc.,, 10 Je,<nhe the
,h,1pc. center, .ind ~prcmJ uf&111 d1,tr1huuvn .1tnJ "' 1t.lcru1ly un~ outlymp, '·alucs.
SUMMARY
Concept 
Page 
Notat ion I Formula I Description 

C11cgoricnl da1a >el r.umcncnl data :.e1 
29 
Con>1'1> of nb!>Cn•li1on' 1hn1 ma) be placed m10 ca1c~oric' 

29 
Consists of obo;cr\.·auon., thnt ore numbers 

D1«rc1c dnta 
:1 
JI) 
The set of all r<""ble "'iuc',. tinnc. or counwhi> inlinnc. 

Conllnunus dala sci 
lll 
The set of all 
r<"'thle \Jluc' "an m1cn·al nf number. 

Fn.'<!llCO'] dislnbution 
B 
A 1abk ucJ 10 dc•<nhe a d.113 .:I 11 mdude> 
1he cia" , frcqucnl'). and rcfati\e 

fiatucncy (and cumu lall\C rclall« frcqucnq. 1f the d.11.t llCI "numencal). 

tla" frcqu<nc') Ua" rdatl\C frequency 
33 
The number of ub\~f\:Jlmn'\\.llhin a cla 

33 
The P"'I'<'"'"" of ob<cnauon> "nhm a cm , 
cf.,,, frequent} dMdcd by totnl 

numher of ob 
Chapter Summary A ta ble at
the e nd o f eac h c ha p te r
of the m a in co nce pts w ith
brief desc ri ptions, p roper no ta tio n, and applicable formu las,
p rO\ id es
a li st
a long 
with page 
numbers 
fo r 
qu ick 
re fe rence. 
USUnchPod
W. H. Freeman's new online homework system, Laun c hPad, offers our qua l ity content
curated and organized for easy assignability in a simple but powerful interface. We've
taken what we've learned from thousands of instructors and hundreds of thousands of students to create a new generation ofW. H. Freeman/Macmillan technology.
Curated Units. Combining a curated collection of videos, homework sets. tuto ri a ls, ap plets, and eBook content, LaunchPad's interactive units give instructors building blocks to use as is or as a starting point for their own learning units. Thousands of exercises from the text can be assigned as online homework, including many algorithmic exercises. An entire unit's worth of work can be assigned in seconds, drastically reducing the amount of time it takes to have a course up and running.
Easily customizable. Instructors can customize the LaunchPad Units by adding quizzes and other activities from our vast collection of resources. They can also add a discussion board, a dropbox, and RSS feed, with a few clicks. LaunchPad allows instructors to cus tomize their students' experience as much or as little as they like.
Useful a nalytics . The Gradebook quickly and easily allows instructors to look up perfor mance metrics for classes. individual students, and individual assignments.
Intuitive int erface and design . The
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Assets integrated into LaunchPad include:
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~ L'earningCurve provides students and instructors with powerful adap tive quizzing, a gamelike format. direct links to the eBook. and instant feedback. The quizzing system features questions tailored specifically to the text and adapts to students' responses, providing material at different difficulty levels and topics based on student performance.
~ lutionMasteroffers an easytouse webbased version of the instructor's solutions, allowing instructors to generate a solution file for any set of homework exercises.
New Ste pped Tutorials are centered on a lgorithmically generated quizzing with step bystep feedback to help students work their way toward the correct solution. These new exercise tutorials (two to three per chapter) are easily assignable and assessable. Icons in the textbook indicate when a Stepped Tutorial is available for the material being covered.
xv
XVi
PREFACE
Statistical Video Series consists ofStatClips, StatClips Examples, and Statistically Speak ing "'Snapshots." View animaced lecture videos, whiteboard lessons, and documentarystyle footage that illustrate key statistical concepts and help students\ isualize statistics in real world scenarios.
New Video Technology Manuals available forTl83 /84 ca lcu lators, Minitab, Excel, JMP, SPSS. R. Rcmdr. and CrunchJT! provide brief instructions for using specific statistica l software.
