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Coverage:  Unbiased
 Objective
I. Meaning and Relevance of History
 Credible
II. Historical Sources: Primary and Secondary
 Analytical
III. Historical Context
 Can formulate, synthesize and
IV. Historiography in the Philippines
evaluate lines or questions of inquiry
V. Content and Contextual Analysis of
 Passionate and has a respect for the
Philippine History (11 Reports)
historical evidence

I. MEANING AND RELEVANCE OF HISTORY H. Reasons for Interpreting Philippine History

from a Nationalistic Point of View
A. Etymology of History:  Foreign interpretation is biased and
 Greek word: “HISTORIA/HISTORIE” prejudiced
o Which means inquiry, knowledge  Filipinos have greater familiarity with and
acquired by investigation understanding of their own culture and
B. Definitions of History:
 The Filipino point of view can help promote
1. Weak definition: “No written records, Nationalism and Patriotism
no history”
2. Formal definition: I. How did Historical Writing develop in the
(a) Reconstruction of the past based Philippines?
on written records, oral history, cultural  Started in the form of chronicles or accounts
artifacts and folk tradition written by the Spaniards in the 16th century.
(b) Study of events and developments-  Ethnography or observation of Spanish
people in the past colonizers-records of their observations and
travels in the Philippines
C. History as a Discipline of Social Sciences
 A systematic study of written and unwritten II. HISTORICAL SOURCES: PRIMARY AND
accounts about the past. SECONDARY

D. Elements of History: A. Sources of History

(a) People Archaeological Oral Video
(b) Location Records Accounts Accounts
(c) Context
(d) Sources B. Types of Sources: Primary and Secondary

E. Historian: a. Primary Sources

Interpreters of historical data  Accounts made by eye witnesses or from
the time and place being described
F. Historian’s Task: o Examples:
 Interpret and recreate facts Eyewitness document,
 Discover pattern and trends autobiography, photograph, legal
documents, archaeological records
G. Characteristics of a Good Historian:

o A good historian is: b. Secondary Sources:

 Critical

 Revisions or supporting documents that are b. Archaeological records: preserved remains of

made based from the first hand source human beings, their activities, and the environment
o Examples: where they lived.
Textbooks Most significant excavated human remains:

 Callao Man's toe bone (67000 BCE)

III. HISTORICAL CONTEXT  Tabon Man's Skullcap (22000 BCE)

An Introduction to Philippine
ArticleHistoriography: Sources and  Fossils: remains of plants, animals, and
Discourses other organisms from the distant past
Author Neil Martial R. Santillian, Ph.D.
 Artifacts: remnants of material culture
developed by human beings
A. Meaning of History:
(e.g clothing, farm implements, jewelry,
 History deals with the study of past events.
pottery, and stone tools)
B. Historians:
c. Oral and Video Accounts: audio visual
 Individuals who write history documentation of people, events, places.
 Researchers and interpreters of historical (e.g video and ausio cassettes, and compact disks)

C. Historiography - practice of historical writing

 Salient feature of historical writing: the RESOURCES
ability to give meaning and impart value to a
particular group of people about their past. A. Primary Resources - documents, physical
objects, and oral/video accounts made by an
 Traditional historical writing: gathers individual or group present at the time and place
documents from different libraries and being described. Provides facts from people who
archives to form evidences needed in making witnessed the event
descriptive or analytical narrative. B. Secondary Resources - materials made by
people long after the events being described had
taken place.
 Modern historical writing: examination of
documents and use of research methods *One basic challenge of history researchers with
from related areas of study such as primary sources - their ability to read and
archaeology and geography understand texts in foreign language

D. Sources of history a. The works of Teodoro Agoncillo and Renato

Constantino are good examples of secondary
 Documentary sources
 Archeological records
 Oral and Video accounts Agoncillo divided the revolution into 2 phases:

a. Most of our historical sources are documents o 1st: Start of the revolution in Aug 1896 to
flight of Emilio Aguinaldo and company to
(e.g. handwritten, printed, drawn, designed and Hong Kong as a result of Pact of Biak na Bato
other composed materials) o 2nd: Aguinaldo's return to Manila from Hong
Colonial records: gov't reports and legal documents Kong until his surrender to the Americans in
March 1901

b. Renato Constantino: disputed the soundness of 2. Period of advancement or enlightenment when

Agoncillo's two phase scheme by asserting that the they came
war of independence continued even without
Their historical accounts emphasized the primacy of
Aguinaldo's presence in the country.
colonization to liberate Filipinos from their backward
 Interpretations: serve as tools of "barbaric" lifeways
discernment for readrs of historical sources,
American colonial writers: rationalizizing their
but they should be cautious of frames of
colonization of Filipinos as a way to teach the natives
analysis used for biased, discriminatory, and
the "civilized lifestyle" which they said the Spaniards
self- serving ends
 Criticisms: are needed to check the forgot to impart
authenticity and reliability of primary sources Colonial Narratives: portrayed Filipinos as a people
to be used in crafting a narrative bereft of an advanced culture and a respectable
(1890) Jose Rizal - annotation of Antonio de
A. External Criticism - answers concerns and
Morga's Sucesos de las Islas Filipinas (Events in the
questions pertinent to the authenticity of a
Phil. Islands). Book that positively viewed pre
historical source by identifying who
colonial Filipino culture as a retort to the arrogant
composed the historical material, locating
when and where the historical material was
produced and establishing the material's How Filipinos perceived their colonial past:
evidential value
1. Maltreated by the wicked Spain
B. Internal Criticism - deals with credibility and
reliability of a given historical source. 2. Rescued by benevolent America

