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LECTURE NOTES
LECTURE NOTES

CHME 14 CHEMISTRY FOR ENGINEERS

(FINAL TERM)

ENGR. ALVIN N. DELIRO INSTRUCTOR
ENGR. ALVIN N. DELIRO
INSTRUCTOR

NUCLER CHEMISTRY

Nuclear chemistry

- is the study of the structure of the atomic nuclei, of the changes this structure undergoes, and of the consequences

of those changes for chemistry. Nuclear reaction refers to a

process in which an atom or nucleus is converted into

different chemical element.

Types of Nuclear Reactions

1. Nuclear fission is a process in which a single heavy nucleus

splits into two or more smaller and more stable nuclei.

2. Nuclear fusion is a process in which two or more smaller

nuclei combine to form a single heavier and more stable

nucleus

3. Nuclear Decay

NUCLER CHEMISTRY

Stable and Radioactive Isotopes

Isotopes

Atoms with the same number of protons, but with different

numbers of neutrons.

Isotopes have the same atomic number and are the same

element, but have different mass numbers.

Isotopes are generally named by their mass numbers, such

as rubidium-85 and rubidium-87.

Isotopes are often represented using the symbol:

named by their mass numbers, such as rubidium-85 and rubidium-87. ➢ Isotopes are often represented using

NUCLER CHEMISTRY

NUCLER CHEMISTRY

NUCLER CHEMISTRY

Stable isotopes Isotopes that have stable nuclei and do

not emit radiation.

Radioisotopes Isotopes that have unstable nuclei and

emit radiation.

For some elements, all isotopes are radioactive, such as

uranium and radium. For some elements, only one or some

isotopes are radioactive, such as rubidium and rhenium,

which each have two isotopes, with only one being

radioactive.

NUCLER CHEMISTRY

The nucleus of an isotope can be unstable for several

reasons:

If there are too many neutrons for the number of protons,

a neutron changes to a proton and an electron, with the

emitted electron being known as a negative beta (β-)

particle. This occurs in the case of cobalt-60.

electron, with the emitted electron being known as a negative beta (β -) particle. This occurs

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If there are too many protons for the number of

neutrons, a proton changes to a neutron and a positron,

with the emitted positron being known as a positive

beta (β+) particle. This occurs in the case of sodium-22.

beta (β+) particle. This occurs in the case of sodium -22. ➢ If there are too

If there are too many protons and neutrons (the

nucleus is too heavy), two protons and two neutrons

are emitted from the nucleus as a helium nucleus or an

alpha (α) particle, such as in the case of radon.

and two neutrons are emitted from the nucleus as a helium nucleus or an alpha (α)

NUCLER CHEMISTRY

Transuranic Elements

Transuranic elements elements beyond uranium in the

periodic table (having atomic no. greater than 92).

beyond uranium in the periodic table (having atomic no. greater than 92). Transuranic elements do not

Transuranic elements do not occur naturally.

NUCLER CHEMISTRY

Transuranic Elements are produced in two main ways:

Transuranic elements with atomic numbers 93 to 95

(neptunium, plutonium, and americium) are produced in

nuclear reactors by bombarding natural elements with

neutrons from produced in nuclear fission reactions.

Transuranic elements with atomic numbers above 95 are

produced by accelerating a relatively small nucleus in a

charged particle accelerator to combine with a heavy

nucleus. E.g. Hassium-265, which has an atomic number

of 108, was produced in 1984 by bombarding firing iron-

58 nuclei at lead-208 targets.

which has an atomic number of 108, was produced in 1984 by bombarding firing iron- 58

NUCLER CHEMISTRY

Commercial Radioisotopes

Commercial Radioisotopes radioisotopes that are used in

medicine, industry and/or scientific research.

Commercial radioisotopes are produced in two main ways:

Using neutrons produced in a nuclear fission reactor, such

as the production of cobalt-60 (used in medicine) from

cobalt-59:

production of cobalt-60 (used in medicine) from cobalt-59: ➢ Using particle accelerators to fire protons, deuterium

Using particle accelerators to fire protons, deuterium

atoms (deuterons) or Alpha particles at a target element,

such as the production of iodine-123 by the bombardment

of xenon atoms with protons:

Alpha particles at a target element, such as the production of iodine-123 by the bombardment of

NUCLER CHEMISTRY

Radioactivity

Radioactivity refers to the spontaneous disintegration of

an atom with the emission of radiation.

Radiation is an energy emitted from a source in the form

of rays or waves (e.g. sound, light or heat). This energy can

be converted into electrical energy but it can cause severe

damage to the human cells who are exposed to it.

NUCLER CHEMISTRY

Types of Atomic Radiation Atomic radiation is associated to nuclear reaction and it is generally of three forms:

1. Alpha (α) particle emission an alpha particle is a helium nuclei ejected with high energy from unstable nucleus that carries away two protons and two neutrons, with the net positive charge. The new element, a daughter nucleus, produced with atomic number decreased by 2 and an atomic mass number decreased by 4.

