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THE FLORIDA STATE UNIVERSITY

SCHOOL OF MUSIC

THE PREFERENCE FOR STRONG OR WEAK SINGER’S FORMANT

RESONANCE IN CHORAL TONE QUALITY

By

JOSEPH KEVIN FORD

A Dissertation submitted to the


School o f Music
in partial fulfillment o f the
requirements for the degree o f
Doctor o f Philosophy

Degree Awarded:
Summer Semester, 1999

Copyright © Joseph Kevin Ford


All Rights Reserved

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UMI Number: 9942237

C o p y r ig h t 1999 b y
F o r d , J o s e p h K e v in

All rights reserved.

UMI Microform 9942237


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The members o f the committee approve the dissertation o f Joseph Kevin Ford

defended on June 15, 1999.

JacJk'A. Taylor
Pirofessor Directing Dissertation

itteeMember

Charles E. Brewer
Outside Committee Member

Rodney Eichetjberger
Committee Member

Andre J. Thomas
Committee Member

Approved:

Jon R.(Piereol, Dean, School o f Music

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ACKNOW LEDGEM ENTS

I would like to express my gratitude to Dr. Jack A. Taylor who served as my

major professor. His guidance and support along with his time and patience

throughout this process is greatly appreciated. I would also like to thank my

committee members, Dr. Judy K. Bowers, Dr. Charles E. Brewer, Professor Rodney

Eichenberger, and Dr. Andre J. Thomas. They have each contributed immeasurably to

both this document and to my education at this institution.

I would also like to acknowledge and thank Betty Brown, Florida State

University Academic Computing and Network Services for all o f her statistical and

programming advice.

I would like to thank my family and friends for their support and

encouragement. Most importantly, I would like to express my immense gratitude to

my wife Allyson, not only for her editing comments but also for the love,

encouragement, patience, and help that she has given me during this time in our lives.

iii

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TABLE OF C O NTENTS

LIST OF FIGURES......................................................................................................... vii

LIST OF T A B L E S........................................................................................................... ix

A BSTRA CT....................................................................................................................*

Chapter B?ge

1. INTRODUCTION...............................................................................................1

Historical American Perspective....................................................................... 1

Purpose................................................................................................................. 5

2. REVIEW OF LITERATURE.......................................................................... 6

Elements of Tone Q uality................................................................................ 6

Choral Directors Preference for Tone Q u ality.............................................. 8


Choral Conducting and Methods T e x ts .............................................. 8
Choral Tone Articles by Conductors.................................................. 14
Studies on Choral Conductor's Preference for Resonance in Tone.. 17

Vocal Pedagogues Preference for Resonance in Solo and Choral T o n e ......22


Texts That Do Not Address Choral Tone Specifically..................... 22
Texts That Address Choral Tone Specifically.................................. 29

Voice Sciences Contribution to Resonance in Vocal T o n e ...........................32


Voice Science T e x ts..............................................................................32
Voice Science Studies Related to Resonance in Vocal T o n e 39

Studies of Choral Tone Q uality....................................................................... 51


Blend and Balance Studies................................................................. 51
Vibrato Studies......................................................................................55
Intonation S tudies................................................................................ 58
Resonance S tudies................................................................................ 61

iv

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Sum m ary.............................................................................................................67

N e e d .................................................................................................................... 67

3. M ETH O D .......................................................................................................... 69

D efinitions.......................................................................................................... 69

Lim itations............................................................................................................69

Stimulus R ecording........................................................................................... 70
M usic......................................................................................................71
Recording Process....................................................................................72
Recordings For The Main S tu d y ......................................................... 75
Tallis - I f Ye Love M e ................................................................ 77
Gastoldi - Adoramus t e ............................................................ 78
Brahms - Waldesnacht du wunderkiihle................................ 82
Bruckner - Locus is le ............................................................... 82

Pilot Studies......................................................................................................... 86
Pilot study o n e ....................................................................................... 86
Pilot study tw o ....................................................................................... 87

Main S tu d y ........................................................................................................... 88

4. RESU LTS........................................................................................................... 91

Order E ffect........................................................................................................ 91

Demographic D a ta ............................................................................................. 92
Subjects: Music Majors with Choral T raining.................................... 93
Subjects: Music Majors with Instrumental Training b u t.................. 94
no Choral Training
Subjects: Non-Music Majors with no Choral o r ............................... 95
Instrumental Training

Research Question O n e ...................................................................................... 95

Research Question T w o ...................................................................................... 101

Intensity o f Preference........................................................................................ 107

5. DISCUSSION.................................................................................................... 108

Interpretation of the R esults............................................................................. 108


V

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Research questions.................................................................................. 108

Problems with the S tu d y ................................................................................... 110


Order e ffe ct............................................................................................ 110
Other aspects o f the stu d y .................................................................... I l l

Implications for M u sic.........................................................................................112

Recommendations for Future R esearch.............................................................113


Measurement to o ls ................................................................................ 113
Future research implied by this stu d y ................................................. 114

APPENDIX A International Phonetic Alphabet c h a rt.................................... 117

APPENDIX B Four Music Exam ples............................................................... 118

APPENDIX C Choral Tone Q uestionnaire.........................................................120

APPENDIX D Average Spectrum Data for Tallis Exam ples......................... 123

APPENDIX E Average Spectrum Data for Gastoldi Exam ples.................... 144

APPENDIX F Average Spectrum Data for Brahms Exam ples......................165

APPENDIX G Average Spectrum Data for Bruckner Exam ples................... 186

APPENDIX H Subject Free Response C om m ents............................................207

REFERENCES.................................................................................................................210

BIOGRAPHICAL SK ETC H .......................................................................................... 227

vi

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L IST O F F IG U R E S

Figure Page

1. Tallis - resonant version - average of right and left channels............................. 79


with spectrum expanded

2. Tallis - non-resonant version - average o f right and left channels...................... 79


with spectrum expanded

3. Tallis - average spectrum ........................................................................................ 80

4. Gastoldi - resonant version - average o f right and left channels......................... 80


with spectrum expanded

5. Gastoldi - non-resonant version - average o f right and left channels..................81


with spectrum expanded

6. Gastoldi - average spectrum ................................................................................... 81

7. Brahms - resonant version -average o f right and left channels...........................83


with spectrum expanded

8. Brahms - non-resonant version - average o f right and left channels...................83


with spectrum expanded

9. Brahms - average spectrum ..................................................................................... 84

10. Bruckner - resonant version - average o f right and left channels......................... 84


with spectrum expanded

11. Bruckner - non-resonant version - average o f right and left channels................ 85


with spectrum expanded

12. Bruckner - average spectrum ................................................................................... 85

vii

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13. Frequency of resonant versus non-resonant responses..........................................99
to Renaissance excerpts

14. Frequency of resonant versus non-resonant responses..........................................99


to Romantic excerpts

15. Mean scores o f non-resonant responses by three training groups........................ 105

viii

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L IST O F T A B L E S

Table Page

1. Total RMS Power for Each Music Example and D ifferences...........................76


Between Versions

2. T-Test Results for Order E ffect............................................................................ 92

3. Non-resonant Versus Resonant Responses Across All Subjects.......................96

4. Frequency o f Non-resonant Responses................................................................ 97

5. Frequency o f Resonant Responses........................................................................98

6. T-Test Results for All Subjects’ Preference for a Non-resonant or a .................100


Resonant Choral Tone Quality

7. One-Way ANOVA for Training Versus Resonance Preferences........................101

8. Scheffe Test for Multiple Comparisons o f Three Training G roups....................102


for Non-resonant Preferences

9. Scheffe Test for Multiple Comparisons o f Three Training G roups....................103


for Resonant Preferences

10. Descriptive Statistics for Three Training Groups Across N on-resonant 104
Versus Resonant Preferences

11. Intensity of Preference Data by Subjects.................................................................107

ix

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ABSTRACT

The purpose o f this study was to determine if (a) college undergraduate choral

or vocal music majors with choral training (choral training), (b) college undergraduate

music majors with instrumental training but no choral training (instrumental training),

and (c) college undergraduates with no music training (no music training) prefer a

choral tone quality that has a fully resonate singer’s formant to a choral tone quality

that is produced with the same voices using a much weaker singer’s formant

resonance.

Eight graduate voice students recorded four excerpts o f four part choral music

in an anacohic chamber. Each o f the excerpts was recorded twice. One recording was

made with the singers singing with a full soloistic placement which resulted in a tone

with a strong upper resonance in the singer’s formant range (2 kHz - 4 kHz). The

second recording was made with a greatly reduced singer’s formant resonance. These

recordings were analyzed and used to make a stimulus recording for the study.

The subjects for the preference study were all undergraduate college students

(iV = 139) from a major University in the Southeastern United States. O f the 139

subjects. 49 were vocal or choral music majors that had extensive training in choral

music, 47 were instrumental music majors who had very little or no training in choral

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music, and 43 were undergraduate students who had no training in either choral or

instrumental music. The subjects were randomly assigned to one o f two listening

groups. One group listened to six pairings each o f two o f the choral music excerpts

for a total o f twelve trials. For each excerpt, the order o f presentation o f the non-

resonant version versus the resonant version was presented three times in one order

and three times in the reverse order. Each o f the six trials was randomized with the six

trials from the second choral music excerpt. The same procedure was followed for the

second two choral music excerpts.

Upon listening to the trials, the subjects were asked to note the excerpt that was

performed with the tone quality that they liked the best. A significant difference (p <

.000) was observed at the .05 alpha level indicating that there was a difference

between the non-resonant and the resonant responses. Examination o f the mean scores

revealed that all o f the subjects preferred a non-resonant tone quality (M = 7.95) over a

resonant tone quality (A/= 4.05). When the three training groups were used as factors,

a significant difference o f (p < .000) was observed between the choral training group

and the instrumental training group. There was also a significant difference (p = .001)

between the choral training group and the no music training group. The difference

between the instrumental training group and the no music training group was not

significant (p = .998). This seems to indicate that not only do most subjects prefer a

non-resonant choral tone to a resonant one but also choral training seems to increase

that preference. It must be noted that this study is limited to the responses o f college

undergraduate students and is also limited to the four choral music excerpts recorded

for this study.

xi

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CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

The concept o f tone quality in a choral ensemble encompasses a large variety

of topics. These can include topics related to vocal technique which may include

breathing, posture, relaxation, absence o f vocal tension, resonance, intonation, range,

dynamics, and diction. Darrow, in his book Four Decades o f Choral Training. lists

the following concepts as attributes o f tone quality: color, timbre, resonance, volume,

density, high overtone formant, low overtone formant, blend, vibrato, physical effort,

and interpretative potential (Darrow, 1975, p. 12). An examination of the growth in

choral music in the United States over the past century reveals an active development

and evolution of the tone quality o f the choral instrument.

Historical American Perspective o f Choral Tone Quality

Choral music in America finds itself at the end o f a century that has witnessed

considerable development and evolution concerning tone quality. Before the 1920s

there were very few cities with choral organizations reported to be of high quality.

However, with the a cappella choir movement o f the 1920s. choral music in America

experienced an awakening. According to Howard Swan, out o f this activity, six

discernible schools of choral music performance evolved (Swan. 1973. p. 4). These

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choral schools centered around the following people: (a) John Finley Williamson o f

the Westminster Choir College, (b) Father William J. Finn, director o f the Paulist

Choristers from Chicago, (c) F. Melius Christiansen o f the St. O laf College Choir, (d)

Fred Waring, director of the Fred Waring Glee Club, (e) the voice scientists Joseph J.

Klein, Douglas Stanley, and John C. Wilcox, and (0 Robert Shaw, former director of

the Atlanta Symphony Orchestra and Chorus (Swan, 1973, p. 9). O f those six choral

schools, the two that were considered polar opposites concerning choral tone quality

were those founded by John Finley Williamson and F. Melius Christiansen .