LOCATING PRIMARY SOURCES Philippine Historiography after World War 2

 Government institutions - National Library  Teodoro Agoncillo (1950) : highlights the role
and National Archives: major repositories of of the Filipino reformists and revolutionaries
documentary sources from 1872, the year that saw the execution of
 Academic Institutions the Gomburza priests, to end the Philippine
 Privately owned museums and archives Revolution as the focal point of the country's
 Religious Congregations nation building narrative.
 Outside the Philippines (e.g Spain and
US) o Two most celeb books: Phil. Revolution:
 Online Archives the Revolt of the Masses: The Story of
Bonifacio and the Katipunan(1956) and
Malolos: The Crisis of the Republic (1960).
o Emphasized Spanish colonial period and
Philippine historiography: changed significantly the events before 1872 as country's "lost
since 20th century history"
Spanish colonizers presented our history into
two parts:
b. Renato Constantino : rejected the discourse
1. Period of darkness or backwardness before they "lost history" of Agoncillo

o published "The Miseducation of the Filipino"  Elite Centric Perspective in Historical Narratives
and became a staple reading of Filipino o focuses on the contributions of the elite in
activists beginning late 1960s. nation building such as what Ilustrados
o advanced the idea of "people's history" - a fought for in the 19th century or how the local
study of past that sought to analyze society politicians negotiated with Americans
by searching out people's voices from counterparts for an independence law during
colonial historical materials that typically the first half of 20th century.
rendered Filipinos as decadent, inept, and
vile  Patriarchal Orientation in Historical Narratives
o authored "The Philippines: A Past Revisited" o highlights the heroism of men in different
ways while women are viewed as merely
support to men
c. Zeus Salazar : conceptualized "Pantayong
Pananaw" as an approached to understanding the  Emphasis on Lowland Christianized Filipinos
pasr from our own cultural frame and language. o shows partiality towards lowland
Christianized Filipinos at the expense of
 emphasized the value of our Austronesian other cultural communities such as Muslims,
roots by defining Filipino culture and and other indigenous people.
encouraged other scholars to conduct
historical researches in Filipino such as the
work of Jaime Veneracion's Kasaysayan ng
Bulacan (1986)

Eleven reports:
d. Reynaldo Ileto : wrote about "history from below"
treatise in his work, Pasyon and Revolution: Popular 1) Pag-ibig sa Tinubuang Lupa
Movements in the Philippines,1840-1910(1979). 2) Kartilya ng Katipunan
3) Lapu-lapu and Magellan’s Marker
o Endeavored to recognize the way of thinking 4) Dasalan and Tocsohan
of ordinary folks by using alternative 5) Corazon Aquino’s Speech
historical resources such as folk songs and
6) Declaration of Martial Law
7) Jones Law
e. Samuel Tan : mainstreamed the role and 8) Japanese Occupation
relevance of Filipino Muslims in the country's 9) Laguna Copperplate
national history. 10) Piggafeta’s Account
11) Manunggul gar

 Political Narratives
o deals with the political aspects of nation-
building such as the legacies of political
leaders and establishment of different

 Colonial Histories in Historical Narratives

o a weakness that it continues to breed
Filipinos who are more familiar with our
colonial histories rather than the stories of
our pre-colonial past.

1) PAG-IBIG SA TINUBUANG LUPA sa balong malalim ng siphayo’t hirap.

Type: Poem and Song (9) Kalakip din nito’y pag-ibig sa Bayan
Author: Andres Bonifacio (Agapito ang lahat ng lalong sa gunita’y mahal
Bagumbayan) mula sa masaya’t gasong kasanggulan.
Revised by: Revision 1: Emilio Jacinto hanggang sa katawan ay mapasa-libingan.
Revision 2: Jose P. Santos
(10) Ang nangakaraang panahon ng aliw,
Published In: Kalayaan (Official Newspaper
ang inaasahang araw na darating
of Katipunan) ng pagka-timawa ng mga alipin,
Date 1896 liban pa ba sa bayan tatanghalin?
(11) At ang balang kahoy at ang balang sanga
Content: na parang niya’t gubat na kaaya-aya
sukat ang makita’t sa ala-ala
(1)Aling pag-ibig pa ang hihigit kaya ang ina’t ang giliw lampas sa saya.
sa pagkadalisay at pagkadakila
gaya ng pag-ibig sa tinubuang lupa? (12) Tubig niyang malinaw sa anaki’y bulog
Alin pag-ibig pa? Wala na nga, wala. bukal sa batisang nagkalat sa bundok
malambot na huni ng matuling agos
(2) Ulit-ulitin mang basahin ng isip na nakaka aliw sa pusong may lungkot.
at isa-isahing talastasing pilit
ang salita’t buhay na limbag at titik (13) Sa aba ng abang mawalay sa Bayan!
ng isang katauhan ito’y namamasid. gunita ma’y laging sakbibi ng lumbay
walang ala-ala’t inaasam-asam
kundi ang makita’ng lupang tinubuan.
(3) Banal na pag-ibig pag ikaw ang nukal
sa tapat na puso ng sino’t alinman, (14)Pati na’ng magdusa’t sampung kamatayan
imbit taong gubat, maralita’t mangmang wari ay masarap kung dahil sa Bayan
nagiging dakila at iginagalang. at lalong maghirap. O! himalang bagay,
lalong pag-irog pa ang sa kanya’y alay.
(4) Pagpupuring lubos ang nagiging hangad
sa bayan ng taong may dangal na ingat, (15)Kung ang bayang ito’y nasa panganib
umawit, tumula, kumatha’t sumulat, at siya ay dapat na ipagtangkilik
kalakhan din nila’y isinisiwalat. ang anak, asawa, magulang, kapatid
isang tawag niya’y tatalikdang pilit.
(5) Walang mahalagang hindi inihandog
ng pusong mahal sa Bayang nagkupkop, (16) Datapwa kung bayan ano ang bayan ng ka-
dugo, yaman, dunong, katiisa’t pagod, Tagalogan
buhay ma’y abuting magkalagot-lagot. ay nilalapastangan at niyuyurakan
katwiran, puri niya’t kamahalan
(6) Bakit? Ano itong sakdal nang laki ng sama ng lilong ibang bayan.
na hinahandugan ng buong pag kasi
na sa lalong mahal kapangyayari (17) Di gaano kaya ang paghinagpis
at ginugugulan ng buhay na iwi. ng pusong Tagalog sa puring nalait
at aling kaluoban na lalong tahimik
(7) Ay! Ito’y ang Inang Bayang tinubuan, ang di pupukawin sa paghihimagsik?
siya’y ina’t tangi na kinamulatan
ng kawili-wiling liwanag ng araw (18) Saan magbubuhat ang paghihinay
na nagbibigay init sa lunong katawan. sa paghihiganti’t gumugol ng buhay
(8) Sa kanya’y utang ang unang pagtanggap kung wala ring ibang kasasadlakan
ng simoy ng hanging nagbigay lunas, kundi ang lugami sa kaalipinan?
sa inis na puso na sisinghap-singhap,