Updated StatTutor Tutorials offer mu ltimedia tutorials that explore im portant concepts and procedures in a presentation that combines video, audio, and interactive features. The newly revised format includes builtin, assignable assessments and a bright new interface.
Updated Statistical Applets give students handson opportun ities to familiarize them se lves with important statistica l concepts and procedures, in an interactive setting that
graph ically. These new applets
now incl ude a "Quiz Me" function that allows them to be both assignable and assess able. Icons in the textbook indica te when an applet is ava ilable for the materia l being covered.
a llows them to manipu late va riables and see the results
Crunchlt! is a webbased statistical program that allows users to perform all the statistical operations and graphing needed for an introductory statistics course and more. It saves users time by automatically loading data from the text, and it provides the flexibility to edit and import additional data.
J!Jlf) JMP Student Edition (developed by SAS) is easy to learn and contains all the capabi lities required for introductory statistics. including preloaded data sets from /11
troduc101:1• Statistics: A Prob/emSolvi11g Approach. JMP is the commercial data analysis
software of choice for scientists, engineers, and analysts at companies around the globe (for Windows and Mac).
~
Stats@Work Simulations put students in the role of the statistical consultant. helping them better understand statistics interactively within the context of reallife scenarios.
EESEE Case Studies (Electronic Encyclopedia of Statistical Examples and Exercises), developed by The Ohio State University Statistics Department, teach students to apply their statistica l ski lls by explori ng actua l case studies using real data.
Data files are ava ilable in ASCH, Excel, T l, Minitab, SPSS (an IBM Company),* and JM P formats.
Student Solutions Manual provides solutions to the oddnumbered exercises in the text. Avai lable electronically within LaunehPad as well as in print form.
Interactive Table Reader allows students to use statistical tables interactively to seek the information they need.
Instructor's Solutions Manual contains full solutions to all exercises from ln1roduc101:v Statistics: A ProblemSolving Approach. Avai lable e lectronically wi thi n Launch Pad.
Test Bank offers hundreds of multiplechoice questions. Also ava ilable on CDROM (for Windows and Mac), where questions can be downloaded, edi ted, and resequenced to suit each instructor's needs.
•sPSS was acquired by IB M in October 2009.
PREFACE
XVli
Lecture PowerPoint Slides offer a detailed lecture presentation of statistical concepts
covered in each chapter of /11trod11c101:r Statistics: A ProblemSoldng Approach.
Additional Resources Available with Introductory Statistics: A ProblemSolving Approach
Companion Website www.whfreeman.com/introstats2e This openaccess website in
cludes statistical applets. data files, and selfquizzes. The website also ofTers three option al sections CO\'cring the norma l approx imation to the binomia l distribution (Sect ion 6.5), polynomial and qualitative predictor models (Section 12.6), and model selection proce dures (Section 12.7). Instructor access to the Companion Website requires user registra tion as an instructor and features all of the openaccess student web materials, plus:
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• Powe rPoint Slides containing all textbook figures
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and tables.