Example:

The mass number of the thorium atom is 4 less than the original uranium atom.

atomic mass number decreased by 4. Example: The mass number of the thorium atom is 4

NUCLER CHEMISTRY

NUCLER CHEMISTRY These fast moving helium atoms have high energy, but due to their large mass,

These fast moving helium atoms have high energy, but due to their large mass, they are stopped by just a few inches of air, or a piece of paper.

Uses: Many smoke detectors contain americium-241, which releases alpha radiation and helps detect smoke. Alpha radiation-emitting elements have also been used to power some heart pacemakers and some space probes including the Mars Curiosity Rover.

NUCLER CHEMISTRY

2. Beta (β) particle emission beta particles are identical to

electrons and fast moving. When ejected from the nucleus, a

particle carries away one unit with charge of (-1). This type of

decay process leaves the mass number of the nuclei

unchanged.

process leaves the mass number of the nuclei unchanged. Take note that there is no change

Take note that there is no change in the mass number even

as a new element is formed. However, the neutron is

changed into proton.

Since electrons are might lighter than helium atoms, they are

able to penetrate further, through several feet of air, or

several millimeters of plastic or less of very light metals.

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Uses: Beta radiation emitters can be used as tracers in

medicine to image inside the body and have also been used

in cancer treatment. In industry, they have been used to find

leaks in underground pipes, and to gauge the thickness of

materials during manufacture.

*Positron (β+) – is an antiparticle of an electron, bring just the

opposite of beta particle decay.

manufacture. *Positron (β+) – is an antiparticle of an electron, bring just the opposite of beta

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3. Gamma Rays (γ) – these are photons, just like light, except of much higher energy. X-Rays and gamma rays are really the same thing, the difference is how they were produced. Depending on their energy, they can be stopped by a thin piece of aluminum foil, or they can penetrate several inches

of lead. They often accompany alpha or beta emissions.

a thin piece of aluminum foil, or they can penetrate several inches of lead. They often

NUCLER CHEMISTRY

Uses: Gamma ray radiation is used to help sterilize medical

equipment and can also help sterilize foods. Gamma ray

detection is used by a number of telescope to produce

images. They have also been used in cancer treatments to

help kill cancer cells

Units of Radiation Measurement A large amount of material can have a very small amount of

radioactivity; a very small amount of material can have a lot

of radioactivity. The fact is the size or weight of a radioactive

material does not indicate how much radioactivity is in it.

NUCLER CHEMISTRY

The SI unit of radioactivity is the becquerel (Bq), named after

Henri Becquerel. A more widely used unit that measures

radioactivity in a quantity of material is curie, (Ci), named

after Pierre and Marie Curie. Below is the summary of units of

radiation:

in a quantity of material is curie, (Ci), named after Pierre and Marie Curie. Below is

NUCLER CHEMISTRY

Detecting Radiation

The three different types of radiation all have the ability to

ionise gases:

1. Alpha radiation is strongly ionising.

2. Beta radiation is less ionising.

3. Gamma radiation is only weakly ionising.

NUCLER CHEMISTRY

Ionising ability and other properties can be used to detect

radiation. There are a variety of instruments that can be used

for radiation detection:

properties can be used to detect radiation. There are a variety of instruments that can be

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Benefits and Problems of Radioisotopes:

NUCLER CHEMISTRY Benefits and Problems of Radioisotopes:

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Biological Effects of Radiation:

NUCLER CHEMISTRY Biological Effects of Radiation:

NUCLER CHEMISTRY

The Half-Life of a Radioisotope Half-life is a method for measuring rates of radioactive decay.

The half-life of a radioactive isotope is the time it takes for

one-half of the sample of that isotope to decay. It is also

defined as the time it required for the intensity of radiation

emitted by the isotope to halve.

Example: An isotope of cesium (cesium-137) has a half-life of

30 years. If 1.0 mg of cesium-137 disintegrates over a period

of 90 years, how many milligrams of cesium-137 would

remain?

NUCLER CHEMISTRY

Solution:

Every 30 years, half of our sample will decay. The table shows

the time elapsed and the remaining amount of cesium-137

within 90 years.

half of our sample will decay. The table shows the time elapsed and the remaining amount

NUCLER CHEMISTRY

Problem 1:

An 80g sample of 3 1 H decay, leaving2.5 g of 3 1 H. How long would this take? Problem 2:

If you start with 120g sample of Radium,How much will be

left after 44 days? Problem 3:

A sample of 3 1 H decays, leaving 3.1% of the original amount. How long would this take?

Problem 4:

You start with a 200g of Thallium 207. After

there is only 12.5 g of Thallium left. What is the half- life of

the decay process?

20 minutes,

NUCLER CHEMISTRY

Problem 5:

Dubnium 262 has a half-life of 34 seconds. How long will you

wait to see 500g of it decay to just 1 g?