(19) Kung ang pagka-baon niya’t pagka-busabos  Andres Bonifacio was born of November 30,
sa lusak ng daya’t tunay na pag-ayop 1863 in Azcarrga, Manila.
supil ng pang-hampas tanikalang gapos
at luha na lamang ang pinaa-agos
 Andres Bonifacio’s parents are Santiago
(20) Sa kanyang anyo’y sino ang tutunghay Bonifacio and Catalina de Castro (1/2
na di-aakayin sa gawang magdamdam Spanish, ¼ Chinese, ¼ Filipino)
pusong naglilipak sa pagka-sukaban
na hindi gumugol ng dugo at buhay.  Andres Bonifacio actually came from a
middle-class family but because of his
(21) Mangyari kayang ito’y masulyap parents death when he was 14 years old, he
ng mga Tagalog at hindi lumingap
worked as a cigarette vendor, fan maker to
sa naghihingalong Inang nasa yapak
ng kasuklam-suklam na Castilang hamak. support his siblings’ needs.

(22) Nasaan ang dangal ng mga Tagalog,  He’s a reader of Jose Rizal’s Classics: Noli
nasaan ang dugong dapat na ibuhos? Me Tangere and El Filibusterismo; and Victor
bayan ay inaapi, bakit di kumikilos? Hugo’s Les Miserables.
at natitilihang ito’y mapanuod.
 He married twice. He’s first wife named
(23) Hayo na nga kayo, kayong nanga buhay
sa pag-asang lubos na kaginhawahan Monica died because of leprosy and married
at walang tinamo kundi kapaitan, Oryang after.
kaya nga’t ibigin ang naaabang bayan.
(24) Kayong antayan na sa kapapasakit
ng dakilang hangad sa batis ng dibdib
 Ang akda ni Andres Bonifacio (Supremo ng
muling pabalungit tunay na pag-ibig
kusang ibulalas sa bayang piniit. Katipunan) ay isa sa mga pinakapopular na
artikulo sa pahayagan ng Kalayaan.
(25) Kayong nalagasan ng bunga’t bulaklak
kahoy niyari ng buhay na nilanta't sukat  Pinapakita sa teksto ang nag-uumapaw na
ng bala-balakit makapal na hirap pagmamahal ni Bonifacio para sa Pilipinas
muling manariwa’t sa baya’y lumiyag. na “wala nang mas dadalisay pang pag-ibig
kaysa sa pagmamahal mo sa bayan.
(26) Kayong mga pusong kusang inuusal
ng daya at bagsik ng ganid na asal,
ngayon magbangon’t baya’y itanghal  Naniniwala sila Bonifacio and Jacinto na
agawin sa kuko ng mga sukaban. madali nilang mapapalaganap ang mga
ideyang rebolusyonaryo kung mayroon
(27) Kayong mga dukhang walang tanging sikap silang imprenta.
kundi ang mabuhay sa dalita’t hirap,
ampunin ang bayan kung nasa ay lunas
sapagkat ang ginhawa niya ay sa lahat.  Mula sa 300 na miyembro ng Katipunan
tumataas sa bilang na 30,000 na miyembro
(28) Ipahandog-handog ang buong pag-ibig ang Katipunan matapos ang ilang buwan na
hanggang sa mga dugo’y ubusang itangis pagpapaimprenta ng Kalayaan.
kung sa pagtatanggol, buhay ay mapatid
ito’y kapalaran at tunay na langit.  Ipinakita rin sa teksto ang hinaing ni
Bonifacio na nagbibigay boses sa sitwasyon
ng mga Pilipino sa panahon ng Espanyol:
pagkuha sa soberanya ng Pilipinas,

pagmamalupit sa mga indio, pagkuha ng  Emilio Jacinto was born on December 15,
puri/pamomolestya ng mga prayle. 1875 in Tondo, Manila.
 Son of a bookkeeper (Mariano Jacinto) and
 Pinarangalan bilang “Most Nationalistic Josefa Dizon.
Poem in 2009” ang akda ni Bonifacio  Finised his elementary education in a
private school, secondary education in
 Sa Rebisyon ni Emilio Jacinto, mahahalata Colegio de San Juan de Letran and studied
na mas teknikal at mas madulas basahin ang law at the University of Santo Tomas.
teksto na siyang inilathala sa pahayagan ng  Jacinto joined the Katipunan at the age of
Kalayaan. At kinikilala pa rin na si Bonifacio 18 at 1894.
ang totoong may akda nito dahil sa kanyang  “Utak ng Katipunan”
pirma sa ibaba ng teksto.  He was the chief editor of Kalayaan, the
official newspaper of Katipunan.
 Samantala sa Rebisyon ni Jose P. Santos,  Wrote such pieces as the KARTILLA,
kakaunti lang ang kanyang binago sa akda LIWANAG AT DILIM, PAHAYAG, SA MGA
upang mapanatili ang stilo ni Bonifacio. KABABAYAN and etc.

 Ang panulat ni Andres Bonifacio na

pinamagatang "Pag-ibig sa Tinubuang Lupa" CONTENT:
ay isang obra maestra na nagmulat sa
kamalayan ng maraming Pilipino. Ang buod 1) Ang kabuhayang hindi ginugugol sa isang
nito ay tumutukoy sa pagiging makabayan at malaki at banal na kadahilanan ay kahoy na
pagiging tapat sa lahing Pilipino. Ang walang lilim, kun di damong makamandang.
kuwentong ito ay nagsilbing daan upang
mabuhay ang pagmamahal at 2) Ang gawang magaling na nagbubuhat sa
pagmamalasakit ng mga Pilipino sa bawat pagpipita sa sarili, at hindi talagang nasang
isa at paglaban sa mga manunupil ng gumawa ng kagalingan, ay di kabaitan.
kalayaan at kasarinlan.” - Drekenteyli
3) Ang tunay na kabanalan ay ang
2) KARTILYA NG KATIPUNAN pagkakawang gawa, ang pagibig sa kapua at
ang isukat ang bawat kilos, gawa't
Author Emilio Jacinto pangungusap sa talagang katuiran.
Also known Code of Ethics (13 Aral ng 4) Maitim man at maputi ang kulay ng balat,
as mga Katipunero) lahat ng tao'y magkakapantay:
Date mangyayaring ang isa'y higtan sa dunong, sa
Purpose Moral and intellectual
yaman, sa ganda..., ngunit di mahihigtan sa
foundation of the
Katipuneros pagkatao.
Target All Filipinos
5) Ang may mataas na kalooban inuuna ang
puri sa pagpipita sa sarili; ang may hamak na
kalooban, inuuna ang pagpipita sa sarili sa
6) Sa taong may hiya, salita'y panunumpa.