F. Melius Christiansen was the founder o f the St. Olaf College Choir at St.

Olaf College in Northfield Minnesota. Christiansen felt that each voice in the choir

should give up its unique tone in order to match an ideal tone. He tested the voices,

ears, and even the personalities o f potential singers in order to build a choir o f singers

that would conform their voices to that o f the ideal tone for his choir (Bergmann.

1944, pp. 144-145). Harold Swan stated that in Christiansen's choir each singer was

responsible for subordinating "his own ideas concerning tone production, rhythmic

stress, and pronunciation to the blended and unified sound made by the total

ensemble” (Swan, 1973, p. 9). The resulting choral tone was soft and free o f almost

all vibrato and allowed no one voice to predominate the texture. This met

Christiansen's needs for his a cappella choir's tone quality.

The opposite ideal choral tone was cultivated at the Westminster Choir

College, which eventually found its home in Princeton New Jersey. After initially

holding Christiansen's ideal as his model, its founder John Finley Williamson broke

with this sound and developed his own ideal tone quality. Williamson, who believed

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that "choral voices must be vocal voices” (Buehler, 1989, p. 44), stressed individuality

and individual vocal growth in each voice. The choral tone quality that resulted from

Williamson’s experiments was one that was much louder in sound and possessed a

full-bodied vibrato. Williamson’s Westminster choir needed this additional loud

dynamic level due to the fact that they were now asked to sing with, and be heard over

an orchestra (Robinson, 1981, p. 6). Swan stated that Williamson’s ideal tone was

"big, dark, intense and colorful” (Swan, 1973, p. 15).

O f the remaining schools o f American choral singing, Father William J. Finn

relied most heavily on vocalization to set the tone quality o f his choirs. Finn founded

the Paulist Choristers of Chicago in 1904 and later moved to New York to work with

choruses there (Finn, 1939, preface). One o f his most unique ideas regarding choral

tone quality was in modeling voices to orchestral instruments. He would associate

voices to different instruments and admit members to his choir based on a prescribed

ratio o f these vocal instruments. For example, he categorized his first sopranos as

flutes or strings and combined them evenly in his first soprano section. He would

vocalize these “flute” sopranos on the vowel-consonant combination "foo” and the

“string” sopranos on “mee” in order to fUrther develop this unique timbre. These

types o f color combinations were continued throughout the sections o f his choir

(Swan, 1973, pp.15-16).

Fred Waring emphasized the importance o f clear diction with his ensemble.

His ensemble began regular broadcasts on radio during 1933 and continued this

presence until the late 1950’s (Kiefer, 1999). Waring, due to his desire to

communicate clearly with his audience, developed a system o f unifying the diction of

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his chorus. That system, known as tone syllables, utilized phonetic transcriptions of

the words that, when read in place o f the English words, caused the singers to produce

the pure vowels and consonants at a unified time. Waring hired a young student

choral director from Pamona College in California to work with his glee club. This

young choral director’s name was Robert Lawson Shaw and he went on to become

one o f the leading figures in American choral music.

Shaw learned the importance o f diction to the overall choral sound from

Waring. He combined this with the passion for music that he learned from preparing

choruses for Arturo Toscanini in New York, the precision that he learned from

working with George Szell in Cleveland and the theoretical discipline that he learned

from Julius Herford (Baxter, 1996, p. 11). Furthermore, he combined these with an

attention to detail and a rhythmic vitality that resulted in a choral tone with energy,

depth, and flexibility.

The final influential group in regard to American choral singing was the school

that Harold Swan labeled the ''Voice Scientists.” These voice scientists, including

among others Joseph J. Klein, Douglas Stanley, John C. Wilcox, Arnold Rose, and D.

Van Nostrand, espoused a mechanistic approach to singing that sought to develop the

range, volume, and projection quality or resonance o f the soloistic voice (Swan, 1973.

P- 29).

Although virtually no written support for a ‘‘straight tone” approach to choral

tone has occurred since 1945 (Darrow, 1975. p. 17), choral professionals in America

still struggle with the basic tenants represented in these six choral schools. Most

choral conductors today can trace their tonal concepts back to one or more o f these

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influences. This evidence of preferred choral tone quality by choral directors in the

United States has been fairly clear. However, the choral tone quality preferences o f

musicians and non-musicians have not been as thuioughiy researched.

Purpose

The purpose o f this study is to determine if college undergraduate choral or

vocal music majors with choral music experience, instrumental music majors with

very little or no choral music experience, and non-music majors prefer a choral tone

quality that has a fully resonate singer’s formant tone to a choral tone quality that is

produced with the same voices using a much weaker singer's formant resonance. The

research questions are as follows:

1. Do college students prefer a choral tone quality that possesses a fully resonate

tone complete with a pronounced singer’s formant to a choral tone quality that

is produced with the same voices using a much weaker singer’s formant

resonance?

2. Is there a difference in the preference o f (a) college music majors with

experience in choral music, (b) college music majors with an instrumental

background and no choral experience, or (c) college students with no

experience in instrumental or choral music for a choral tone quality that

possesses a fully resonate tone complete with a pronounced singer’s formant to

a choral tone quality that is produced with the same voices using a much

weaker singer's formant resonance?

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CHAPTER TWO

REVIEW OF LITERATURE

Elements o f Tone Quality

The historical schools o f American choral singing have led to a variety of

approaches to choral tone quality. To further discuss these differences in tone quality

we must first define the elements that make up choral tone quality. Gerald F. Darrow.

in his book Four Decades o f Choral Training, analyzed the publications that appeared

between 1930 and 1970 that dealt with choral vocal training (Darrow. 1975. 12). In

his study he found that authors referred to tone quality using the following terms: 128

authors referred to tone quality. 81 authors referred to tone color. 55 authors referred

to resonance, and 17 authors referred to timbre. From those references he also

compiled the following list o f the attributes o f tone quality: (a) color, (b) timbre, (c)

resonance, (d) volume, (e) density, (f) high overtone formant, (g) low overtone

formant, (h) blend, (i) vibrato, (j) physical effort, and (k) interpretative potential

(p. 12).

O f the above mentioned attributes o f tone quality, those o f color, timbre,

resonance, high overtone formant, low overtone formant, and even interpretive

potential, volume and density are very interrelated. The last two attributes are related

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to the former through the fact that as intensity increases in vocal sound, the energy in

the high formant increases and the sound becomes denser. Those attributes therefore

will be considered together under the heading of resonance. The following sequence

will be used to direct the investigation into the related literature: (a) choral conducting

and methods books that address tone quality, and interviews with and investigations o f

professional, collegiate, and high school choral conductors, (b) voice pedagogy books

that address choral tone quality, (c) blend studies, (d) balance studies, (e) vibrato

studies, (f) intonation studies, and (g) resonance studies dealing with both the solo

voice and the choral voice. Furthermore, when necessary, the literature will be

discussed in terms o f anecdotal studies or writings and scientific investigations.

Finally, the area o f choral and vocal tone quality is large but there are few specific

studies cited that are directly related to the present study.

Early in this century, acoustical studies by Bartholomew revealed that a peak

o f resonance occurred in the male singing voice in the range o f 2800 to 2900 Hz

(Bartholomew. 1934). This area represents the ring or resonance in the male singing

voice (Bartholomew, 1942 pp. 145-147). Vennard labeled this spectrum peak the

2800 because in the studies done both by him and the researchers before him, 2800 Hz

seemed to be in the center o f the range o f frequencies that produced the ring or

resonance peak (Vennard, 1967. p. 89). This peak o f energy was later named the

singers formant and has been defined by Sundberg as: " ...a prominent spectrum

envelope peak appearing in the vicinity o f 3 kHz in all vowel spectra sung by male

singers and also by altos'’ (Sundberg, 1988b p. 14). This singers’ formant has been the

subject of considerable research since Bartholomew’s early work (Magill, 1978:

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Nawka, 1997; Seidner, 1985; Sundberg, 1970b; Sundberg, 1972a; Sundberg, 1972b;

Wang, 1985). Other voice teachers have addressed resonance in vocal solo tone

quality as well (Appelman, 1986; Christy, 1961; Miller, 1986).

Choral Director’s Preference for Resonance in Choral Tone

Choral Conducting And Methods Texts

Many o f the hundreds o f choral conducting and choral methods texts deal with

the training o f the singing voice in the choral situation, and most o f these deal with the

topic of choral tone quality in a relatively general way (Hjortsvang, 1941; Kohut.

1990; Manson, 1961; McElheran. 1966; Neidig, 1967; Terry, 1991).

Many o f these texts reflect a strong tendency toward the tonal ideals o f one or

more particular schools o f American choral conducting (See the discussion on the six

historical schools of American choral music in chapter one.). Two works that

incorporate many of the ideals o f the St. O laf tradition are Eisenkramer's Techniques

in Voice Blending (Eisenkramer, 1949). and Max Krone's The Chorus and it's

Conductor (Krone, 1945). Some of the texts that reflect the influence o f the

Westminster Choir College or the Voice Scientists are Choral Conducting by Davison

(Davison, 1940), Glee Club and Chorus by Christy (Christy, 1940), Evoking Sound by

Jordan (Jordan. 1996). and Natural Singing and Expressive Conducting by Peterson

(Peterson. 1966). Still other texts can trace their influences at least in part to the ideals

of Father Finn. In this case, we have the fortune o f having two texts written by Finn.

Those are the Art o f the Choral Conductor (Finn. 1939), and The Conductor Raises

His Baton (Finn. 1944). However, many o f the concepts listed in Cain's Choral

Music and i t ’s Practice (Cain. 1942) can be traced back to concepts o f Finn with the

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exception o f using the vocalizations to achieve a homogeneous sound instead o f a

sound based on a variety o f instrumental timbres. Furthermore, Sunderman’s two

texts stress the diction components that were important to Fred Waring (Sunderman,

1952; Sunderman, 1970).

In other conducting texts, the authors’ concepts o f tone quality demonstrate

influences by more than one school. In The Rehearsal Guide fo r the Choral Director,

Boyd discusses four different tone qualities desirable in a chorus: straight tone, smooth

tone, rich, and driven tone (Boyd, 1977). While Stanton supports many of the ideals

of Robert Shaw, he also supports the voice matching concepts found in the St. Olaf

tradition (Stanton, 1971). Decker and Kirk discuss tone quality for the choir in a

context o f sensitivity to the mood o f the text, diction, and the historical perspective

(Decker, 1995). Ehret also supported the idea o f a choral tone quality that is flexible

and reflects the mood o f the text (Ehret, 1959).

Several authors support a tonal concept that varies with the historical time

period o f the musical composition. Gordon, in his text "Choral Directors Complete

Handbook,” holds to this belief. He feels that the tone quality used in a Baroque work

should be clear, vibrato-free, agile, and relatively thin. He also feels that choral music

of the Classical period should be lyric, buoyant, and light with minimal vibrato.

Choral music o f the Romantic period, in his opinion, should have relatively more

weight and a richer tone with more vibrato. The final stylistic category that Gordon

covers is Impressionism. With this music, he recommends a controlled sound that can

maintain consistent crescendi and decrescendi (Gordon. 1977).

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HefFeman feels that choral music o f the Renaissance should be sung with a

tone that is clear but not necessarily vibrato-free. In Baroque music, he supports a

tone that is more expressive than that used in the Renaissance but still not as

expressive as Romantic music (Heffeman, 1982). In the text, Pragmatic Choral

Procedures, Hammar also supports the idea that tone quality is linked to historical

performance practice. He believes that Renaissance music should be performed with a

transparent sound, and with very little vibrato. Baroque music requires a “clean” and

“lean” sound. For music of the Rococo, clarity of vocal line should be a goal and

music of the Classical period should contain precise and clear vocal lines. Music from

the Romantic period should contain lush lines and contemporary music should be

performed with clear lines. Hammar feels that “choral tone should reflect the physical

nature o f each era's m usic...” (Hammar, 1984, pp. 57-58).