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! would like to thank the fo llowing colleagues who offered specific comments and sug gestions on the secondedition manuscript throughout various stages of development:
Jonathan Baker, Ohio Stale University Andrea Boi to. Penn Swte Altoona Alexandra Challiou, Notre Dame ofMlllyland University Carolyn K. Cuff, Westminster College Greg Davis, l.mi1•ersity of IVisconsin Green Bay Richard Gonzalez, Unil·ersity of Michigan Justin Grieves. Murray State Unil•ersity Christian Hansen, Eastern lflashi11gton Unil'ersity
Christopher IlayJahans, U11il•ersity ofAla:>ka Southeast Susan Herring, Sonoma State University Chester Ismay. Ari=o11a State University Ananda Jayawardhana, Pitt State Uni1•ersity
Phi ll ip
Kenda ll , \,/ic/1igan Tecl111ological Unil'ersi(1 1
Bashir Khan. St. Mwy ~·University
Barbara Kisi le\ sky, Queens Universi(1•
Tammi Kostos, \kl fen1:1 1 Co1111ty College Adam Lazowski. Sacred Heart Unil>ersity Jiexiang Li. College ofClwrleston Edgard Maboudou, Uni1•ersi~1·of Central Florida
Tina Mancuso. Sage College
Scott McClintock. 11est Chester University Jackie Miller. Un11•ersity <?f'vfichigan Daniel Ostrov. Santa Clara U11iversity William Radulovich, Florida State College at Jackso1ll'ille Enayetur Raheem. Uni1•ersi~roj Wisco11sin  Green Bay Daniel Rothe, Alpena Community College James Stamey, Baylor Unil'ersity Sunny Wang, St. Francis Xa1•ier Unil'ersity Derek Webb, Bemidji State U11i11ersity Daniel Weiner. Boston U11il'(!rsity Ma rk Werner, Unil•ersily of Ge01gia
Nancy Wyshi nski, Trini(1' College
A special thanks to Ruth Baruth, Terri Ward. Karen Carson. Cara LeClair, Lisa Kinne, Tracey Kuehn. Ju lia DeRosa, Vicki Tomase ll i, Robin Fadool, Marie Dripchak. Liam Ferguson. Catriona Kaplan, Laura Judge. and Victoria Garvey of W. 11. Freeman and Company. Designer Jerry Wilke and illustrator Cambraia Fernandez, led by Vicki Tomaselli. of fered the creati\:ity. expertise. and hard work that went into the design of this new edition. I am very grateful to Jackie Miller for her insights. suggestions. and editorial talent throughout the production of the second edition. She is doggedly accurate in her accuracy reviews and page proof examination. Thanks to Dennis Free of Aptara for his patience and typesetting expertise. Much appreciated are the copy editing skills brought to the project by Lynne Lackenbach; her time and perseverance helped to add cohesion and continuity to the fl ow of the material. Many thanks to Aaron Bogan for bringing his
xviii
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
xix
attention to detail and knowledge of statistics to the accuracy review of the solutions manuals. And I could not have completed this project without Karen Carson and Leslie Lahr. Both have superb editing skills, a keen eye for style, a knack for eliciting the best from an author, and unwavering support. My sincere thanks go to the authors and reviewers of the supplementary materials
available with /11trod11cto1y Staristics: A ProblemSo/PingApproach, Second Edition; their
hard work, expertise, and creativity have culminated in a top notch package of resources:
Tes t Bank written by Julie C lark, Ho ll ins University
Test Bank and iClicker s lides accuracy reviewed by John Samons, Florida State College at Jacksonville
Practice Quizzes written by James Stamey, Baylor University
Practice Quizzes accuracy reviewed by Laurel Chiappetta, University of Pittsburgh
iClicker
Lecture PowerPoints created by Susan Herring, Sonoma State University
I am very grateful to the entire Antoniewicz family for providing the foundation for a wide va riety of problems, including those that involve nephelometric turbidity units, floor slip testers, and crazy crawler fishing lures. I continue to learn a great deal wi th every day of writing. I believe this kind of exposi tion has made me a better teacher. To Joan, thank you for your patience, understanding, inspiration, and tasty treats.
s lides created by Paul Baker, Catawba College
Credit Eric Foster
S teve received his undergraduate degree from Boston College and his M.S. and Ph.D. from the University of New Hampshire. His initial re
search interests included the statistical analysis of cancer chemoprevention experiments. He has published a number of research papers in mathematics
journals, including Biometrics, Anticancer Research. and Computer Methods
and Programs in Biomedicine; presented results at national conferences; and written several books. He has been awarded grants from the National Sci ence Foundation, the Center for Rural Pennsylvania, and the Ben Franklin Program. Steve is a longtime consultant for the College Board and conducted workshops in Brazil, the Dominican Republic. and China. He was the AP Calculus Chief Reader for four years and has been involved with calculus refom1 and the use of technology in the classroom. He has been teaching at Bloomsburg University for 25 years and recently served as Director of the Honors Program. Steve has been teaching introductory statistics classes throughout his aca demic career, and there is no doubt that this is his favorite course. This class (and text) provides students with basic, lifelong, quantitative skills that they will use in a lmost any job and teaches them how to think and reason logically. Steve believes very strongly in datadriven decisions and conceptual under standing through problem solving. Steve's uncle, Fr. Stanley Bezuszka. a Jesuit and professor at Boston Col lege, was one of the original architects of the socalled new math in the 1950s and 1960s. He had a huge influence on Steve's career. Steve helped Fr. B. with test accuracy checks, as a teaching assistant, and even writing projects through high school and college. Steve learned about the precision, order, and elegance ofmathematies and developed an unbounded enthusiasm to teach.