7) Huwag mong sayangin ang panahun: ang  “Cartillas” in Spanish means primary lesson
yamang nawala'y mangyayaring magbalik;  It does not only presents teaching for the
ngunit panahung nagdaan na'y di na muli neophyte Katipuneros but also the guiding
pang magdadaan. principle of the society.
 Its importance today is still predicated on
8) Ipagtanggol mo ang inaapi; kabakahin ang the teachings that embodied the moral an
umaapi. nationalistic principles of a nation that
fought for independence.
9) Ang taong matalino'y ang may pagiingat sa  These principles are still relevant as the
bawat sasabihin, at matutong ipaglihim ang sense of nationhood still holds true when
dapat ipaglihim. cultural and historical values of every
Filipino are threatened by the onslaught of
10) Sa daang matinik ng kabuhayan, lalaki ay foreign influences about by today’s
siyang patugot ng asawa't mga anak: kung globalization
ang umaakay ay tungo sa sama, ang
pagtutunguhan ng inaakay ay kasamaan din.

11) Ang babai ay huwag mong tignang isang

bagay na libangan lamang, kun di isang 3. LAPU LAPU AND MAGELLANS’ MARKER
katuang at karamay sa mga kahirapan nitong
kabuhayan; gamitan mo nag boong The Lapu Lapu plaque states that, “Here on 27 April
pagpipitagan ang kaniyang kahinaan, at 1521, Lapu Lapu and his men repulsed the Spanish
alalahanin ang inang pinagbuhatan at nagiwi invaders, killing their leader Ferdinand Magellan thus
sa iyong kasanggulan. Lapu Lapu became the first Filipino to have repelled
European aggression”. Behind this plaque, is the
12) Ang di mo ibig na gawin sa asawa mo, anak plaque that honors the Death of Ferdinand Magellan.
at kapatid, ay huag mong gagawin sa asawa, Ferdinand Magellan’s Death plaque states that, “On
anak at kapatid ng iba. this spot of Ferdinand Magellan died on April 27,
1521 wounded in an encounter with the soldiers of
13) Ang kamahalan ng tao'y wala sa pagkahari, Lapu Lapu, Chief of Mactan Islands. One of
wala sa tangus ng ilong at puti ng mukha, Magellan’s ship, The Victoria, under the command of
wala sa pagkaparing kahalili ng Dios, wala sa Juan Sebastian Elcano, sailed from Cebu on May 1,
mataas na kalagayan sa balat ng lupa: 1521 and anchored at San Lucar de Barrameda on
wagas at tunay na mahal na tao, kahit laking September 6, 1522 thus completing the first
gubat at walang nababatid kun di ang sariling circumnavigation of the earth”.
wika, yaon may magandang asal, may isang
pangungusap, may dangal at puri; yaon di
nagpapaapi't di nakikiapi; yaong marunong
A monument erected by the Spanish in the
magdamdam at marunong lumingap sa
nineteenth century to glorify God, Spain and
bayang tinubuan.
Ferdinand Magellan. In 1941, during the
American era, a historical marker inscribed
“Ferdiand Magelllan’s Death” was erected
 Kartilya was denoted as the best known of
nearby. It stated: “On this spot Ferdinand
all the Katipunan text said by Jim
Magellan died on April 27, 1521, wounded in an
encounter with the soldiers of Lapu-Lapu, chief
 This was printed in a small pamphlet and
of Mactan Island. One of Magellan’s ships, the
was distributed to its members

Victoria, under the command of Juan Sebastian Ferdinand Magellan had been successful in
Elcano, sailed from Cebu on May 1, 1521 and bringing the Christianity to the people of
anchored at san Lucar de Barrameda on Cebu. From there, he also crossed the sea to
September 6, 1522, thus completing the first reach Mactan Island in the hope to spread
circumnavigation of the earth”. the Christian faith in the area. But before
Exactly a decade later, the by then independent reaching the shore, Magellan was killed,
Republic of the Philippines erected a second along with his Christian Soldiers, by the
marker entitled “Lapulapu” It read: “Here, on Mactan Island chieftain Lapu-Lapu who led
April 27, 1521, Lapu-Lapu and his men repulsed his men armed with spears, swords and
the Spanish invaders, killing their leader, shields for the battle of supremacy and
Ferdinand Magellan. Thus, Lapu-Lapu became freedom on April 27, 1521. The battle was
the first Filipino to have repelled European later recognized as the historic Battle of
aggression. Mactan

II. AUTHOR : The invading Spaniards and Cebuanos were

 As the Philippines fell in the clutches of driven back to their boats, but their brace
Spain years after the battle, the Magellan leader, Magellan met death in the hands of
Monument was built in 1866 during the Lapulapu. On what is believed to be the
administration of Augustinian priest exact spot where Magellan fell and died, now
Simon Aguirre, who was cura of the stands an imposing monument of honor of
Mactan Island, then called Opon. The the gallant explorer.
Lapu Lapu statue is said to be on the
exact spot where the battle was fought
and where Magellan was killed.
Unfortunately, there were no written History records that Lapu Lapu was the first
records of the sculptor of the Lapu-lapu Philippine native to resist foreign invasion and
shrine. colonization. As such, he is regarded as the first
national hero of the Philippines. While Magellan
III. CONTEXT: is still remembered as the person who brought
Christianity to the Philippines and commander of
 History has it that Mactan Island although the fleet which achieved the first ever
small was a thriving community when the circumnavigation of the earth.
great Magellan was in Cebu. The brave
Spanish navigator and soldier, upon learning  A festival called the Kadaugan sa Mactan
that some inhabitants on this tiny island (Victory at Mactan), commemorating the
across Cebu refused to recognize the King of triumph of the heroic native chieftain Lapu-
Spain, burned on of the villages. Lapu lapu Lapu over Magellan, is held on 27 April every
was one of the native leaders who refused to year. On this occasion, colorful events
acknowledge the sovereignty of Spain over include a ceremonial procession of
the Islands. When Magellan, "with three "decorated bancas" (canoes) representing
boatloads of Spaniards and twenty boatloads Magellan's three boats on the sea coast of
of Cebuanos went to Mactan to help a the beach of Barangay, erecting the cross of
friendly chief, Lapu lapu and his men armed Magellan on the island, conversion of the
with native fighting elements - wooden local people to Christianity by baptism, and
shields, bows and arrows, lances - met scenes of the recreation of the battle