In a more current work, Hylton supported the performance practice approach

to choral tone as well. In addition to this historical approach, Hylton went further to

discuss general tone quality. He stated that "...the tone quality o f an ensemble should

vary according to the type of repertoire being studied; however, certain basic ideas on

the development o f solid individual vocal technique are applicable in most situations”

(Hylton, 1995. pp. 5-6). One o f these basic ideas is the concept o f vocal resonance. In

his text he gives exercises that are designed to build and unify the resonance in singers

(pp. 15, 29). Robinson, another recent author, discusses choral tone quality in a

historical context in his book The Choral Experience (Robinson, 1992).

Other authors have discussed a difference between solo and choral singing.

Finn, in addition to explaining his “color scheme” and discussing the child’s voice.

10

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also mentioned that there was a difference between choral and solo singing (Finn,

1939). Decker and Kirk also mention this difference (Decker, 1995), as did Davison

(Davison, 1940). Although these authors mentioned a difference between singing solo

and in a chorus, they did not mention the specific difference. Krone identified vibrato

as the difference between solo and choral singing. In his opinion "a certain amount of

vibrato is undoubtedly desirable in a solo voice to give it individual color, but the

owner of such a voice is o f little value in an ensemble unless he is willing to subdue

him self’ (Krone, 1945, p. 80). The conductor Stanton goes so far as to say that some

solo voices do not make good choral singers although he later continues the thought

and adds that a "completely trained voice” is successful in both areas (Stanton, 1971,

pp. 77-79).

Many conductors and conducting teachers incorporate information from voice

science into their techniques and tonal preferences. Howerton embraced these ideas in

his text Technique and Style in Choral Singing when he instructed the reader to seek a

vocal tone that is placed "in the mask.” This "singing in the mask or masque” became

a common instruction for a vocal pedagogue to give a singer in an attempt to increase

the focus and singer’s formant resonance in the tone. Howerton also stated that “often

the lack of resonance is due to insufficient physical exertion” (Howerton, 1958, p. 14).

Peterson stated that "The vocal tone must always have a feeling o f height,

depth, and forwardness.” The author views the open throat as the primary origin o f

resonance. He described three types o f resonances and suggested vowel/consonant

combinations to develop each type. For resonance in the throat, he suggested singing

on an ah vowel (International Phonetic Alphabet symbol [a]). A chart that includes

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the International Phonetic Associations [IPA] symbols used in this study is included in

Appendix A. Head resonance should be developed using the word “moon.'1And mask

resonance or singer’s formant resonance could be developed using the

vowel/consonant combination nyah (or IPA symbols [nija]). As the abilities o f the

singers progress, Peterson suggested combining the exercises (Peterson, 1966, p. 43).

In a 1967 article for the Choral Directors Guide, Nicholas recommended humming

and raising the upper lip as a means o f developing high resonance (Nicholas, 1967, pp.

39-54).

Kortkamp suggested a full open throat technique that uses a hum to increase

the upper resonance or “high overtones." He also suggested vocalizing beginning on

the voiced consonant [rj] and then moving directly to a vowel. This vocal exercise is

intended to increase the nasal resonance and the high overtones. The recommendation

was also made that the singers imagine focusing the tone behind the forehead. Other

vocal exercises that the author offered are on the words “win, when, and Wayne"

(Kortkamp, 1969).

Roe advocated extensive use o f the hum and the consonant n (as in ring, IPA

symbol [q]) in combination with various vowels in developing high resonance in the

voice. He also recommended singing on the ee [i] and ay [e] vowels or adding a

“smile” to develop the high resonance (Roe, 1983). In Choral Techniques, Lamb

discussed tone quality in terms o f increased resonance and placement o f tone (Lamb.

1979). Roach discussed resonance in vocal tone quality in his text Complete

Secondary Choral Music Guide. Under the heading “improving vocal resonance” the

author stated that "the director should work for a choral tone that has a singing
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resonance and a deep, rich warm sound.” He added that “some voices have this

quality in part o f their singing range, but constant voice training will help develop this

quality throughout the singing range. Choirs need to focus the tone forward behind

the nose. Some refer to this tone placement area as the mask...” (Roach, 1989).

Ehmann and Haasemann presented a collection o f exercises designed to

develop the forward resonance in the choir rehearsal. A notable feature o f their

suggestions is that many of the exercises use sounds of which the singers are familiar.

For example, the authors suggest developing resonance through yawning, imitating

bleating sheep, snorting pigs, buzzing bees, and grumbling flies (Ehmann. 1981, p. 11).

In Ehmann's separate book on choral conducting he offers additional suggestions for

developing high forward resonance. He suggests asking the singers to imagine that

the tone originates behind the eyes and proceeds through the eyes. He also suggests

that the tone could be imagined soaring above the head or spinning behind the nose.

He adds that consonants [n] or [q] to vowels for vocalizing in order to develop upper

resonance and nasal resonance.

More recently, Garretson’s Conducting Choral Music contains a lengthy

discussion on methods o f developing high-forward resonance. In this section,

Garretson took a more physiological approach to developing resonance. He suggested

that the singers should develop a high arch to the soft palate by invoking the sensation

of a yawn. He also suggested raising the muscles above the lip in order to add more

high resonance. The reader also is encouraged to warm the singers' voices up with a

descending scale while having them maintain the feeling o f a yawn, raise the upper lip

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muscles, and keep their teeth separated by the width of two fingers (Garretson, 1998,

pp. 79-86).

in Collins’ 1999 edition o f Teaching Choral M usk, he presented methods of

increasing resonance in the adult singing voice as well as in voices o f children. After

an initial physiological discussion he recommended that "all vowels ring above and

behind the hard palate.” He went on to say that high pitches require nasal or head

resonance, lower pitches should resonate in the pharynx area, and middle pitches

should combine the two areas o f resonance (Collins, 1999, pp. 217-218).

Choral Tone Articles By Conductors

Mayer wrote an article examining the importance of intonation to the concept

o f blend in a chorus. Mayer states that "...blend in a section or the whole choir is

achieved through careful attention to three factors: timbre, dynamics and pitch.... 'off­

color' sound and improper tone production are not compatible with good blend”

(Mayer. 1964).

In Diercks' "The Individual in the Choral Situation," the author states his

belief that singers will sing with a better tone in a mixed formation (quartets of

soprano, alto, tenor, and bass). He stated that "we find nearly all listeners note a richer

tone emanating from the group so arranged” (Diercks. 1962).

Draper published the following statement about his choral tonal preferences in

a 1972 article for the Choral Journal:

I insist that good singing in the choral group is exactly the same as

good solo singing. The techniques are parallel. In the solo voice the

teacher and singer alike are striving for a good vocal or singing line.

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resonance, perfect balance between the breath and tone, a feeling o f

buoyancy, relaxed and free tone alleviating all throat tension, etc. The

same is true with the singer and teacher in a choral group (Draper,

1972).

After initially stating that he does nothing to develop the tone quality o f his

choirs, Jones continued stating that he uses nasal exercises to develop the “overtone.”

He gave several ideas for exercises designed to develop this resonance that he referred

to as singing with “an open head.” He continued stating that “when we sing with an

open head, - only then do we have access to the full and wonderful potential of the

human voice - in one sense, a whole new world o f overtone color” (Jones, 1957, p.

17). The opposite ideal is expressed by Arnold Jones who stated that you should

develop the choral tone on the warm hum because it was most near to the fundamental

pitch without the “high, strident overtones o f a poorly produced tone” (Jones, 1977,

pp.64-65).

In her article “A Voice Teacher Looks at the Choral Scene,” Lee suggested

having the students “sing through the yawn position” (Lee, 1977, p. 6). This is a very

common phrase in vocal pedagogy that is usually accompanied with the warning to

sing with the larynx in the position o f the beginning o f a yawn. The position that the

larynx takes toward the end o f the yawn can be too low for proper singing. Further,

this type o f larynx position is consistent with Sundberg's findings regarding the low

position o f the larynx resulting in the production o f the singer's formant.

Lyall recommended a choral tone quality with "ringing resonance" and

suggested that this was necessary for maintaining pitch. He went further

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recommended keeping an “open throat” while singing. Even more specifically related

to singer’s formant resonance is his s'tatement “ . . . a beautiful singing tone must have,

besides fullness and roundness, ‘top,’ and/or focus. This quality is often described as

forward placement. It adds brightness, sparkle, and a bell-like quality to the tone...”

(Lyall, 1970).

In “Putting Horses Before Carts: Voices and Choral Music,” Thurman stated

that “the most basic concern o f choral conductors would be to help singers leam

formations o f the resonance spaces which would release optimal, desired tone

qualities, and to help them avoid formations which would interfere with same”

(Thurman, 1983, p.8). The author continues with discussions on the larynx positions

and the soft palate position in regard to resonance in the voice.

In the article “Tone Quality: a pragmatic approach for high school choirs,”

Colness recommended having the singers keep an open throat. He stated that this

would produce “beneficial changes” in the singers voice quality (Colness. 1967).

Considering research by Sundberg (covered later in this document), we know that the

open throat is produced by an enlarged and lowered larynx, which produces the

acoustical feature in the voice known as the singer’s formant (Sundberg, 1972a).

Another article that mentioned this space or “open throat” was “Balancing

Space and Energy in Choral Voices” by Daniel. The author advocated using mental

imagery to obtain this balance between space and energy (Daniel. 1993). This would

also increase the resonance in the singer's formant range according to the principles

put forward by Sundberg (Sundberg, 1977).

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Davis suggested five methods o f improving the attack in the tone. He defined

the attack as the “focus, ring or sounding board” in the tone that "strengthens the

overtones or head resonance” (Davis. 1979). Smith and Sataloff built their discussion

o f choral technique to promote healthy singing around the material in the Ehmann and

Haasemann text. "Voice Building for Choirs.” The authors added a section on

conducting gestures that promote healthy singing (Smith, 1997).

Studies on Choral Conductor’s Preference for Resonance in Tone

Many authors have undertaken studies o f prominent American choral directors.

Most o f these studies do not directly address singer's formant resonance in choral

tone. However, many do address choral tone quality in general and they bear

mentioning in brief for that reason. Several studies have concentrated on the work of

Fred Waring (Mountford. 1992; Waring, 1945a; Waring, 1945b; Waring, 1951;

Waring. 1997). These studies not only chronicled the life and work o f Waring but also

explained his system o f tone syllables and his recording techniques. John Finley

Williamson has also been the subject o f several studies (Robinson. 1981; Robinson,

1988b; Schisler. 1976; Wehr, 1971). These studies outline Williamson's tonal ideas

and his contribution to Westminster Choir College and American choral music.

Several other works take as their subject philosophy and tonal concepts o f F. Melius

Christiasen (Bergmann. 1944; Johnson. 1973; Nelson, 1943; Shaw. 1997). The

concepts o f Waring, Williamson, and Christiansen were discussed in chapter one.

Swan, in his chapter in Choral Conducting: A Symposium contributed the

clearest statement on the six major influences on or schools of choral music in

.America (Swan. 1973). In 1987. Fowler edited a collection of Harold Swan's

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speeches and essays on choral music and choral conducting (Fowler, 1987). These

contain not only Swan’s observations about the choral art in America, but also his own

concepts and ideas regarding choral performance and tone. Scarbrough contributed a

dissertation in 1996 on Roger Wagner, yet another leading American choral conductor

(Scarbrough, 1996).

The tonal concepts of Robert Lawson Shaw has been the subject o f several

studies (Baxter, 1996; Knutson, 1987; Schisler, 1986; Shaw, 1986; Swan, 1986).

Other studies have dealt with the influences that Shaw’s choruses have had on the

choral art in America (Miller, 1992; Morrow, 1993). Finally, other studies have

covered the influences on Robert Shaw as he developed (Mountford. 1992; Pierce,

1988), and other choral professionals that Shaw influenced directly (Griffin, 1988;

Latta. 1986). All o f these studies on Shaw document his tonal concepts of, among

others, rhythmic vitality and precision, clear diction, and coloration based on historical

performance practice.