xx
INTRODUCTORY
STATISTICS
concludes it could not be a coincidence . This is a very natural , intuitive conclu  sion, and it is the essence of statistical inference. Erin observed an occurrence that was so rare and extraordinary that she instinctively concluded it could not be due to pure chance or luck. There had to be another reason. Her logic was correct: The unusually high incidence of cancer in Hinkley suggested that some th ing abnormal was happening . Indeed, PG&E had dumped water contaminated with the chemical chromium 6 into unlined storage pools. The polluted water seeped into the groundwater and eventually into local wells, and many people became ill with various medical problems. We all have this same natural instinctive reaction when we see something that is extraordinary. Sometimes we think, "Wow, that's incredibly lucky. " More often we question the observed outcomes, "There must be some other explanation." This natural reaction is the foundation of statistical inference. We make these kinds of decisions every single day. We gather evidence, we make an observa tion , and we conclude that the outcome is either reasonable or extraordinary. The purpose of statistics is simply to quantify this typical, everyday, deductive
2
CHAPTERO
WhyStudyStatist1cs
Here is another example of an extraordinary event involving a daily lottery number. The 1980 Pennsylvania Lottery scandal, or the Triple Six Fix, involved a threedigit daily lot tery number. Nick Perry was the announcer for the Daily Number and the plan's architect. With the help of partners. Nick was able to weight all of the balls except for the ones numbered 4 and 6. This meant that the winning threedigit lottery number would be a combination of 4s and 6s. There were thus only eight possible winning lottery numbers, 444, 446, 464, 466, 644, 646, 664, and 666, and the conspirators were certain that the plan would work. The winning number on the day of the fix was 666. Ignoring the connection to the Book ofRevelations, lottery officials discovered that there were very unusual betting pat terns that day, all on the eight possible lottery numbers involving 4 and 6. This extraordi nary occurrence suggested that the unusual bets were not due to pure chance. This conclusion. along with an anonymous tip, helped in a grand jury investigation leading to convictions and jail time for several men.
The Statistical Inference Procedure
The crucia l prevailing theme in this text is statistical inference and decision making throu gh problem solving. Computation is important and is shown throughout the text. However, calculators and computers remove the drudgery of ha nd ca lcu lati ons and allow us to concentrate more on interpretation and drawing conclusions. Most problems in this text contain a part asking the reader to interpret the numerical result or to draw a conclusion. The process of questioning a rare occurrence or c laim can be described in four steps.
Claim: This is U1e status quo, the ordinary, typical, and reasonable course of events what we assume to be true. Experiment: To check a claim, we conduct a relevant experiment or make an appropriate observation.
likelihood of occurrence of the observed experimental
outcome, assuming the claim is true. We wi ll use many techniques to determine whether the experimenta l outcome is a reasonable observation (subject to some vari  ability). or whether it is an exceptionally rare occurrence. We need to consider ca re fully and quantify our natural reaction to the relevant experiment. Using probabiliry rules and concepts, we will convert our natural reaction to an experimenta l outcome into a precise measurement. Conclusion: There are always only two possible conclusions. 1. If the outcome is reasonable, then we cannot doubt the original claim. The natural co nclusion is that nothing out of the ordinary is occurring. More formally, there is no evidence to suggest that the claim is false. 2 . If the experimental outcome is rare or extraordinary, we usually disregard the lucky alternative, and we think something is wrong. A rare outcome is a contradiction. Strange occurrences naturally make us question a claim. In this case we believe there is evidence to suggest that the claim is false.
Likelihood : I !ere we consider the
Let's try to app ly these four steps to the PG&E case in Erin Brokovich. The claim or status quo is that the cancer incidence rate in Hinkley is equivalent to the national incidence rate. Recent figures from the American Cancer Society suggest that the can cer incidence rate is approximately 55 1 in 100,000 fo r men and 419 in I 00,000 for women. ^{1} The expe1iment or observed outcome is the cancer incidence rate for the population living in Hinkley. In the movie, it is implied that Erin counts the number of people in Hinkley who have developed cancer.