Author: Marcelo H. Del Pilar  This was lead by the intellectual men like
Jose Rizal, Marcelo Del Pilar, Graciano
Published in: Barcelona year 1888 Lopez Jaena.
AUTHORS BACKGROUND:  About seeking reforms and changes:
o equal rights between Filipinos and
BIRTH: August 30, 1850 in Cupang, San Nicolas, Spaniards
Bulacan o allow Filipinos to be a leader of the
PARENTS: Julian del Pilar and Blasa Gatmaitan
o freedom of speech
PEN NAME: Plaridel, Piping Dilat, Pudpoh, Kupang,
Siling Labuyo, Maitalagaand Dolores
SPOUSE: Mariciana H. Del Pilar
 The Filipinos were enlightened that the
WORKS: Caiigat Cayo, Cadaquilaanng Dios and
church is not perfect and holy as they
Dasalanat Tuksuhan
DEATH: July 4, 1896 in Barcelona, Spain  Filipinos discovered that the church has its
own corruption and political issues.
*Additonal Information*  By dissing the friars with his humor and
 One of the illustrado’s who inspired the creativity, he delivered the national
Philippines Revolution. oppression in a relatable.
 Wrote propaganda pamphlets or the Present:
parodies in simple yet powerful Tagalog
language. Became an eye opener on the  Filipinos are now acting and voicing out
abuses of the Spanish friars. their opinions pertaining to the leaders and
 Established Diariong Tagalog which is the church itself.
First Philippine bilingual newspaper in  Establishment of Samahang Plaridel,
1882 association of veteran journalist, editors,
 He was helped by Pedro Serrano Laktaw in publishers and communicators, with
publishing his work. Marcelo H. Del Pilar as their Patron Saint as
 Died because of Tuberculosis his life and works portrayed the value of
freedom of thought and opinion as
CONTENT paramount over any material and personal
 Compilation of parodies about religion gain on October 2003.
 UP Gawad Plaridel, an award in the
and the dishonesty of the friars.
 Its basis were the Catholic prayers University of the Philippines given to
 This work shows how the friars used outstanding media practitioners who
religion to deceived the Filipinos. excelled in journalism, broadcast-radio and
 Describe the wrong doings of the friars. television, film and new media and highest
integrity in the interest of public service.
 Ignited because of the death of the
GomBurZa(Gomez, Burgos, Zamora). Date: September 18, 1986
Sentenced to death by garote. Author: Corazon Aquino
 From religious spirit, it was transformed
into one of nationalism and the Filipinos Writer of Speech: Teodoro Lopez Locsin
demanded changes and reforms in the
government and in the church. CONTENT:
 Three years after her husband’s death,
Propaganda Movement (1872-1896) former President Corazon Aquino delivered
*still under context* a speech in Washington D.C. on September.
 The speech talks about:

 the painful sufferings of Ninoy Aquino and  February 1986, Marcos was declared the
how devastating it is for a wife to lose her winner and reports came that it’s an election
husband, and the country to lose someone fraud.
who’s willing to sacrifice his own life for  called for a (People Power Revolution)
freedom. peaceful protest, strikes, and boycotts of the
 the victory of democracy, emphasizing the media and business owned by the Marcos.
power of people in oppression, abuse, and At the end of the month, Marcos flew away to
dictatorship. Hawaii and Cory became the president.
 Shows the world how a country, oppressed She died on 2009 due to colon cancer
by a single family, can come together and
fight peacefully for democracy.
Why did Cory Aquino have an inaugural speech
and SONA?
CONTEXT:  To end the dictatorship of Ferdinand
 Cory told the story of Ninoy during his battle Marcos
against the dictatorship.  To give Filipinos freedom
 Transitioning from a dictator government to  Democracy
democracy  To compare the two administrations
 Building up the yellow constitution  Changes in the administration
 Effects of the regime of Dictatorship
Date o Declaration: September 21, 1972
Proclamation No.: 1081
 Ninoy Aquino’s brave and selfless act
became the Filipinos’ shout to attain  The reason behind Martial Law is because of
freedom. the different violent chaos, and to suppress
the threat of a communist takeover.

 Marcos said that the country was in anarchy.
 Understanding the government system of the Kidnapping, arson and robbery were being
Former President Ferdinand Marcos committed.
awakens the mind of present Filipinos on  Bonifacio Ilagan – Is a martial law victim and
how dictatorship rules, and how it relates on was tortured ( Pinasukan ng tingting yung ari
the status of our current government. niya )
 Declared by Ferdinand Marcos, 10th
president of the Philippines. He was
Who is Cory Aquino? (1933 – 2009) inaugurated on December 30, 1965. He was
 The 1st female president of the Philippines reelected in 1969, the first Filipino
and the reason why president to win a second term, but
 DEMOCRACY was restored because of violence and fraud were associated with his
leading the PEOPLE POWER campaign, which was believed to be funded
REVOLUTION during 1986 then she was with millions from the national treasury.
named time’s woman of the year on the
When was martial law declared?
same year.  signed on September 21, 1972.
 Wife of BENIGNO “NINOY” AQUINO  declaration of the martial law was
broadcasted on radio and television two days
after (September 23, 1972.)