In 1952, Helvey conducted a study into the methods used to develop choral

tone by several selected choral directors. The responses from his surveys revealed the

following points about resonance in the choral tone:

(1) The chief resonators are the mouth and throat. The nose

and lips are secondary resonators. (2) The best means o f improving

resonance in high school is by means o f using the various colors o f the

resonators in the expressing o f mood in song. (3) Little effort should

be made to concern the students with the physiological aspects o f

resonance unless the director is a vocal specialist with years o f study

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with competent teachers to his credit. (4) The teacher should avoid

using the term ‘placing the voice,' for by pushing the voice into one of

the resonators, one limits the tone colors and expressiveness of the

voice. (5) All resonators should be used at once if a ringing, resonant

tone is to be produced. The tongue acts as a ‘traffic cop' in directing

the flow of air, so it is best to keep the tongue out of the way (Helvey,

1952).

Studies have been undertaken within the last several decades that sought not

only to describe the tone quality preferences o f famous American choral directors

from the past but also of prominent choral directors at the time o f the studies. Buehler

performed a study of George Lynn who directed the Westminster Choir from 1964

through 1969. Lynn had studied under Williamson at Westminster and the study

contains many of Williamson’s ideas and techniques (Buehler, 1989). The tonal ideals

of the conductor and educator Eph Ehly were examined by Clarke. The author

interviewed Ehly and video taped rehearsals that Ehly conducted in an effort to

document the techniques used (Clarke, 1997). In 1976, Decker completed a study o f

ten nationally prominent college choral conductors concerning their ideas on teaching

posture, breathing, relaxation, resonance, and diction in the choral rehearsal. His

research and interviews revealed a variety o f methods to teach those elements in the

choral rehearsal setting (Decker, 1976).

In 1991. Giardiniere conducted a study o f the voice matching and placement

procedure of Weston Noble. Noble has just completed his fiftieth year as choral

conductor at Luther College in Iowa. In the Giardiniere investigation, Noble's tonal

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preferences are discussed along with his blending procedure o f physically arranging

the singers in an order that will most facilitate an overall blended choral sound

(Giardiniere, 1991). Also, the influences o f the conductor and composer Gregg Smith

were examined by Mauldin in his 1989 dissertation (Mauldin. 1989).

The preferences o f high school choral directors also have been o f interest to

researchers. In 1982. Corbin conducted an experimental study o f the use o f vocal

pedagogy in the high school choral rehearsal. One high school choir (experimental)

was trained using vocal pedagogical techniques as identified in choral and voice

methods texts and a second high school choir (control) did not receive this training.

Both groups prepared the same pieces o f music over seven weeks using the different

techniques and were recorded on audio and video tape. A panel o f experts judged the

performances and the subjects were surveyed. The experimental group was judged

significantly better in all areas except student attitude which did not demonstrate a

significant difference (Corbin. 1982).

Rhoads completed a dissertation in 1990 that dealt with the decision-making

processes o f five outstanding high school choral directors. Three rehearsals o f each

director were video taped and then reviewed with the director. Interviews were

conducted with the directors while the videotape was being reviewed in an attempt to

ascertain their reasons for making decisions throughout the rehearsal. The decisions

were based on previous knowledge about the students, time concerns, previous

rehearsal topics, and visual and aural cues (Rhoads. 1990). O verturfs 1985 study

concerning the implementation o f vocal sound concepts used four outstanding high

school choral conductors. She investigated the vocal concepts that were being taught

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in the rehearsal and the amount o f emphasis placed on the specific concepts. The

concepts identified were phonation, breath management, intensity, range development,

registration, resonance, and articulation. Each conductor presented a forty-five minute

rehearsal tape and an audiotape o f a performance. A panel o f experts judged the

audiotape of the performance. Each o f the rehearsal tapes were transcribed and

evaluated for attention to and amount o f emphasis placed on each o f the tonal

concepts. O f the results reported, the researcher observed that as the vocal concepts

were emphasized, the performance o f those concepts improved. Overturf also

observed that high school voices exhibited potential for development and verbal

imagery seemed to be an effective tool for vocal development (Overturf, 1985).

Also in 1995, Cook-Koenig completed a study in which she interviewed

nationally recognized choral directors in regard to their thoughts on the causes and

possible preventive measures for vocal fatigue and strain in the choral setting. The

conductors that she interviewed included Robert K. Baar. Morris Beachy. Harold

Decker, Rodney Eichenberger, Rhonda Fleming, Lynn Gackle, Frauke Haasemann.

Kenneth Jennings, Colleen Kirk, Clayton Krehbiel. Russell Mathis, Douglas McEwen,

Weston Noble, Doreen Rao, Dermis Shrock, Hugh Thomas, and Larry Wyatt.

Included in the discussion with the conductors was the topic o f implications for

resonance strain in choral singing as well as differences between choral and solo

singing. The researcher noted a "remarkable agreement” among the professionals

regarding their responses to the topics (Cook-Koenig, 1995). Rodney Eichenberger

was quoted by Cook-Koenig as saying, " if one is going to sing with an orchestra, one

must find singer's formant’*(p.l45). Eichenberger also stated that it was still possible

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and necessary to sing as an ensemble. He suggested that "perhaps we sometimes

mistake the singer's formant for ego, and the inability to give in to a better cause’ (p.

146). Hugh Thomas also endorsed a resonant voice and suggested that it was up to the

conductor to mold them into a choral instrument (p. 146). Rhonda Flemming stated

that resonance in the voice, more specifically vowel resonance, unifies the sound of

the choir (p. 147).

In a 1991 descriptive study by Slusher, voice teachers, choral directors, voice

teacher/choral directors, and voice students were surveyed regarding their experiences

and opinions about conflicts between vocal technique required in the private voice

studio and the techniques required by choral directors. Specific techniques addressed

included straight tone singing, tone placement and focus, dynamics, choral singing,

and confounding technical requests. Nine out o f 27 questions on the survey produced

significant differences. The significant differences were all in areas o f vocal

technique. The subjects reported conflicts in expectations from the voice studio to the

choral rehearsal. There was also a significant difference of opinion regarding the

focus o f tone and dynamic levels between solo and choral singing. The subjects felt

that the amount of focus required in the tone was less in the choral ensemble than in

the voice lesson. Also, the subjects felt that the mezzo forte and forte dynamic levels

were louder levels in studio singing than in choral singing (Slusher. 1991).

Vocal Pedagogue’s Preference for Resonance in Solo and Choral Tone

Texts That Do Not Address Choral Tone Specifically

Most vocal pedagogy texts contain descriptions o f their author’s ideal vocal tone

quality as well as methods used to obtain that ideal sound. Many o f these texts also

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cover the topic o f vocal resonance and some even contribute information specifically

on desirable choral tone quality. The authors who do not directly address choral tone

quality will be mentioned in brief in order to more quickly move to the directly related

material.

Monahan analyzed the writings on the teaching o f singing that occurred

between the years o f 1777 and 1927 in his book The Art o f Singing (Monahan. 1978).

In regard to resonance there were only a few references before Helmholtz’s work in

1863. Following that date the topics that appeared included nasal resonance which

received the most discussion. He cited eighteen statements supporting conscious use

o f nasal resonators and eight statements discouraging it. The topic o f placement o f the

voice or focus also drew a large amount of comments. Twenty-one statements were

made in support o f focusing the tone consciously and ten statements were made to the

contrary. Humming was determined a useful device to develop resonance by evidence

of thirteen statements in support compared to four statements in opposition. Finally,

statements concerning resonance in the mouth and throat cavities demonstrated the

least amount o f comment in Monahan's work (Monahan. 1978, pp. 102-127). This

area has seen an increase in attention over the last several decades as evidenced by the

eight statements Monahan noted compared to the 45 statements Burgin noted in his

similar study ending in the year 1973.

Fillebrown's 1911 book Resonance in Singing and Speaking demonstrated the

status o f research on vocal resonance at the time. In it he stated "the basic importance

o f resonance in the use o f the voice is still too little recognized, though obvious

enough in the construction o f musical instruments'’ (Fillebrown. 1911).

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Witherspoon commented on the confusion that this new topic was causing in

1925 when he stated “probably not even the question o f breath has caused more dire

confusion and uncertainty, not to speak ot faulty emission o f voice, than this

comparatively new bugaboo, RESONANCE!” He went on to cover the topic of

resonance and applied the concept to the singing voice ultimately stating that “perhaps

it will now be seen that we do not really ‘place' the voice ‘forwards’ or ‘back’ or ‘up’

or ‘down’ or any-*where.’ We sing every-'where’ according to the kind o f tone we

want to make, the kind o f sentiment or emotion we wish to express” (Witherspoon,

1925, pp. 21-24).

Stanley identified the pharyngeal cavities as the main resonators involved in

producing vowel sounds. The function o f the oral cavities in the production o f vowels

was discounted and even discouraged. His discussions o f vocal resonance were

presented from a physiological standpoint (Stanley, 1932. pp. 28, 271). In 1941,

Vocal Resonance: Its source and command by Barbereux-Parry was published

promoting her method of teaching singing. She recommended that with the “addition

of overtones alone do we depend for depth and beauty o f quality” (Barbereux-Parry,

1941, p.l 17).

Lawson contributed The Human Voice: A concise manual on training the

speaking and singing voice in 1944. In this work he suggested that all voices of

beauty possessed an element o f the hum. He felt that this nasal resonance was vital to

a healthy voice whether in singing or in speaking (p. 18). He also felt that the words

should be formed as far forward in the mouth as possible (p. 44) and he included

exercises designed to develop his ideal resonance. As for high resonance, he stated

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that the resonant, “ringing timbre should be employed in singing softly as in singing

full voice” (Lawson, 1944, pp. 18, 44, 46).

In 1947, Fields contributed Training the Singing Voice, to the literature o f the

study o f voice. In the book he reviewed research that had been completed up to that

point. He organized his description o f resonance into the following categories: (a)

description, (b) acoustical factors including vocal quality or timbre, and pedagogical

aspects, (c) physiological factors including head resonance, function o f sinuses, nasal

resonance, mouth and throat cavities, chest cavity, and entire body as resonator.

Further, under the heading “methods o f controlling vocal resonance.” he divided the

discussion into psychological approaches, including (a) expressional intent controls

resonance, and (b) is direct control o f resonance possible, and technical approaches

including (a) quality as a guide, (b) acquiring a vocal focus, and (c) the value of

humming. In regard to resonance, he found that head resonance was valued by some

authorities, not valued by other authorities, and claimed to not even exist by still other

authorities. One o f his strongest points is in noting that in evidence o f considerable

discussion on topics associated with resonance there should be much more research

being undertaken in the area (Fields, 1947).

In Foundations o f the Singer s Art. Fields stated that “the chief determinants o f

quality or timbre, then, are those factors that add overtones to the issuing sound wave.

These factors include the size, shape, composition, and condition o f the air

passageways, muscles, bones, and resonators that comprise the entire vocai tract,

including the larynx and the glottis itself’ (Fields, 1977. p.145).

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Burgin continued Fields’ work up to 1973 with his book Teaching Singing. In

reference to head resonance, he reported that now there was scientific evidence that

the sinuses and the nasal cavities do not act as resonators and he cites Vennard in

stating that the chest is not a resonator. Burgin observed that the value o f humming is

still great for developing resonance in the voice. He also observed the following from

his research:

In order to achieve the greatest amount o f resonance, as well as ease of

production, the generator and resonator should be in tune with each

other. Vocally, this can be accomplished largely through mental

concept and control. The exact pitch as well as the vowel and the tonal

timbre, or color, should be mentally conceived before producing a tone.

In so doing, the mind has an opportunity to present the proper

psychological impulse for the best physical condition and response.

This is called by some writers ‘natural production' (Burgin, 1973).

Christy stated that “whether or not the head and chest are actual resonators

doesn’t appear particularly important to the artistic act o f singing. The value o f

feeling of head resonance and forward hum in the nasal area on the inception o f attack,

and to provide vital tone in balanced resonation, is questioned, however, by few

singers and teachers o f repute” (Christy, 1961).