With a Little Hel p from Tech no logy
3
Erin determines tha t the like li hood o r proba bility. Hinkley w ho have developed cance r is extre me ly low. we s hould not see tha t many peo p le w ith canc er in this
of o bse rv ing Subjec t to location.
tha t m a ny peop le in
reasonab le varia bility,
The conclusion is that this rare event is not due to pure c hance or luck . There is some
rare o bservation. The impl icatio n in the mov ie is th at the re is evi
oth er reason fo r thi s
den ce to s uggest that so me thing e lse is afTectin g the health of the people in H inkley.
Problem Solving
KEYWORDS
Nonnally distributed
Mean
Standard deviation
TRANSLATION
Nonna( random variable
µ. =
<T =
34
0.5
CONCEPTS
Nonnal probability distribution
Standardization
VISION
Define a nonnal random variable and translate each question into a probability statement. Standardize and use cumulative probability associated with Z if necessary.
Perhaps one of the mos t difficult so lve problems: thinking about
whic h rules and techniques to us e. One reason many students co nsider statis tics a diffic ult
conce pts to te ac h is prob lem solving. We a ll stru ggle to w here to beg in , what ass umptions we can make, and
course is because be transla ted into
almost every problem is a word proble m. These word problems have to mathema tics.
in thi s text is a presc ripti ve tec hn ique and vis ua l ai d for pro ble m
word proble m, start by identi fyi ng the keywords and phrases. Here
steps identified in ea ch So luti o n T rail fo r solving many of probl em s in thi s tex t.
Th e Solution Trai l
solving. To decipher a
a rc th e four
1. Find the keyll'ords.
2. Correctly trans late these wo rds in statistics.
3. Determine the applicable concepts.
4. Develop a vision. o r strategy, for the soluti on.
have a corres po nding So lut io n Tra il in the of a Solution T rail appea rs in th e ma rg in .
Note that many of th ese te nn s and symbol s may be unfamil iar to you a t this po int. Ri g ht
now, just focus o n the idea that the Solution Tria l involves keywords, a translation, con cepts, and a vision.
The keywo rd s in the proble m lead to a tran s lation into statistics. Th e stat istics q uestio n is th en so lve d by us ing th e a ppro pri ate, specific conce pts. The keywo rds . trans la t io n, a nd concepts are used to develop a g ra nd vision for so lving the problem. This solution technique is n ot a pp lica ble to every pro blem , bu t it is m ost a ppropriate
fo r findi ng probabilities through hypothes is tes ting, whic h is the
duc to ry sta tistics cou rses. Some exe rc ises
So lu tio n T ra il fo rma ll y. A s yo u beco me a ccus to med to usi ng thi s so lutio n s ty le, it w ill
become routine, natural. a nd he lpful.
Many o f the examp les ma rgin to a id in problem
presented in this text so lv ing. An exa mpl e
fou ndat io n of most intro to w rite eac h s te p in the
in th is text ask yo u
With a Little Help from Technology
A 
lthough it 
is important to kn ow 
and 
unde rs ta nd unde rlying formulas, the ir derivat ions, 
a nd how to a ppl y them , we w ill 
use 
and presen t severa l d iffe rent tec hno logy too ls to 
supp le me nt
actua l nume ri c al ca lc ul a tio ns. Four comm on techno logy too ls ar e presented in th is text.
1. Crun chlt! is ava ilable in La un ch Pa d, th e pub lis he r's o n lin e homework syste m . a nd is
a spread
s heet wi th pulldow n me nus a t the top. You ca n e nter da ta in co lumns , Va r I , Var2, e tc .,
focu s s ho uld be o n the inte rp re ta tio n of results, no t the
p roble m so lving. Yo ur
accessed unde r the Reso urces tab. T he op en ing sc ree n (Figure 0. 1) loo ks li ke
impo rt data fro m a
tile, a nd export a nd save data.