What happened during Martial Law? Published in: Act of Congress of 64th Congress
 Marcos effectively put the entire power of of the U.S.A.
government under the rule of one man: his
own. Significance: The Jones Law created the first
 He was to lead the nation and direct the fully elected Philippine legislature.
operation of the entire government. Philippine Legislature:
 He ordered the armed forces to prevent or 1.) PH Organic Act (1902)
suppress any act of rebellion.
 Curfew hours were enforced group o Lower House, Philippine Assembly
assemblies were banned ( Elected )
 privately-owned media facilities shuttered. o - Upper House, Philippine
Commission ( Appointed )

2.) JONES Law (1916)

Why did Ferdinand Marcos declared Martial
o -Lower House, House of
Representatives ( Elected )
 “Marcos declared martial law due to
o -Upper House, Philippine
intensified social and political tension” stated
Senate ( Elected )
by Senator Juan Ponce Enrile

 Social and Political Tension -Private armies

overpowering police officers *GOVERNOR GENERAL, always an
 lead to rampant unconscious violence AMERICAN
 The Government doesn’t have a chance
 -the government cannot withstand the Chronological order of the laws and acts
private armies’ high-powered guns even with passed during American occupation:
their all-out efforts
1. Philippine Organic Law (1902)
Additional information from Ma’am Samala: 2. Jones Law (1916)
 Government involved which means
o no more freedom 3. Tydings Mcduffie Act (1934)
 Not 100% loved by Filipinos
 Sep 21 was the beginning of control Marxism 4. Commonwealth (1936)
(Karl Marx) o Communisim (practiced in “We hope to do for them what has never
China) been done for any people of the tropics – to
o Violence leading to bloodbath make them fit for self-government after the
 Philippines was also influenced by fashion of really free nations.
 Communism
 Extended for 10 years o Temporary Solution - U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt,
to achieve peace and order – Martial Law 1901
 On EDSA Revolution, Marcos was pushed
 Conjugal Doctatorship (Bong Bong Main purpose of the law:
o Marcos)
1) “MORE AUTONOMOUS government with
7) JONES LAW certain privileges reserved to USA”

 Also known as the Philippine Autonomy Act 2) Gradual or Slow progression of granting
Date Published: August 29, 1916
Author: William Atkinson Jones (lawyer and 3) Allow Philippine freedom when a steady
politician) government was set up.

4) Change Philippine Commission Philippine  President McKinley’s Instructions was to

Senate as the of the Upper House give the Filipinos the right to manage their
legislative body. local affairs and there, The Philippine
Commission was the lawmaking body
CONTRIBUTIONS: during those early years. They passed the
Municipal Code Act where the Municipal
 •Jones Law represented hope after a long
Government were being lead by the different
period of being colonized by Spain and U.S.
 •One of the first bills to advocate Philippine municipal officials.
independence Before the qualified voters must possess the
 It gave right for the Filipinos to represent the following standards
legislative body of the Philippines o They should be male 23 years old
and above
 Ford worked as a managing editor and o Residing in the Municipality for at
editorial writer from 1872 to 1905, at six least 6 months
different newspapers in three cities o Held position worth P 500.00
Baltimore, New York and Pittsburgh. o Or paid taxes worth 30.00 a year
o Roosevelt 1901, "We hope to do for
them what has never been done for ● The Philippine Commission also
any people of the tropics” passed the provincial code act for the
provincial government, and the Civil
 The American had promised the Filipinos Service Act that all the government official,
things that we will break down into three o To may it be in the national, provincial or
give the Filipinos the benefit of wise and national government shall be placed under
administration o To give the Filipinos civil the administrative government of the Bureau
liberties they never enjoyed under Spanish of Civil Service
colonial rule o To train the Filipinos in self-
government as preparation for their ● To minimize or to eliminate the pull in
independence the government service

 There was a law passed before the Jones ● They also introduced the concept of
Law in 1916 and that was Cooper Law in Merit system as basis of promotions.
1902 whih gave the Filipinos the rights to be
represented in the lawmaking body through ● So complying to the orders or
their representatives or their elected instructions of McKinley for the Philippines
delegates. training for selfgovernment, the American
authorities gave seats for those Filipinos
 First, the government reorganization of the who are highly educated. So the first three,
local government. The committee for this as part of our introduction were those
was composed of two Filipino Lawyers and Filipinos who are proamerican stance:
Three American Military officers. Trinidad Pardo de Tavera, Jose Luzuriaga,
Benito Legarda.

 This committee served as the reorganization

for the municipal government in all the areas ● Before, the Philippines was under
under the American jurisdiction. the republican party which favoured
imperialist but when Woodrow Wilson
favour the democratic view whereas the

favour of granting the Philippines their ● Coleman’s School in Fredericksburg

independence is positive.
● Law department of the University of
Virginia at Charlottesville in 1870
● Wilson became president and sent
an investigator named Henry Ford Jones to ● Admitted in the Bar, 1870
see if the Philippines were ready to rule their
own government. It was Wilson who ● Common Wealth Attorney
appointed Francis Burton Harrison.
● Democratic National Conventions
(1880, 1896, 1900)

● When Francis Burton Harrison

became the government-general, he Jones Law
increased the number of the Filipino in the
● Also known as the Philippine
commission. Rafael Palma, Jaime C. De Autonomy Act of 1916
Veyra, Victorino Mapa, Vicente Ilustre and
● August 29, 1916
Vicente Singson, Vicente Encarnacion were
● Replaced the Philippine Organic Act
added. Then some from these men were
of 1902 ● Framework for a “more
later promoted on a postion and the first
autonomous government.
Filipino Chief Justice before was Cayetano
● The grant of Independence would
Arellano. Number of Filipinos in the
come only “as soon as a stable government
lawmaking body or government later on
can be established.
● Changed the Philippine Legislature
● October 03, 1916
● In the administration of Harrison was
the government service was Filipinized

Council of State
● It was Taft’s policy that stated the
“Philippines for the Filipinos” ● Sergio Osmena
● Outlined and planned the p olicies of
● Then after it is in a continuous loop or the different departments
progressed in Filipinos for them to handle ● To Widen the power s and
positions. It was a step-by step process. participation of Filipino Political leaders
● Violation to the Jones Law

● When Harrison was appointed, he

Importance of Jones Law
immediately worked on Filipinization of the
government sectors. ● It is essential for the Philippines’
● acquisition of Independence
William Jones Atkinson (March 21, 1849 – April ● Its enactment on the Philippine
17, 1918) system earmarked the domination of
● Authored the Jones Law as Filipinos in the Legislative branch of the
replacement for the Philippine Act of 1902 or country.
known as Cooper Law ● Bill of Rights
● The Democratic Government
● Virginia Military Institute at Lexington System of the Philippines ● Lead to the
in 1864 creation of a real Filipino identity.