In The Singer and the Voice, Rose presented his discussion o f resonance in an

acoustical context instead of a pedagogical context. He discussed forced resonance,

untunable resonance systems (larynx), tunable resonance systems (throat and mouth

cavities), and high partial resonance (Rose. 1971. pp.58-59, 168-173). Fuchs spoke o f

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head resonance, nasal, palatal, and chest resonance. He also discussed the mixing of

the different resonances (Fuchs, 1964, pp. 59-62,72-75).

In his book Principles o f Singing, Milier stated that the singer should “ feel

resonance in your (a) chest as it is held high, (b) throat as it is in an open position, (c)

relaxed pharynx (to give mellowness to your voice), (d) mouth, and (e) sinuses.” He

continued by listing the effect the tongue, palates, jaw, lips, pharynx, chest, nose, and

the sinuses each have in producing resonance (Miller, 1983, p.34-35). Harpster

discussed resonance in a more physiological context in his 1984 book Technique in

Singing. He described the proper positioning o f the resonanting cavities and suggested

some exercises designed to develop a resonant voice (Harpster, 1984).

Resonance in the voice was covered extensively by Appelman in his book The

Science o f Vocal Pedagogy. He used a voice science approach in his discussion

covering topics o f resonance, physiology, and acoustics. X-ray photographs and

spectrograms added to his physiological and acoustical discussions (Appelman. 1986.

pp. 117-140). In Coffin's Sounds o f Singing, the author discussed resonance in depth

in regard to the solo voice. He used a chromatic vowel chart to suggest studies and

exercises for singers to improve vowel resonance (Coffin, 1987).

The Structure o f Singing by Miller contains another extensive treatment of

resonance in the singing voice. His chapter on the resonant voice contains a thorough

discussion on vowel formants, the singer’s formant, timbre, and vocal placement.

Even more so than the Appelman text, the Miller text contains a wealth o f drawings

representing the physiology o f the vocal tract (Miller, 1986). Also, in 1993, Miller

also authored a text directed exclusively at the training o f the tenor voice. This text

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amplifies the acoustical aspect o f the voice from the coverage that he gave in his

earlier work (Miller, 1993). Both works contain helpful exercises designed to develop

resonance in the voice.

In her book The New Voice Pedagogy, David described an emerging voice

pedagogy that owes as much to voice science and voice therapy as it does the

techniques o f the traditional vocal pedagogy. The author made the following point

about the current (1995) status o f teaching placement or focus for resonance:

Tone placement or focus is an issue on which singers and voice

teachers are sharply divided, not into two or three groups but into

many. There are those who teach placement, forward or high in the

head almost to the exclusion o f other factors. There are those who

teach it in combination with other factors, again forward, up in the head

or on the chords themselves. And there are those who ignore the whole

idea and use other means to achieve whatever sense o f placement the

student acquires. For each o f these attitudes there are at least as many

variations in how they go about it and what they hope to achieve

(David, 1995, p.70).

The author continues with a description o f various placements and techniques

used to obtain the desired placement. She also gives a helpful list o f the measurement

instruments used to measure various aspects o f vocal production. The instruments

listed to measure resonance are the Manometers. Nasometer. pneumotachometer,

pressure transducers, spectrograph, and tonar II (David. 1995. p. 128).

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Texts That Address Choral Tone Specifically

O f the textbooks on vocal pedagogy, several mention either contemporary

practice in choral tone or the author's preference in choral tone quality. Klein wrote a

book entitled Singing Technique, in which he not only discussed his ideas on the

function o f the voice but also his ideas on choral tone quality. He approached both

subjects from a physiological standpoint. He identified the pharynx, the nasal cavities,

and the mouth as the resonators for the human voice. In his discussion of choral

music. Klein began with his recommendations for the first rehearsals and the breathing

training that he felt should take place there. He also included a statement from the

American Academy o f Teachers of Singing entitled "Choral Singing and the

Responsibility of the Choral Director." This statement emphasized the belief that all

choral directors must have at least a basic knowledge of the human voice. He

followed this with his own observations o f two conductors whom he admired. The

conductors were Robert Shaw and Roger Wagner. Klein devoted a section in his

choral chapter to training topics for each o f the four voice categories. Regarding

overall choral tone, Klein suggested that singers must sing with resonance in the voice.

He stated that "the singer who tries to sing without proper resonance adjustment

immediately starts a chain o f bad reactions on the whole singing track. He is usually

forcing the larynx to make more sound when, perhaps, it is already overloaded. When

this occurs, hoarseness follows, and proper resonance is almost impossible" (Klein.

1967. p.l 14-128).

Vennard conducted a significant amount o f research in the fields o f vocal

pedagogy and voice science in general. He identified the resonance that produces the

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“ring” in the voice as coming from the larynx, and referred to this resonance or “ring”

as 2800 because it was located near 2800 Hz. He stated “ ...it appears that what is

commonly called "getting resonance in the voice,' is really getting "2800,' and this is

fully as much a matter of proper vibration as it is proper resonance” (Vennard. 1967,

p.90). This 2800 would later be named the singer's formant. Vennard specifically

stated his preference for choral tone quality in a discussion on vibrato in ensembles.

He stated “To me, "straight' tone can only be acquired at the expense o f quality, and I

like ringing voices. When I hear the concerts o f choirs whose conductors have worked

to eliminate all solo quality, I miss this vibrancy” (Vennard, 1967, p.205). While this

discussion was not about resonance, he referred to the voice as ringing. This was a

term he used often in discussing a resonant voice.

Sunderman cautioned the choir director to make sure that the singers not use

more breath than is needed in order to develop a resonant sound. He also

recommended developing the resonant voice by using vocalizations on an [u] vowel

and maintaining brightness. He also added that the singer must maintain the physical

energy in the high range or the resonance could be lost (Sunderman, 1970, p.58-61).

In the Complete Handbook o f Voice Training, Alderson devoted considerable

attention to resonance in the singing voice. He discussed the material using both the

language of imagery familiar to most vocal pedagogues and more concise aural,

physiological and scientific terms. He also discussed current thoughts on the

operation of the vocal instrument in context with beliefs o f professionals and

researchers from the past. His book contains a chapter on "Strategies and Techniques

for Developing a Rich Choral Sound.” and a chapter on “Effective Procedures for the

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Choral Rehearsals.” In these chapters he described his preference for a choral tone that

is based on a hum which develops nasal resonance, and a tone that is focused above

the hard palate. Earlier in the book he admitted that tone could not actually be placed

anywhere. He did continue saying that the analogy o f placement was a valuable

pedagogical tool in that it gave the students something to concentrate on. This point

o f concentration, in the author’s opinion, is the sympathetic vibrations that the student

would feel. Alderson felt that this focus above the hard palate produced a 'Tree, rich,

ringing tone which the student may feel diffused within the head. He also continued

in a discussion entitled "dynamics come from resonance,” that “ ...soft singing should

be resonant and free” (Alderson, 1979, p. 198-199).

In the chapter “The Singing Voice Specialist” in SatalofFs Professional Voice,

Emerich, Baroody, Carroll, and Sataloff discuss the roll o f the singing voice teacher.

They discuss the general topics concerning the use o f the voice, the qualifications and

responsibilities o f the singing voice teacher, the evaluation procedure for new

students, and general vocal pedagogical topics including resonance and singer's

formant in the singing voice. The section also includes information on training the

injured voice (Emerich, 1997). Finally, in a 1976 dissertation, Decker reported that

thirty-four vocal pedagogues described forward resonance and most o f them

advocated humming to develop it (Decker, 1976).

To this point, the tonal concepts o f choral conductors and voice teachers have

been considered. We have seen a wide variety o f ideas concerning resonance in vocal

and choral tone quality including an almost equally wide variety o f methods to achieve

that concept o f resonance. The following section will investigate the concept o f vocal

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resonance and more specifically, singer’s formant resonance from the standpoint o f

the scientific researcher whether that researcher is in the field o f voice science, speech

pathology or therapy, music education, or musical acoustics. The presentation order

o f the following material will consist o f voice science texts, blend and balance studies,

vibrato studies, intonation studies, and resonance studies.

Voice Science Contribution to the Study o f Resonance in Vocal Tone

Voice Science Texts

The beginning o f the era o f voice science is generally attributed to the

pioneering work o f Hermann L. F. Helmholtz. There were at least two scientists who

investigated the human voice earlier than Helmholtz. Willis, as cited in Helmholtz,

devised experiments which would prove a vowel theory based on the length o f reed

pipes in 1830. and Wheatstone (also cited in Helmholtz) repeated Willis' experiments

and developed and published the vowel (formant) theory in 1837 (Helmholtz, 1954,

pp. 117-118, 575). However, Helmholtz’s work is regarded as so significant and

influential that it is still often quoted 125 years after the first publication o f his work

On the Sensations o f Tone.

Helmholtz identified what would later come to be known as the singer’s

formant. He identified the frequency range as between 2640 to 3168 vibrations per

second (Hz). By experimenting with his own ear, he discovered that the human ear is

tuned to a frequency in this range. He did this by placing a small tube to his ear while

the pitch was being sounded. This weakened the sound because the tube was in effect

lengthening the ear canal. He described this element o f the human voice by stating the

following:

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In powerful male voices singing forte, these partial tones sound like a

clear tinkling o f little bells, accompanying the voice, and are most

audible in choruses, when the singers shout a little. Every individual

male voice at such pitches produces dissonant upper partials...If many

voices are sounding together, producing these upper partials with small

differences o f pitch, the result is a very peculiar kind o f tinkling, which

is readily recognized a second time when attention has been once

drawn to it. I have not noticed any difference o f effect for different

vowels in this case, but the tinkling ceases as soon as the voices are

taken piano; although the tone produced by a chorus will o f course still

have considerable power. This kind o f tinkling is peculiar to human

voices; orchestral instruments do not produce it in the same way either

so sensibly or so powerfully. I have never heard it from any other

musical instrument so clearly as from human voices (Helmholtz. 1954.

p. 116).

The field of musical acoustics has contributed literature that contains material

related to the human voice and, more specifically, the acoustical aspects o f the voice.

Benade wrote a chapter in the Fundamentals o f Musical Acoustics on the voice as a

musical instrument. This section includes information on vocal formants and the

singer's formant in the solo human voice. In The Physics o f Sound by Berg and Stork,

the human vocal tract, vocal formants, and the singer’s formant are briefly discussed.

An equally brief section follows on the analysis o f vocal sounds. This text was meant

to be an introductory text in the area o f musical acoustics (Berg, 1995).

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The text Measured Tones: The Interplay o f Physics and Music by Johnston is a

book by a physicist who likes music. His approach was intentionally different from

other texts on the same subjects in that he attempted to develop the physical concepts

and the musical applications together. Johnston simplified the scientific portion o f the

material by avoiding algebraic mathematical equations in favor o f verbal descriptions.

He emphasized where the physics was important in a musical context, organized the

material historically, and sequenced the physical ideas. The author included a short

section on the human voice and the singer’s formant (Johnston, 1989).

In M oravcsik's Musical Sound: An introduction to the physics o f music the

author presented the material in a manner in which the reader with no background in

science can comprehend. It requires only an elementary knowledge o f mathematics

and the mathematical functions that were used were covered in an appendix. In the

section on the human voice, the author never referred to the singer’s formant

specifically, but the concept o f the singer’s formant included in the discussion

(Moravcsik, 1987).

Only a brief section on the human voice including spectrographic

representations is included in White and White’s Physics and Music: The science o f

musical sound (White, 1980). However, the subjects o f the human voice, vocal

formants and the singer's formant in the human voice was treated in more detail in

Campbell's The M usicians' Guide to Acoustics. Campbell's text was, like others,

written for the musician with little scientific background (Campbell. 1988).