NUCLER CHEMISTRY

Calculating Half-life The basic equations for calculations are as follows:

NUCLER CHEMISTRY Calculating Half-life The basic equations for calculations are as follows:

NUCLER CHEMISTRY

Problem 1:

Iodine-131 has a half-life period of 8 days. If you start with 60

mg, how much left after 64 days?

CHEMISTRY Problem 1: Iodine-131 has a half-life period of 8 days. If you start with 60

NUCLER CHEMISTRY

Problem 2 :

A 300 g of an unknown radioactive substance decays to 112 g

after 180 seconds. What is the half life of this substance?

: A 300 g of an unknown radioactive substance decays to 112 g after 180 seconds.

NUCLER CHEMISTRY

Problem 3:

A nuclear reactor produces 20 kg of uranium-232. If the half-

life of uranium-232 is about 70 years, how long will it take to

decay to 0.1 kg?

20 kg of uranium-232. If the half- life of uranium-232 is about 70 years, how long

NUCLER CHEMISTRY

How Does A Nuclear Power Plant Work?

Heavy elements such as Uranium (U235) or Thorium (Th232)

are subjected to nuclear fission reaction in a nuclear reactor.

Due to fission, a large amount of heat energy is produced

which is transferred to the reactor coolant. The coolant may

be water, gas or a liquid metal. The heated coolant is made

to flow through a heat exchanger where water is converted

into high-temperature steam. The generated steam is then

allowed to drive a steam turbine. The steam, after doing its work, is converted back into the water and recycled to the heat exchanger. The steam turbine is coupled to an alternator which generates electricity. The generated

electrical voltage is then stepped up using a transformer for

the purpose of long distance transmission.

NUCLER CHEMISTRY

How Does A Nuclear Power Plant Work?

Heavy elements such as Uranium (U235) or Thorium (Th232)

are subjected to nuclear fission reaction in a nuclear reactor.

Due to fission, a large amount of heat energy is produced

which is transferred to the reactor coolant. The coolant may

be water, gas or a liquid metal. The heated coolant is made

to flow through a heat exchanger where water is converted

into high-temperature steam. The generated steam is then

allowed to drive a steam turbine. The steam, after doing its work, is converted back into the water and recycled to the heat exchanger. The steam turbine is coupled to an alternator which generates electricity. The generated

electrical voltage is then stepped up using a transformer for

the purpose of long distance transmission.

NUCLER CHEMISTRY

Basic Components of a Nuclear Power Plant

(WITH VIDEOS)

Nuclear Reactor

A nuclear reactor is a special apparatus used to perform nuclear

fission. Since the nuclear fission is radioactive, the reactor is

covered by a protective shield. As the nuclei break up, it releases

energy as well as more neutrons which further cause fission of

neighbouring atoms. Hence, it is a chain reaction and it must be

controlled, otherwise it may result in explosion. A nuclear reactor

consists of fuel rods, control rods and moderator. A fuel rod

contains small round fuel pallets (uranium pallets). Control rods

are of cadmium which absorb neutrons. They are inserted into reactor and can be moved in or out to control the reaction. The moderator can be graphite rods or the coolant itself. Moderator slows down the neutrons before they bombard on the fuel rods.

NUCLER CHEMISTRY

Steam Turbine

Generated steam is passed through a steam turbine, which runs

due to pressure of the steam. As the steam is passed through the

turbine blades, the pressure of steam gradually decreases and it

expands in volume. The steam turbine is coupled to an alternator

through a rotating shaft.

Alternator

The steam turbine rotates the shaft of an alternator thus

generating electrical energy. Electrical output of the alternator is

the delivered to a step up transformer to transfer it over

distances.

Condenser

The steam coming out of the turbine, after it has done its work, is

then converted back into water in a condenser. The steam is

cooled by passing it through a third cold water loop.

NUCLER CHEMISTRY

NUCLER CHEMISTRY

NUCLER CHEMISTRY

END OF THE TOPIC FOR NUCLEAR CHEMISTRY THANK YOU FOR NOT SLEEPING….
END OF THE TOPIC FOR
NUCLEAR CHEMISTRY
THANK YOU FOR NOT
SLEEPING….

FUELS AND COMBUSTION

FUELS AND COMBUSTION

FUELS AND COMBUSTION

FUELS AND COMBUSTION

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FUELS AND COMBUSTION

FUELS AND COMBUSTION

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END OF THE TOPIC FOR FUELS AND COMBUSTION THANK YOU FOR NOT SLEEPING….
END OF THE TOPIC FOR
FUELS AND COMBUSTION
THANK YOU FOR NOT
SLEEPING….

THE CHEMISTRY OF ENGINEERING

MATERIALS

Materials Science involves investigating the

relationships that exist between the structures and

properties of materials

Materials Engineering on the basis of

these

or engineering the

produce a predetermined set of properties.

structureproperty

correlations,

of

a

designing

to

structure

material

BASIC CONCEPTS OF CRYSTAL

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