●  Tydings-McDuffie Law – wherein the

Maximo M. Kalaw Americans help Philipines transition into
independence after a 10-year ong period
● A well renowned Filipino critic (expected to conclude by 1946)
● Belong to the Generation of Fiipinos  This slogan is meaningless among
under to control of Americans
● Wrote the book entitled “The case for
the Filipinos
● Stated that the Jones Law has failed o Kalayaan ang Mamumuno sa Bayan: Isang
● “Philippines still is not a free-country Watawat. Bansa. Wika (1943)
after all”
 a popular slogan by Dr. Jose P. Laurel
as the president of the Japanese
General Filipinos Republic in the country.
 Carlos Francisco’s posters (1943)
● Majority realizes the vital role of
were made and used to encourage
Jones Law to the independency of the
members of the Philippine Constabulary
Philippines from colonialism
to support Jose P. Laurel in the
● But there are also some that realize
Japanese Republic
the negative impacts of Jones Law to
 Food Advertisements (Nationalism
Philippine itself.
and Food) are everywhere to
encourage Filipinos to work and solve
the hunger problem in the country but
 Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere only intended to feed the Japanese
Propaganda (1942) Army.

 Sign posted at Santo Tomas Camp in 1942 JAPANESE REPUBLIC IN THE PHILIPPINES
 Intended to be seen by Filipino passers-by 
English Language  Main Objective:  When Japan invaded, Pres. Manuel L.
 To ensure the peace and stability of East Quezon fled to Bataan and then the US
Asia & to protect the region against Anglo- to establish a government-in-exile.
American Exploitation  Hideki Tojo (Japanese prime minister)
 Dai Toa Kyoeken which means Asia for promised to return independence to the
Asians Philippines as part of the Pan-asianism.
 Attack on Pearl Harbor (Dec. 17, 1941)
 This event gave the Japanese full air and KALIBAPI (Kapisanan sa Paglilingkod sa
naval superiority withput any interference Bagong Pilipinas)- 1942
from the United States o October 14, 1943, Jose P. Laurel was
inaugurated as the president of the
Second Philippine Republic
 A challenging move for the Japanese o part of the Japanese propaganda was to
 Philippines were more akin to a Latin- begin closing schools temporarily and then
American Country than its own neighboring reopen after hasty revisions in textbooks of
states in Asia Pro American content
 40 years of American rules strengthened o Japanese money
 “Westernization” of the country

o Japanese gained control of  Antoon Postma translated the

transportation, media and inscription. Postma was a Dutch
communications anthropologist living in the Philippines.
o There was shortage of food
 The Laguna Copperplate
 Japanese forces engaged in a
Inscription links the Philippines to other
psychological warfare in an attempt to gain Asian civilizations. It represents a strong
the sympathy of the Filipino people and Hindu influence that shaped much of
discourage the American troops. Southeast Asia at the time. The inscription
is Kawi, with words borrowed from Old
Sanskrit, Javanese, Malay and
The Return of the American Forces (1944) Tagalog languages.

 The return of the American planes caused

the Japanese to spread more posters What is the Laguna Copperplate Inscription?
encouraging the Filpinos to side with the  The copperplate was discovered in 1989 in
Japanese and fight against the Americans Laguna Province, Philippines. The artifact
was discovered by a sand worker near the
mouth of the Lumbang River.
 The laborer sold the artifact to the Philippine
National Museum. A year later,
 Gen. Douglas McArthur returned to the anthropologist Antoon Postma began to
Philippines (1944) translate it

 Battle of Leyte Gulf – disastrous defeat for  The translation describes how the chief of
Japanese and the biggest naval battle of World Tondo forgave the debt of Namwaran. The
document also clearly names several towns
War II
in the Philippines and possibly Indonesia.
 The Filipinos were cooperative with the
Americans bringing ease in the problems in The Significance of the Copperplate
supply, construction and civil administration;  The copperplate reveals the influence of
helped ease the recapturing of the country by Hindu culture on the Philippines and
the Allied Forces Southeast Asia. Elements of their culture
had spread to the Philippines before 900
 Japan surrendered on September 2, 1945 AD. Cultural contact was most likely through
the Hindu Empires in Indonesia.
Additional information from Ma’am Samala:
 The objective is to encourage the Filipinos  In the case of Manila, the evidence
indicates that the city was populated before
to sympathize the Japanese and hate the
the arrival of Muslims. Muslims are thought
Americans to have arrived in Manila in the 1100’s-
 They don’t have control of America 1200’s. It also indicates Filipino interactions
 Want the Filipinos to let our flag fly in the air with Asia long before Magellan.
 “For as long as you are living, don’t lose
9) LAGUNA COPPERPLATE Excerpt copy paste from the internet
 The Laguna Copperplate Inscription is "On Friday, April twenty-six, Zula, a chief of
the oldest written document in the the island of Matan, sent one of his sons to
Philippines. The inscription was made in present two goats to the captain-general, and
900 AD. The inscription is similar to an old to say that he would send him all that he had
Indonesian script known as Kawi.
promised, but that he had not been able to

send it to him because of the other chief us into two divisions, and thus did we begin
Cilapulapu, who refused to obey the king of to fight. The musketeers and crossbowmen
Spagnia. He requested the captain to send shot from a distance for about a halfhour, but
him only one boatload of men on the next uselessly; for the shots only passed through
night, so that they might help him and fight the shields which were made of thin wood
against the other chief. The captain-general and the arms [of the bearers]. The captain
decided to go thither with three boatloads. cried to them, " Cease firing! cease firing I "
We begged him repeatedly not to go, but he, but his order was not at all heeded. When the
like a good shepherd, refused to abandon his natives saw that we were shooting our
flock. At midnight, sixty men of us set out muskets to no purpose, crying out they
armed with corselets and helmets, together determined to stand firm, but they redoubled
with the Christian king, the prince, some of their shouts. When our muskets were
the chief men, and twenty or thirty discharged, the natives would never stand
balanguais. still, but leaped hither and thither, covering
themselves with their shields. They shot so
We reached Matan three hours before dawn. many arrows at us and hurled so many
The captain did not wish to fight then, but bamboo spears (some of them tipped with
sent a message to the natives by the Moro to iron) at the captain-general, besides pointed
the effect that if they would obey the king of stakes hardened with fire, stones, and mud,
Spagnia, recognize the Christian king as that we could scarcely defend ourselves.
their sovereign, and pay us our tribute, he Seeing that, the captain-general sent some
would be their friend; but that if they wished men to burn their houses in order to terrify
otherwise, they should wait to see how our them.
lances wounded. They replied that if we had
lances they had lances of bamboo and When they saw their houses burning, they
stakes hardened with fire. [They asked us] were roused to greater fury. Two of our men
not to proceed to attack them at once, but to were killed near the houses, while we burned
wait until morning, so that they might have twenty or thirty houses. So many of them
more men. They said that in order to induce charged down upon us that they shot the
us to go in search of them; for they had dug captain through the right leg with a poisoned
certain pitholes between the houses in order arrow. On that account, he ordered us to
that we might fall into them. retire slowly, but the men took to flight,
except six or eight of us who remained with
When morning came forty-nine of us leaped the captain. The natives shot only at our legs,
into the water up to our thighs, and walked for the latter were bare; and so many were
through water for more than two crossbow the spears and stones that they hurled at us,
flights before we could reach the shore. The that we could offer no resistance. The
boats could not approach nearer because of mortars in the boats could not aid us as they
certain rocks in the water. The other eleven were too far away. So we continued to retire
men remained behind to guard the boats. for more than a good crossbow flight from the
When we reached land, those men had shore always fighting up to our knees in the
formed in three divisions to the number of water. The natives continued to pursue us,
more than one thousand five hundred and picking up the same spear four or six
persons. When they saw us, they charged times, hurled it at us again and again.
down upon us with exceeding loud cries, two Recognizing the captain, so many turned
divisions on our flanks and the other on our upon him that they knocked his helmet off his
front. When the captain saw that, he formed head twice, but he always stood firmly like a