There are two texts with the title o f The Science o f Sound. The first that we

will consider is by Pierce. It is a musical acoustics text that includes information on

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resonance and a section on the human voice. The singer’s formant was discussed in

relation to the solo voice (Pierce, 1992). The second book with the title The Science o f

Sound is by Rossing. The Rossing text was written for the non-scientist and contains

only ninth-grade level algebra. It covers, among others, the topics o f the physiology

o f the vocal tract, resonance, singing, vocal formants, registers, and the singer’s

formant. The text was written by a researcher who has performed studies in the area

o f the singing voice and the choral voice. Individual studies by this author will be

discussed later in this document.

Tonmeister Technology: Recording Environments, Sound Sources and

Microphone Techniques is a text with a different purpose than those discussed above.

It is a text that is meant for a professional sound engineer. It does, however, include a

brief but informative section on the human voice including the aspect o f the singer’s

formant (Dickreiter, 1989).

There are reference sources in the field o f acoustics that also contain

information on singer’s formant resonance in the human voice. Crocker’s

Encyclopedia o f Acoustics contains a section on the human voice that is written by

Johan Sundberg. This section contains information on the vocal tract physiology,

resonance, vowel formants, and the singer's formant among others. It is a clear

concise description of the processes o f the human singing voice (Crocker, 1997).

Another reference source edited by Crocker is the Handbook o f Acoustics. This text

was intended to act as a one-source reference for the professional in the field o f

acoustics. The material is presented in the various categories o f acoustics and, while it

does not include information on the human singing voice, it does contain information

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on measurement tools (Crocker, 1998). Parker contributed the Acoustics Source Book

in 1987. The reference text contains information on the measurement of sound

including acoustic signal processing, and human sound production (Parker, 1987).

Many texts have been written in the area o f speech science. Several o f those

texts relate information about the human voice and more specifically, spectral

components o f the human voice. The Speech Chain by Denes is an example o f a

speech text that contains basic information on vocal formants and the sound

spectrograph (Denes. 1973). Acoustic Phonetics: A Course o f Basic Reading is a text

edited by Fry that contains articles from 1970 and earlier that were influential in the

developing fields o f speech science, phonetics, and voice science (Fry, 1976). Fry was

also the author o f The Physics o f Speech which contains information on resonance, the

function of the vocal tract, and the sound spectrograph. While the information is

primarily concerned with the speaker much o f it is also applicable to the singer (Fry,

1979).

Another text that represents older important research in the area of speech

science and acoustics is the Acoustic Theory o f Speech Production by Fant. The

author includes information on the resonators in the vocal tract through use o f X-ray

studies (Fant, 1970). In 1967. Lehiste edited a collection o f articles that proved to be

influential in the speech science, and voice science fields. This text was Readings in

Acoustic Phonetics and it included information on vocal and vowel formants,

resonance data, and spectrum envelopes derived from formant frequencies (Lehiste,

1967). In Music Speech Audio by Strong, the human voice is one o f the main subjects.

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The vocal tract and vocal folds were covered in a basic physiological approach. The

text also included a chapter on the singing voice (Strong, 1992).

The field o f vocal therapy has contributed a great deal o f information to the

subject o f the human voice. Most o f the texts in this field give a basic physiological

description of the human vocal tract. The Human Vocal Traci: Anatomy. Function.

Development, and Evolution by Crelin relates the subject in a great detail (Crelin,

1987). Still other texts in this field deal more directly with the human singing voice.

Is Your Voice Telling on You? was written by a speech pathologist for people with

“poor or ineffective voices” as a means to improve their speaking voices. Boone, the

author, directs all o f the information toward the reader as speaker instead o f singer.

However, he does include information on resonance in the voice and he even borrows

imagery from the vocal pedagogue in his discussion on focusing the voice (Boone,

1991). Boone with McFarlane co-authored The Voice and Voice Therapy. This text is

written for the voice therapy professional and contains physiological as well as

therapeutic information. Resonance in the voice is discussed in detail although the

specific topics o f vocal formants and the singer's formant resonance are not covered

(Boone, 1994).

Sataloff contributed a large collection o f essays on various topics related to

voice science in his second edition of Professional Voice: The Science and Art o f

Clinical Care. The work is divided into eight parts each with a collection o f essays.

The parts include the introduction, basic science, clinical assessment, conditions

commonly managed without voice surgery, neurologic disorders affecting the voice,

structural disorders and surgery, voice therapy and treatment, and special

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considerations. Topics of specific interest to this study include choral pedagogy, the

singing teacher, and vocal tract resonance. These essays will be referenced later in

this chapter (Sataloff. 1997).

There are several texts that were written by authors with expertise in

both voice science and vocal pedagogy. The authors o f these texts wrote them

in an effort to provide each profession with a common text that would provide

insight into research and tenants from the other profession. One such work is

the Dynamics o f the Singing Voice, by Bunch. In addition to the standard

topics one would find in a vocal pedagogy text, the text contains chapters on

vocal problems, vocal quality, and resonation (Bunch, 1982).

The Principles o f Voice Production by Titze is another text that is

meant to cover a course in voice science, speech pathology, language

pathology, vocal pedagogy, or theater speech. The text covers the physiology

of the vocal tract, basics o f vocal acoustics, normal and abnormal vocal

production. It also includes information on the singer’s formant in the human

voice.

One o f the most notable works concerning the science o f the vocal mechanism,

and more specifically, the singing voice is The Science o f the Singing Voice by

Sundberg (Sundberg. 1987). The author has devoted an enormous amount o f effort

and time to the study o f the singing voice and has become one o f the most substantial

contributors to the profession in this area. Basic physiological and acoustical aspects

of the voice are conveyed to the reader in easily understood terms. Sundberg not only

includes information on singer’s formant resonance in the solo voice, but he also

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includes a chapter on the choral voice. His initial statement in this chapter is one that

acknowledges the popularity o f choral singing but also laments the rarity o f research

that has been completed on the choral voice. The author presented information on

how well choral singers sing in tune and followed that with research on the effect of

hearing other singers singing in consort, at various intensity levels. Following the

reporting o f research on the singer's preference for room acoustics and reverberation.

Sundberg reported information on the difference between solo and choral singing. In

his discussion, he cited both the Goodwin and the Rossing studies that will be

discussed at length later in this chapter. He noted that in the case o f the solo singers,

they had a stronger singer's formant and weaker overtones below roughly 500Hz than

did the choral singers. Sundberg concluded that the use o f the voice in the choral

setting is different in certain aspects from the use o f the voice in a solo setting. There

are, however, many questions about the differences between solo and choral singing

that have not been researched. He felt that "it would be advantageous to know that the

same type of voice timbre is not sought in choral and in solo singing" (Sundberg.

1987. pp. 134-143).

Voice Science Studies Related To Resonance In Vocal Tone

Some o f the articles are general overviews o f the subject. One example is

"The Implications o f Voice Science for Voice Pedagogy: The Singer's Formant" by

Callaghan. This article gives a brief summary o f research on the singer's formant

(Callaghan. 1994). In the Sundberg article "Music Acoustics on the Threshold o f the

2T ‘ Century." the author summarized the developments in musical acoustics over the

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last several decades and placed them in an historical perspective. The paper includes

specific information on the human voice and the singer's formant (Sundberg, 1997b).

Sundberg has also written several articles for edited books that cover

specifically the human singing voice. One article is the “Human Singing Voice” in

Crocker's “Encyclopedia of Acoustics.” In this article. Sundberg covers respiration,

the voice source, types o f phonation, articulation and formant frequencies including

the singer’s formant. Sundberg also included a paragraph summarizing the following

dissertation findings from Temstrom:

Choir singers exhibit less singer’s formant/ high-frequency components

than operatic singers. Probably this promotes the choral blending o f

voices. In this respect, then, choral singing is closer to speech mode

than operatic singing (Sundberg, 1997a, p. 1694).

The Temstom study will be discussed later in this chapter. Sundberg

continued stating that there was less scatter in the vowel formant area in choral

singing mode than in speech mode and high fundamental frequency agreement.

He also reported that room acoustics seemed to affect the singers (Sundberg,

1997a).

Sundberg also authored an essay entitled “Vocal Tract Resonance” in

Robert Sataloff s "Professional Voice: The Science and Art o f Clinical Care.”

This article covered the same material as the previous one but stressed less o f

the acoustical elements since it was meant for voice professional readers

instead o f acousticians (Sundberg, 1997c). Sundberg presented a paper at the

July 1987 International Congress o f Voice Teachers in Strasbourg. France that

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was reprinted as "Vocal Tract Resonance in Singing” in the National

Association o f Teachers o f Singing Journal. This article was essentially the

same as the articles in the Crocker and the Sataloff books (Sundberg, 1988b).

Sundberg’s 1977 article for Scientific American was also an overview entitled

"The Acoustics o f the Singing Voice.” However, it was written for the non­

professional and it contains more basic physiological and acoustical

information than the articles intended for a more expert readership.

Information included in the article centers on the singing mechanism, and

acoustics from the physiological standpoint o f the vocal tract and the physical

standpoint o f vocal formants, harmonics, and the singer's formant (Sundberg,

1977).

There have been many studies published about all of the vocal formants and

specifically, the singer's formant. Some o f these articles represent significant early

research into what would later be known as singer’s formant. In 1922, Paget wrote an

article reporting his research into the different resonating cavities in the vocal tract. In

his report he referred to vocal formants, or more specifically, the vowel formants as

“resonance notes’ (Paget, 1922).

Bartholomew wrote an influential article entitled "A physical definition o f

■good voice quality’ in the male voice” in 1934. This article reported research

involving 46 waveforms of male voices. The author found four characteristic

attributes o f "good voice quality.” These were (1) a smooth vibrato o f about 6 or 7

Hz. (2) a high vocal intensity, (3) an extra low formant in the vicinity o f 500 Hz. and

(4) a large concentration o f energy in the frequency region between 2400 and 3200

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Hz. This large concentration o f energy in the 2400 to 3200 Hz range would later be

called the singer’s formant.

In his study, “Theoretical and experimental analysis o f networks o f resonators

and their application to the production o f sound by the vocal tract,” Albert made the

following conclusions: (a) an increase in the diameter o f any constriction in the vocal

tract increases the frequencies o f the formants, (b) An increase in the length of any

constriction in the system decreases the formant frequencies, (c) An increase in the

volume o f any cavity in the system decreases the formant frequencies.” He also

reported that according to his calculations the relative dimensions instead o f the

absolute dimensions o f the vocal tract determine the formant frequencies (Albert,

1951).

Arment conducted a spectrographic study o f bright and dark vowels and found

that the perceived brightness o f a vowel depends on the strength o f the high partials

and narrow formant bands. Conversely, the perception o f darkness depended on a lack

of high partials and broad formant bands (Arment, 1960). In the same year. Gunn

found that brightness and darkness were directly impacted by the frequency o f the first

two formants, the intensity of the second and third formats, and the intensity o f the

harmonics in the range o f 2800 cps (Hz) (Gunn. 1960).

In 1956 the Russian scientist Rzhevkin, in the journal “Soviet Physics-

Acoustics,” reported detecting singer’s formants in the regions from 500 to 2500 cps

(Hz). He reported finding two formants that were identical for all o f the vowel

sounds. When comparing the voice o f a trained singer and an untrained singer, he

noted that the untrained singer's upper formants were not as clearly defined. Further,

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in the case o f the highest formant, the untrained singer’s formant was missing. This

was the formant Rzhevkin reported as making the voice sound metallic (Rzhevkin,

1956).

Wolf, Stanley, and Sette, published “Quantitative studies on the singing voice”

in 1935. This is an early article listing research on the singing voice. Topics covered

include intensity as a function o f time and pitch, vibrato, vibrato-tremolo and tremolo

and quality including information on formant frequencies. The purpose o f the study

was to "evaluate the caliber o f a voice as completely as possible insofar as its external

physical manifestations are concerned" (Wolf, 1935).