Most Stat is tics, Gra phics, a nd Dis tributio n C a lc ula tor fun c ti o ns s tart with input
input scree n fo r a graph .2
sc ree ns . O utput is di s played in a new scree n. Figure 0.2 s hows the bar cha rt with s ummari zed data , and Fig ure 0 .3 s hows th e resulting
4
CHAPTER 0
Why Study Stat1st1cs
01lnchlt
2
3
5
6
7
B
vari
var3
Yar4
Fi gure
0.1 Crunchltl opening screen.
Figure 0.2 Bar chart input screen.
_{}
Figure 0.3 Crunchlt! bar chart.
2. The Texas lnstrum ents T l 84 Plus C graphi ng calculator incl udes many common statistical feat ures such as confidence intervals, hypothesis tests, and probability distri bution functions. Data are e nt ered and edi ted in the stat list ed itor as shown in Fig ure 0.4. Figure 0.5 shows lhe res ulls from a onesample t test, and Figure 0.6 shows a visualization of this hypothesis test.
Figure 0 .4 The stat list editor.
With a Little Help from Technology
S
0
HOR11RL
r!X~ AUTO
URL
ilKm
µ;o!] . 0000 t=l. 7723 p=. 1040 x=9 .2000 Sx=4. 3000 n=12. 0000
RRDIAH t1P
Figure 0.5 Onesample ttest output
HDRt1RL
FIX~ AUTO
REAL RRDIRH
t1P
0
Figure 0.6 Onesample ttest visua liza tion .
3. Min itab is
a powerful so ftware tool for analyzing data . It has a logical interface,
including a worksheet screen similar to a common spreadsheet. Data, graph, and sta
ti stics tool s ca n be accessed through pulldown menus, and most commands can also
be 
entered in 
a sess ion 
window. Figure 0. 7 s hows a bar chart of the number of Ro lex 
24 
s ports car 
race wins by automobile manufacturer. 
4. Exce l 20 13 includes many co mmon chart features accessible under the Inse rt tab. There are also probabilit y distribution function s that allow the user to build tem plates for confidence interval s, hypothesis tests, and other statistical procedures. The Data Analysis tool pack provides additional statistical function s. Figure 0.8 shows so me de sc riptive statistics associated with the ages of I00 stock brokers at a New York City firm.
4, «lwtt of M.111111.u.tmrr

~
Rol•x 24 Wins
_{}
Manufacturer
Figure 0.7 Minitab bar chart
0
Age
E
Mean 
42.nOO 
Standard Error 
0.6S43 
Median 
43 
Mode 
45 
Standard Deviation 6.S426 Sample Variance 42.8052
l(urtosis 
0.5767 
Skewness 
0.1419 
Range 
28 
Minimum 
29 
Maximum 
57 
Sum 
4277 
Count 
100 
Figure 0.8 Excel
descriptive stat1st1cs.
by scie ntists, engineers. and
others who want to explore or mine data. Various statistical tools and dynamic graphics are available, and this software features a friendly interactive interface. Figure 0.9 shows a scatter plot of the price of u ed Honda Accords vers us the age of the vehicle, the lea t squares regression line, and confidence bands for the true mean price for each age. Many other technology tools and statistical so ftware packages are also available. For
example, R is free
stati stica l so ftware, SPSS is used primari ly in the social sc iences, and
SAS incorporates a proprietary programming language. Regardless of your technology choice, remember that careful and thorough interpretation of the results is an essential
part of using soflware properly.
In addition to these tool s, JMP statistical softwa re is used
6
CHAPTER 0
Why Study Statistics
Figure 0.9 JMP scatter plot, regression line, and confidence bands.
0.1 
Nam e 
th e 
four parts o f every stati s ti cal in ference probl em . 
th e SEC be lieved Go rdo n and Bud m ay have had ins ide in form ation or ma nipulated the price o f certa in stocks? 
0.2 
A ppl y 
the 
fo ur statisti ca l infere nce s teps to th e Triple 
Six Fix.
0 .3
Nam e
th e four parts o f the
Solutio n Tra il.