good knight, together with some others. Thus the world, as he had almost done. That battle
did we fight for more than one hour, refusing was fought on Saturday, April twenty-seven,
to retire farther. 1521.

An Indian hurled a bamboo spear into the The captain desired to fight on Saturday,
captain's face, but the latter immediately because it was the day especially holy to
killed him with his lance, which he left in the him. Eight of our men were killed with him in
Indian's body. Then, trying to lay hand on that battle, and four Indians, who had
sword, he could draw it out but halfway, become Christians and who had come
because he had been wounded in the arm afterward to aid usi were killed by the mortars
with a bamboo spear. When the natives saw of the boats. Of the enemy, only fifteen were
that, they all hurled themselves upon him. killed, while many of us were wounded.
One of them wounded him on the left leg with
a large cutlass, which resembles a scimitar, In the afternoon the Christian king sent a
only being larger. That caused the captain to message with our consent to the people of
fall face downward, when immediately they Matan, to the effect that if they would give us
rushed upon him with iron and bamboo the captain and the other men who had been
spears and with their cutlasses, until they killed, we would give them as much
killed our mirror, our light, our comfort, and merchandise as they wished. They answered
our true guide. When they wounded him, he that they would not give up such a man, as
turned back many times to see whether we we imagined [they would do], and that they
were all in the boats. Thereupon, beholding would not give him for all the riches in the
him dead, we, wounded, retreated, as best world, but that they intended to keep him as
we could, to the boats, which were already a memorial."
pulling off.
The Christian king would have aided us, but What is a Manunggul Jar?
the captain charged him before we landed,
• A secondary burial jar o In secondary
not to leave his balanghai, but to stay to see
burial, only bones were placed in the jar, and
how we fought. When the king learned that
the jar itself is not buried.
the captain was dead, he wept. Had it not
• It signifies the beliefs of the early
been for that unfortunate captain, not a single
Filipinos in life after death.
one of us would have been saved in the
• One of the finest Philippine pre-
boats, for while he was fighting the others colonial artwork
retired to the boats. I hope through [the • Has an incised running scroll and
efforts of] your most illustrious Lordship that impressed decorations - painted with
the fame of so noble a captain will not hematite
become effaced in our times. Among the • Materials: Earthenware; Clay
other virtues which he possessed, he was • Measurements: W: 51.5cm H:
more constant than ever any one else in the 66.5cm
greatest of adversity. He endured hunger
better than all the others, and more
accurately than any man in the world did he Who discovered and created the Manunggul
understand sea charts and navigation. And Jar?
that this was the truth was seen openly, for
 Dr. Fox, former anthropologist of the
no other had had so much natural talent nor
National Museum together with Victor
the boldness to learn how to circumnavigate

Decalan, Hans Kasten and other volunteer of the head and under the jaw was
workers from the United States Peace used.
Corps. • Creator: Prehistoric inhabitants of
Quezon, Palawan The Manunggul Jar in the 1000 Philippine peso

When and Where was the Manunggul Jar ● The Manunggul jar was a symbol of
created? the National Museum: preservation the
cultural heritage—pamana—using multi-
 It was recovered in Quezon, Palawan in
disciplinary techniques.
the Philippines mainly in the Tabon Cave
Complex. ● It was a testament of how art can be
a vessel of history and culture with the help
 It was recovered during the archeological
exploration in 1960s. of scholars.
● A simple jar became the embodiment
 Creator date: Late Neolithic Period
of the history, experiences, and aspirations
 Creation date: BC; 890-710 BC Late
of the people.
Neolithic Period
 Currently in the National Museum of the CONTENT
 Used in ritual and burial purposes
 Closely related with “Culf of the
Symbolic Meanings of the Details in the Dead"
Manunggul Jar  The jar is one of a kind at present
● Spirit boat / Ship of the dead o The
medium used to travel in the afterlife
 Use of the Manunggul Jar as Secondary
● The soul, the boat driver, and the Burial because, nililibing muna tapos
boat itself aantayin maging buto, yung buto ang
ilalagay sa manunggul jar.
● The manner in which the hands of the  Two people in a boat, In front is the
front figure are folded across the chest o It is “ihahatid” (dead) while the person behind is
the position of a dead body when put into a the “tagahatid” with a sagwan. Ihahatid sa
coffin afterlife.

● Testament of the importance of  Boat because it is the main mode of

waters to our ancestors o Water has been transportation at that time, Philippines is an
the medium for trade not only of material archipelago.
aspects but also of information and
knowledge  Water symbolizes Life and Death.

 Significance:
● Both figures appear to be wearing a
o To know the evolution of burial
band tied over the crown of the head and practices. Ex. The practice of
under the jaw cremation today.
o There were no process of embalming o Aim to establish thorough cultural
before; therefore, in order to close the chronology.
eyes and to make the jaw stay in its
position, a band tied over the crown