In 1952, Delattre, Liberman, Cooper, and Gerstman published an article

entitled “An experimental study o f the acoustic determinants o f vowel color;

observations on one- and two-formant vowels synthesized from spectrographic

patterns.” The researchers used a pattern playback machine to play the results of

hand-painted spectrographic patterns in an attempt to determine the effect of various

acoustical features on the vowel sound produced. The researchers then modified

various formants and reported the resulting changes in the subjects perception o f the

vowel and vowel color. Delattre also published an article in 1958 dealing with vowel

color and voice quality. In this experiment, he examined the vocal tract in an attempt

to determine its effect on vowel color and voice quality (Delattre, 1958).

Vennard and Irwin reported on the acoustical aspects o f singing compared to

speech in their 1966 article. The authors compared a spoken and sung version o f a

secco recitative by examining sonagrams o f the performances. Among other

differences, the authors noted a difference in the formant in the vicinity o f 3000 Hz.

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Vennard referred to this formant as the 2800 due to the fact that 2800 Hz seemed to be

an average location of the formant. The authors stated that this formant produced the

“ring” in the singing voice (Vennard, 1966).

In "A comparison of the singing formant in the voices o f professional and

student singers,” Magill and Jacobson examined all voice categories for the presence

o f a singer’s formant. They were also looking for a difference between college level

voices and professional voices. Out o f the twenty-two singers used as subjects (four

basses, four baritones, four tenors, five mezzo-sopranos, and five sopranos), nine were

college level and thirteen were professional level. Following procedures designed to

examine various vowels at different pitch levels, the researchers concluded that the

singer’s formant may be present in all voice types, and the intensity o f the singer’s

formant is subject to training (Magill, 1978). J. C. Shanks suggested that changes in

resonance are due to “(a) changes in the wall separating two cavities; (b) a direct

opening connecting two cavities; or (c) the opening between the cavity and the

atmosphere outside he body” (Shanks, 1983, p.40).

There are many articles that report investigations into the singer’s

formant in the solo voice. Ekholm, Papagiannis, and Chagnon presented a

paper at the 25th Annual Symposium on the Care o f the Professional Voice and

the International Association o f Phonosurgeons’ 4th International Symposium

on Phonosurgery in Philadelphia. Their paper reported the investigation o f the

evaluation o f four elements o f vocal tone quality: (a) vibrato, (b) color/warmth,

(c) resonance/ring or singer’s formant, and (d) clarity/focus (intensity). This

investigation drew correlations between acoustical features o f the voice and

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perceptual descriptions of voice quality. A strong correlation was noted

between a strong singer’s formant and the perceptual quality o f “ring” in the

voice. Results also demonstrated that the center frequency of the singer’s

formant was lower for baritones than tenors and voice quality was perceived as

better in relation to “ring” or resonance when the singer’s formant frequency

was appropriate for the voice category o f the singer (Ekholm, 1996, June).

Bloothooft and Plomp conducted a study in 1986 that sought to

measure the sound level of the singer’s formant in professional singers. They

found almost no difference in sound level between male singers (4 dB).

However, they did find a greater sound difference in female singers (24 dB)

(Bloothooft, 1986). In a later study, Bloothooft noted qualities that constitute a

voice perceived as being of good quality. In the section o f his article on

singer’s formant, he suggested that one must remember that singer’s formant is

not the sole determinant factor o f a good quality resonant voice. Further, in the

higher range o f the female voice, the singer’s formant is likely not even the

most important aspect that determines a resonant voice o f good quality

(Bloothooft, 1987).

Cleveland and Sundberg investigated three male voices o f different

voice quality in order to map voice source differences. The researchers also

noted the sound pressure level o f the singer’s formant during their trials. They

noted when pitch and/or vocal effort increased, the level o f the singer's

formant also increased. They also noted that the amplitude of the singer’s

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formant increased at a greater level that that o f the lower formants (Cleveland,

1983).

Nawka, Anders, Cebulla, and Zurakowski observed a peak in the spectrum in

a male speakers voice near the level associated with the singer's formant. They report

that this "speaker’s formant” is associated with a voice o f sonorous quality (Nawka,

1997). In a two-part article published in 1979, Schultz-Coulon, Battmer, and Riechers

related their investigation o f the singer’s formant. In the first investigation, 24 trained

singers, 13 o f which were male and 11 o f which were female, were examined. In the

second investigation, 41 untrained singers, 19 o f which were male and 22 o f which

were female, were examined. The researchers were looking for dependency o f the

relative amplitude of he singer’s formant on pitch and intensity. The data in both

studies were combined to provide for the factor o f training. Results o f the untrained

group seemed to indicate that the relative amplitude o f the singer’s formant grew as

vocal intensity increased or diminished as the pitch rose. They also found that it was

more pronounced with the male voices that the female voices. Following the study o f

the trained voices the results were combined to show that the trained voices had more

energy in the singer’s formant range although not for all pitches. The combined

results also reflected the difference between the singer’s formant intensity from male

voices, which were stronger, to female voices, which had relatively weaker energy in

the singer’s formant range (Schultz-Coulon, 1979a; Schultz-Coulon, 1979b).

Schutte and Miller reported the results o f their study o f the singer’s formant in

a single voice in the article 'intraindividual Parameters o f the Singer’s Formant.” A

single tenor voice was measured while singing chromatically from C (65.5 Hz) up to

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F#5 (698 Hz). The researchers found that the frequency o f the singer’s formant

increased roughly 2800 to 2900 Hz up to 3 100Hz on the higher pitches. However,

throughout the normal performance range o f the tenor the spectral components

remained constant and the timbre perceived by a listener also remained constant

(Schutte, 1985).

Seidner, Schutte, Wendler, and Rauhut conducted a study o f five professional

singers in which they found that the singer’s formant was located at a higher

frequency in higher voice categories. They found no relation between the main

singer’s formant frequencies. The differences between male and female singers that

they found were that the female singers generally had two peaks in the spectrum in the

singer’s formant range. One occurred between 2500 and 3000 Hz and the other

occurred between 3000 and 4000 Hz. They also found that the male singers had a

higher relative intensity and narrower bandwidth o f the singer’s formant (Seidner,

1985).

In his study “A comparative study o f the development o f the third formant in

trained and untrained voices,’’ Teie studied the voices o f ten undergraduate freshman

voice students, ten undergraduate senior voice students, six untrained singers, and four

voice faculty members. All four traditional voice categories were represented. The

researcher concluded that the development o f the singer’s formant is related to the

amount o f vocal training. He also noted that even the untrained voices possessed

resonance in the singer's formant range in an [i] vowel. This seemed to suggest to the

researcher that all vowels should be colored with the [i] vowel for resonance

development (Teie, 1976).

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Wang published a study in 1985, demonstrating that the singer’s format could

be produced in different manners. He studied singers who specialized in western

operatic singing, Chinese singing and western early music singing. The singers

demonstrated the spectrum peak in the range attributed to that o f the singer's formant

but did so with varying heights o f their larynx. He not only took measurements by

spectrographic means but also measured the height of the larynx. The author stated

that the low larynx was not the only method o f producing a bright timbre. He also

stated that there was "no reason to conclude that singing with a high larynx necessarily

produces a voice of poor quality (at least in respect to brightness) or poor vocal

health” (Wang. 1985). In the "Study on some aspects o f the ‘singer's formant' in

North Indian Classical Singing,” Sengupta found similar results to Wang. The center

frequency of the singer's formant and the resonance balance rose with the frequency

of the fundamental (Sengupta, 1990).

Yanagisawa. Estill, Kmucha, and Leder studied the relation o f aryepiglottic

constriction to the presence o f singer's formant in a voice speaking, singing in falsetto,

singing as if sobbing, singing with a "twangy.” country-western sound, singing with a

belting placement, and singing with operatic placement. The researchers observed the

following: "(a) a normal phonation o f speech or modal quality; (b) a open, more

exposed view of the folds, with little or no closure, as seen in falsetto and sob

qualities; and (c) a tight aryepiglottic constriction that accompanies the three loudest

qualities (twang, belting, and opera)." In relation to the singer's formant, the

researchers noted more energy "when the aryepiglottic sphincter was narrowed, and

less energy when the spincter was relaxed and open” (Yanagisawa, 1989).

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An early research study by Sundberg was “Formant frequencies o f bass

singers.” It was published in 1968 and contains information on formant frequencies of

a bass singer including information on the singing formant and the author’s suspicion

that its source was in the larynx. This research was followed by two studies in 1970

and two studies in 1972 on formant structures and articulation o f spoken and sung

vowels. (Sundberg, 1970a; Sundberg, 1970b). He published “An Articulatory

Interpretation of the ‘Singing Formant” ’ in 1972. This study suggested that a lowered

larynx, as revealed by tomogram data, increased the laryngeal ventricle, the sinus

piriformes and the cross-sectional area which produced a resonating chamber that

would appear to be the source o f the singer’s formant. Sundberg also suggested that

the singer's formant was produced acoustically by a clustering o f the third, fourth, and

fifth formant frequencies (Sundberg, 1972a).

Also in 1972, Sundberg published “A Perceptual Function o f the ‘Singing

Formant’." This is an article that suggested that the purpose for the singing formant

was to project the voice over a loud orchestral accompaniment. An average spectrum

was taken o f an orchestra playing alone and an orchestra accompanying a singer. The

spectrum revealed a pronounced peak in the 2800 Hz range when the singer was

singing. Due to the fact that the frequency range o f the singer’s fundamental pitch

was produced at a similar level as the fundamental frequency range o f the orchestra, it

was concluded that there would be a masking effect for the fundamental. This singing

formant peak seemed to be the spectral component that caused the human voice to

project through the orchestral sound. Sundberg noted that the style o f singing

necessary for singing with a lute would not demand the singing formant to project

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over its sound. He noted that “the style o f singing is in this case more speech-like."

He also noted that the style o f singing for popular music did not require a singing

formant due to the fact that the function o f the singing formant was replaced by

electronic amplification (Sundberg, 1972b).

Sundberg published the “ Perception o f Singing" in 1979. This article reported

a further investigation into the perceptual aspects o f the singing voice. It was noted

that the singer’s formant and pitch dependent formant frequencies were both

responsible for audibility o f the voice over loud orchestral sounds. He also stated that

“as resonatory phenomena occur independent o f vocal effort, a purpose in both these

cases is vocal economy" (Sundberg, 1979).

In 1994, Sundberg published another article regarding the perceptual aspects of

singing. He related two qualities o f the singing voice, one was vowel quality, which is

determined by the lower two formants. The other quality, vocal quality, is determined

by the higher frequency components, specifically the center frequency o f the singer's

formant. He stated that while singer’s format could be found in male voices and alto

voices, it appeared not to be present in the soprano voice. He did caution that the

studies had used measurement tools that had fixed and narrow band-pass filters and

that if the soprano singer’s formant was much higher or much broader in frequency it

might have gone undetected (Sundberg, 1994).

Sundberg wrote a lengthy article entitled “The Perception o f Singing" for

Deutsch’s The Psychology o f Music. Specifically, he presented further information on

when the soprano’s voice becomes masked by a loud orchestral sound. Unless the

pitch is high (above B4) the soprano only can be heard clearly on the vowels [a, a. ae].

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Sopranos use a method o f formant tracking to boost the projecting power o f their

voices in absence o f a singer's formant. This occurs when the fundamental frequency

approaches and passes that o f the lowest formant frequency. The singer then adjusts

her mouth opening wider and raises the lowest formant, keeping it in close proximity

to the fundamental. In the section o f the article on singer's formant. Sundberg stated

that the lower voice categories o f alto, tenor, baritone, and bass do not need to use the

formant tracking procedure. This is due to the fact that they were able to cluster the

third, fourth, and fifth formants and produce the singer’s formant. This procedure of

clustering the formants does result in the modification o f the vowels but not in the

same manner as the formant tracking procedure (Sundberg, 1999).

Studies o f Choral Tone Quality

A number o f articles and dissertations have studied aspects o f choral tone

quality. Many o f them deal with multiple aspects o f choral tone quality while others

concentrate on a few specific aspects.