0.4 T he Ca nary Pa rry rece n tly
cam pa ign to highl ight wome n who have been affected by
Me rck's human pa p illomavi r us ( I IPV) vaccine, Gardasi l. ^{3} As of November 20 13, a re port sta tes th a t the re have bee n 3 1.741
adve rse eve nts, I0,849 hospitali za ti o ns, and 144 dea ths
began the Not a Coincidence
d ue to th a t
11 P V 
vacci n es. Ex pl ai n w hy T h e Ca n ary 
Pa r ty be li eves 
th ere 
must be someth ing w ro ng w ith th e 
vacc ine. 
0 .5
knee inj ur y whil e o n
cruc ia te liga ment (ACL) in hi s le ft k nee in 20 12. Rose was
th e firs t pl aye r to su rfer a n AC L tear sin ce Dan ny Ma nn ing in
IL h a d bee n ve r y
rare fo r a n N BA p laye r to s u ffer a m aj o r the co urt. Derrick Rose to re an anterio r
1995 and Be rn a rd Kin g in 1985. Since the inju ry to Derri ck
R ose, at least s ix NB A pl ayers have ex pe ri e nced s imil ar
inj uri es 
to m AC Ls. S tate two poss ibl e ex pl ana ti o ns 
fo r thi s 

r ar e rash o f inj uries. Whi c h ex pl ana ti o n d o you think 
is more 

plausibl e? 
Why? 

0 
.6 
In the 
mov ie. Wall Street , cor po rate ra ider Gordo n 
Gekko 
a nd his partner Bud Fox made a lo t of money trad ing s tocks.
Howeve r, severa l of the trad es
Securities a nd Exchange Commission (SEC). Why do you thin k
attracted the atten ti on o f the
0 .7 What do you thi nk it m ea ns when a wea therperso n says,
"There is a 50% chance of ra in today." Co nt ac t a wea therpe rso n
and ask him o r her what this s tatement means. D oes this explanation agree w ith yours?
0 .8 James Bozeman of O rl ando won the Florid a lott o tw ice. He beat the odds of I in 22,957,480 twice to win a total of $ 13
mi
ll io n.
State two
possi bl e
explanations for thi s occur ren ce.
W hic h 
ex pl a nat io n do you 
think 
is mo re reasona bl e? 
Why? 

0 .9 
In 
Jan uary 20 14, 33 wha les 
di ed off the coast o f 
Flo r id a. 
Twe nt yfive were fo und o n Kicc Is la nd in Co lli er County. Bl a ir Masc. a ma ri ne ma mm al sc ienti s t wi th the Nationa l Oceanic
a nd A tmospheric A dmini stra tio n (NOAA) indicated that NOAA
was carefull y investi ga ting these
dea ths. ^{4} Explain why NOAA
be 
lieves the w ha les d id no t die as a res ult 
of n atu ral causes an d 
is 
investi ga ting th e d ea th s. 
0.10 In Jan uary 2014, 62
o ne of two resta ura nts th a t s hare a k itc he n in Mus kegon
Co un ty, Mi ch iga n. ^{5} T he illnesses occur red over a fo urday
peri od. a nd cou nty hea lth offic ia ls bega n an immedi ate investiga tio n.
peop le beca me
s ick after din ing at
a. Ex pl ain why officia ls investi gated the source o f th ese ill nesses.
b . Appl y the fou r sta tist ica l in fere nce s teps to thi s s ituati on.
0 .11
million vehicles because of possibly outofcontrol gas pedals. There had been at least 60 reported cases of runaway vehicles, some of which resulted in at least one death. ^{6} a. State two possible reasons for this observed high number of runaway vehicles.
In 2009 and 20 I0, Toyota issued a costly recall of over 9
b. Why do you think Toyota issued this recall?
0.12 Suppose there were 15 home burglaries in a sma ll town
during the entire year. None occurred on a Thursday. Do you think there is evidence to suggest that something very unusual
is happening on Thursdays in
this day of the week? W11y or why not?
this
town to prevent burglaries o n
Chapter O
Exercises
7
0. 13 Recently, the Sedgw ick County Health Department reported at least 27 cases of whooping cough in one month. This observed count was more than in any month in the previous five years. Do you think health officials should be concerned about this outbreak of whooping cough? Wlly or why not?
