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English language

English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and eventually became a global lingua
franca.[4][5] Named after the Angles, one of the Germanic tribes that migrated to the area of Great Britain that would later take
English
Pronunciation /ˈɪŋɡlɪʃ/[1]
their name, England, both names ultimately deriving from the Anglia peninsula in the Baltic Sea. It is closely related to Frisian and
Low Saxon, and its vocabulary has been significantly influenced by other Germanic languages, particularly Norse (a North Region Worldwide
Germanic language), and to a greater extent Latin and French.[6] Native 360–
speakers 400 million (2006)[2]
English has developed over the course of more than 1,400 years. The earliest forms of English, a set of West Germanic (Ingvaeonic) L2 speakers:
dialects brought to Great Britain by Anglo-Saxon settlers in the 5th century, are collectively called Old English. Middle English 400 million;
began in the late 11th century with the Norman conquest of England and was a period in which the language was influenced by as a foreign
French.[7] Early Modern English began in the late 15th century with the introduction of the printing press to London, the printing language: 600–700
of the King James Bible and the start of the Great Vowel Shift.[8] million[2]
Language Indo-European
Through the worldwide influence of the British Empire, Modern English spread around the world from the 17th to mid-20th family
centuries. Through all types of printed and electronic media, and spurred by the emergence of the United States as a global
Germanic
superpower, English has become the leading language of international discourse and the lingua franca in many regions and West Germanic
professional contexts such as science, navigation and law.[9] Anglo-Frisian

English is the third most-spoken native language in the world, after Standard Chinese and Spanish.[10] It is the most widely Anglic
learned second language and is either the official language or one of the official languages in almost 60 sovereign states. There are English
more people who have learned it as a second language than there are native speakers. English is the most commonly spoken
Early forms Old English
language in the United Kingdom, the United States, Canada, Australia, Ireland and New Zealand, and it is widely spoken in some
areas of the Caribbean, Africa and South Asia.[11] It is a co-official language of the United Nations, the European Union and many Middle English
other world and regional international organisations. It is the most widely spoken Germanic language, accounting for at least 70% Early Modern
of speakers of this Indo-European branch. English has a vast vocabulary, though counting how many words any language has is English
impossible.[12][13] English speakers are called "Anglophones". Writing Latin script (English
system alphabet)
Modern English grammar is the result of a gradual change from a typical Indo-European dependent marking pattern with a rich
Anglo Saxon runes
inflectional morphology and relatively free word order to a mostly analytic pattern with little inflection, a fairly fixed SVO word (Historically)
order and a complex syntax.[14] Modern English relies more on auxiliary verbs and word order for the expression of complex
English Braille,
tenses, aspect and mood, as well as passive constructions, interrogatives and some negation. Despite noticeable variation among Unified English
the accents and dialects of English used in different countries and regions—in terms of phonetics and phonology, and sometimes Braille
also vocabulary, grammar and spelling—English-speakers from around the world are able to communicate with one another with
Signed forms Manually coded
relative ease.
English
(multiple systems)
Official status
Contents Official 67 countries
language in
Classification 27 non-sovereign
History entities
Proto-Germanic to Old English Various
Middle English organisations
Early Modern English
Language codes
Spread of Modern English
ISO 639-1 en (https://www.lo
Geographical distribution
c.gov/standards/is
Three circles of English-speaking countries
Pluricentric English o639-2/php/langcod

English as a global language es_name.php?iso_63


9_1=en)
Phonology
Consonants ISO 639-2 eng (https://www.l
Vowels oc.gov/standards/i
Phonotactics so639-2/php/langco
Stress, rhythm and intonation des_name.php?code_
Regional variation ID=130)
Grammar ISO 639-3 eng
Nouns and noun phrases
Adjectives
Glottolog stan1293 (http://g

Pronouns, case, and person lottolog.org/resou

Prepositions rce/languoid/id/st

Verbs and verb phrases an1293)[3]


Tense, aspect and mood Linguasphere 52-ABA
Phrasal verbs
Adverbs
Syntax
Basic constituent order
Clause syntax
Auxiliary verb constructions
Questions
Discourse level syntax    Areas where English is a
Vocabulary majority native language
Word formation processes