0. 14 To
you will need to feel comfortable with mathematical notation.
To review and prepare for the notation we will use. make sure you are fami liar with the following:
understand the definitions and formu las in this text.
a. Subscript notationfor example, x _{1} _{•} x,,
b. Summation notation
n 
for example, LX;
c. The definition of a function.
'
^{1}
• Learn the basic steps in a statistical inference procedure.
Is it safe to eat rice?
Arsenic is a naturally occurring element that is found mainly i n the Earth 's crust. Some people are exposed to high levels of arsenic in their jobs, or near hazardous waste sites, or in some areas of the country in which there are high levels of arsenic in the surrounding soil, rocks, or even water. Exposure to small amounts of arsenic can cause skin discoloration, and longterm exposure has been associated with higher rates of some forms of cancer. Excessive exposure can cause death. In 2012, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and Consumer Reports announced test results that revealed many brands of rice contain more arsenic in a single serving than is allowed by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in a quart of drinking water. ^{1} Trace amounts of arsenic may also be found in flour, juices, and even beer. Earlier in that year, a study conducted at Dartmouth College detected arsenic in cereal bars and infant formula. The FDA has established a safe level of arsenic in drinking water, 10 parts per billion (ppb) . However, there is no equivalent safe maximum level for food . Sup pose the FDA is conducting an extensive study to determine whether to issue any warnings about rice consumption . One hundred random samples of rice are obtained, and each is carefully measured for arsenic. The methods presented in this chapter w i ll enabl e us to identify the popula tion of interest and the sample, and to understand the definition and impor tance of a random sample. Most important, we will characterize the deductive process used when an an extraordinary event is observed and cannot be attrib uted to luck.
10
1.1
CHA PTER 1
An Introduction to Statistics and Stat1st1cal Inference
Statistics Today
Statistics data are everywhe re : in newspapers, magazines. the Internet, the evening weather forecast. medical studies. and even sports reports. They are used to describe typical values and variability, and to make decisions that affect every one of us. It is important to be able to read and understand statistical summaries and arguments with a critical eye. This chapter presents the basic elements of every statistics problema population and a sample and their connection to probability and statistics. Two common methods for data collection, observational sampling and experimentation, are also introduced. Statistics data are used by professionals in many different disciplines. Actuaries are prob ably the biggest users of statistics. They conduct statistical analyses, assess risk. and esti mate financial outcomes. An actuary helped compute your last automobi le insurance bill.
Statistical analyses are used in a variety of settings. The National Agricultural Statistics Service publishes statistics on food production and supply. prices, farm labor, and even the price of land. Pollsters use statistical methods to predict a candidate's chances of winning an election. Using complex statistical analyses, companies make decisions about new products. Traditional statistical techniques and new sophisticated methods are used every day in making decisions that alTect our lives directly. Pharmaceutical companies use a battery of standard sta ti stical tests to determine a new drug's efficacy and possible side effects. Data mining. a combination of computer science and statistics. is a new technique used for constructing theoretical models and detecting patterns. This technique is used by many companies to understand customers better and to respond quickly to their needs. Predic tive microbiology is used to ensure that our food is not contaminated and is safe to con
sume. G iven certain food properties and environmental parameters. a mathematical
model is used to predict safety and shelf life. Statis tics is the science of co ll ecting and interpreting data, and drawing logica I conclu 
sions from avai lable information to solve realworld problems. This text presents several numerical and graphical procedures for organizing and summarizing data. The constant theme throughout the course, however. is statistical inference using a fourstep approach:
claim. experiment. likelihood and conclusion. Here are some examples of statisti cs in the news.
1. Statistical inference: As reported in the Archi1•es of Internal Medicine, ^{2} researchers discovered a decline in the incidence of heart attacks in one Minnesota county follow ing the implementation of new smokefree workplace laws. The incidence of heart attacks decreased by 33%, from 150.8 to 100.7 per 100,000 people. The authors con cluded that secondhand smoke alTects the cardiovascular system nearly as much as active smoking.
2 . Summary statistics: In July 2012, Time News.feed reported that the average Canadian is now richer
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