Blend And Balance Studies

Blend in choral tone is a major concern o f conductors. One o f the principal

concerns o f many choral conductors is training their choral singers to sing together as

an ensemble instead o f as a collection o f independent voices. This is no different from

the orchestral conductor who strives for a unified sound in his or her string section.

Throughout the history o f the American choral tradition there have been varied

approaches to the blending o f voices in a chorus.

In Morris' 1951 study a questionnaire was sent to 30 choral conductors that

listed nine factors impacting choral blend. The respondents were asked to rank order

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the factors relative to their importance in the act o f blending a chorus. The author

drew the following conclusions from the responses: (a) blend is a complex issue, (b)

“ ...the primary basis for good or desirable choral tone lies in free, well supported

individual tone, which does not necessarily have to be o f solo calibre,” (c) the field o f

acoustics has provided potential areas o f benefit to the choral conductor, and (d) due to

the interdependence o f tone quality and vowel sound, work with vowels has even

more increased potential for benefiting choral conductors (Morris, 1951).

In 1966, Wyatt interviewed, through questionnaires, 58 choral directors in

churches, high schools, and colleges throughout America. He combined the results of

the questionnaires with a thorough literature review covering written statements by

choral musicians and scientists. Wyatt came to the conclusion that blend is an

important element o f choral sound. He found that the experts he interviewed and the

authors that he consulted had both distinct definitions o f blend and methods to obtain

blend in choral sound. Wyatt cited scientific studies that dealt with the acoustics of

blend. He recommended the following: (a) further study into the acoustical properties

o f choral tone, (b) further study into specific problems related to choral blend, and (c)

further study into specific problems related to choral sound in relation to musical style.

Further more, he recommended that teachers become more familiar with scientific

studies and incorporate that knowledge into their teaching. Wyatt also felt that

composers should incorporate this knowledge o f choral blend into their compositional

techniques (Wyatt. 1967).

In 1987. Knutson conducted a study on choral blend in which he presented the

ideas o f important American choral conductors from the past through an investigation

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of their writings and o f writings and interviews with professionals who knew them.

The author reported their ideas on choral blend and placement o f voices. The

conductors researched included F. Melius Christiansen, John Finley Williamson, Fred

Waring, William J. Finn, O laf Christiansen. In addition, Knutson interviewed eight

important American conductors who were living at the time o f his study: Robert

Shaw, Kenneth Jennings, Weston Noble, Joseph Flummerfelt, Robert Scholz, Harold

Decker, Fiora Contino, and Dale Warland. He also reported their ideas on choral

blend and placement o f singers, and included information on their preferences

regarding choral tone quality. Knutson noted two trends in American choral singing.

The first revealed that a static tone quality that was the same for all music made it

difficult for the choir to perform literature from different time periods or styles. The

second trend the author noticed was that a more flexible ideal o f tone quality emerged

which allowed the chorus to perform a more diversified music (Knutson, 1987).

More recently. Moore conducted a study in 1995 on aspects o f choral ensemble

in which he conducted telephone interviews with 14 prominent American choral

directors in an attempt to identify the technical and expressive techniques that they

employed in their rehearsals. The conductors that Moore interviewed were Anton

Armstrong, Peter Bagley. Dennis Cox, Janet Galvan, John Haberlen, William D. Hall.

William Hatcher, Gregory Lyne, Fritz Mountford, Donald Neuen, Charles K. Smith.

Axel Theimer, Lynn Whitten, and Leonard VanCamp. The components o f sound that

he investigated included tempo, phrasing, enunciation, articulation, dynamics, blend,

balance, timbre, breathing, pitch, rhythm, text, harmony, and melody. The author

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sought to more clearly define terms associated with the above elements as well as

techniques used to address each element (Moore. 1995).

Additional recent scientific studies have been undertaken in an attempt to

describe the vocal differences between singing in a blended choral mode and singing

in a solo mode. In 1977, Goodwin conducted an acoustical study o f individual

soprano voices in unison choral blend and in solo singing mode. The author examined

30 randomly chosen sopranos from the advanced choruses at North Texas State

University. A recording was made o f the entire group singing a sustained vowel while

blending their voices in a way that no one voice was distinguishable from the group

sound. The singers were instructed not to eliminate their vibrato or alter their dynamic

level. The individual voices then were recorded and measured by having the singer

blend with the recording o f the ensemble as played through headphones. In addition,

the sound o f the individual singer’s voice was played simultaneously with the

recording through the headphones. The singers were then recorded singing in a

"blended mode." Next, the singers were asked to sing the same vowel sounds in a

"solo mode" o f performance and a recording was made for analysis. Goodwin found

that in comparison to the tones sung in "solo mode,” the blended sounds tended to

have lower intensity levels, stronger fundamental frequencies, fewer and weaker upper

partials, stronger first formants, somewhat slower vibrato rates, less frequency

variation in vibrato, and more occurrences o f nonperiodic vibrato and vibrato-free tone

(Goodwin. 1977).

In a study on balance. Killian examined the operant preference for balance

between the voice parts o f a four-voice choral. In her study, subjects listened to a

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recording and could control the intensity o f the four voice parts with four separate

intensity controls. The author found that subjects preferred a balance in which the

bass was significantly less intense than the other three parts. She also found that the

subjects could identify a single unbalanced voice but they would then balance that

voice significantly louder than the other voices. This unbalanced correction was

reported as representing an initial perception effect. In other words, when the subjects

were presented with an unbalanced example first, their preference was influenced

toward the unbalanced version. Killian also noted that there were no significant

preference differences between students and conductors. The only preference

difference for overall loudness was that men preferred significantly louder levels than

women did. Further, the voice part that the subject sang only appeared to influence

the high school basses who chose significantly more intense bass than did the

conductors -- who were basses (Killian. 1985).

Vibrato Studies

In Bartholomew's early study on the physical attributes o f a good solo voice

quality, he identified an even vibrato o f around 6 to 7 Hz as being a necessary

component (Bartholomew, 1934). In a later study, Bloothooft came to the same

conclusion as to the speed o f vibrato in a solo voice (Bloothooft. 1987). Large and

Iwata measured the amount of time that the German baritone Dietrich Fischer-Dieskau

sang with and without vibrato in his recording o f the Liederkreis. Op. 24 by Robert

Schumann. They found that he sang with vibrato 60% o f the time and without vibrato

40% averaged over the nine-song cycle (Large, 1971).

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Many of the articles dealing with vibrato in choral tone have been directed

toward performance practice issues. As with choral tone quality in general, the ideals

involved with vibrato in regard to performance practice have undergone considerable

evolution in this century as well (Henahan, 1987; Neumann, 1987). During the first

part o f this century much o f the writings in America concerning vibrato in choral tone

centered around the “straight tone” (no vibrato) versus vibrato controversy, and was

made most apparent in the tonal ideals o f the St. Olaf Choir and the Westminster

Choir (Christiansen, 1932; Christiansen, 1965; Jones, 1948; Krone, 1945; Regier,

1962; Smallman, 1933; Wilcox, 1943).

F. Melius Christiansen wrote an article in 1932 that made the following

comment about vibrato in choral tone: “The vibrato voices are the greatest menace we

have to contend with in our choir work... we must have straight voices.” The author

discussed the importance o f intonation in ensemble blend and listed fourteen points on

which potential choir singers should be tested (Christiansen. 1932).

Beyond these studies, the majority o f authors felt that vibrato, as a naturally

occurring feature of the well-trained voice, should be present, in various extents, in

adult choral tone. Mayer wrote an article examining the importance o f intonation to

the concept o f blend in a chorus. Mayer states that “ ...blend in a section or the whole

choir is achieved through careful attention to three factors: timbre, dynamics and

pitch.... ‘off-colof sound and improper tone production are not compatible with good

blend” (Mayer. 1964).

In 1962, the conductors Regier, Opheim. and Wise co-authored an article

entitled “The Individual voice in the Choral Ensemble.” The article contains the

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contents of the three choral conductor’s speeches regarding the topic o f the individual

voice in the choral ensemble. While dealing the controversy o f straight tone versus

vibrato in choral tone, the points listed are not radically divergent (Regier, 1962).

In 1977, Trevor conducted a study examining the influence o f vibrato on

choral blend. In this study he found that the blend o f the voices in a chorus was

judged to improve as the individual differences in vibrato rate and extent decreased

(Trevor, 1977).

Weber studied the sound pressure level differences between a soprano singing

with vibrato and straight tone. He found that the tones sung with vibrato were

significantly louder than ones sung with (a) a straight tone at high pitch and, (b) a

straight tone at high pitch with loud dynamic level were. He found no difference

between tones sung at loud or soft dynamic level, or medium or low pitch level

(Weber, 1992).

The book Vibrato, edited by Dejonckere, Hirano, and Sundberg, contains eight

articles on vibrato in the human voice. While vibrato in choral tone is not a subject o f

this research, the importance o f the research is substantial. The titles o f the articles are

as follows: (a) “Physiological aspects o f vibrato”; (b) “Acoustic and psychoacoustic

aspects o f vocal vibrato"; (c) “Dependence o f the vibrato on pitch, musical intensity,

and vowel in different voice classes”; (d) “The pitch o f short-duration vibrato tones:

experimental data and numerical model”; (e) “Tremor in the light o f sound production

with excised human larynges”; (f) “Caruso’s vibrato: an acoustic study”; (g)

"Measurement o f the vibrato rate o f ten singers’; (h) “The history o f vibrato in the

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singing voice"; and (i) “ Inducing factors and treatments for vibrato problems"

(Dejonckere. 1995).

Intonation Studies

Several studies have been conducted in attempts to construct an evaluation

instrument for the evaluation of intonation, in relation to an equal tempered scale, in

choral contests and festivals. Larkin examined a rating scale that was constructed to

measure five dimensions o f achievement in choral music performance: tone quality,

intonation, rhythmic precision, expression, and balance/blend. The author concluded

that it was possible to construct a valid rating scale to aid conductors in the preparation

and evaluation of their choirs (Larkin, 1985).

Cooksey developed a facet-factorial instrument to rate high school choral

music performances. The seven factors evaluated in his instrument were diction,

precision, dynamics, tone control, tempo, balance/blend, and interpretation/musical

effect. The results of his study indicated that it is possible to devise a reliable rating

instrument to measure high school choral performance in an objective manner

(Cooksey, 1977).

Stutheit devised a study to examine the hierarchies o f musical elements that

adjudicators fV = 54). choral directors (N = 34) and choral students (.-V= 1290) used in

their preparation and evaluation of a high school choral contest performance. They

were asked to rank balance and blend, diction, interpretation and musicianship,

intonation, other performance factors, rhythm, technique, and tone quality as to their

importance in the preparation and evaluation o f a performance. A hierarchy was

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established that the author believes will aid students and directors in developing

common goals when preparing music (Stutheit, 1994).

In his study Robinson had 120 music educators, undergraduate non-musicians,

and musicians evaluate a recorded choral performance. He found that non-musicians

picked tone as the best aspect o f the performance and diction as the worst aspect ot the

performance. The undergraduate musicians picked tone and interpretation as best and

intonation as worst. The music educators picked tone and interpretation as the best

aspect o f the performance and either tone, balance or intonation as the worst aspect of

the performance (Robinson, 1988a).

Other researchers have been interested in constructing intonation evaluation

instruments for the training o f future conductors. In his 1989 study, Tamte-Horan

constructed instructional materials that sought to teach five characteristics o f tone

quality for student evaluation. The five characteristics were tone quality, diction,

blend/balance, precision, and intonation. It is assumed that the term tone quality is

being used in both a general and a specific sense in this study. The study used a

pre/post test design and involved 47 undergraduate and three graduate students. The

author noted a slight increase in correct judgments o f tone quality and a large increase

in correct descriptions of problems o f tone quality (Tamte-Horan, 1989).

Voice scientists have been interested in how accurately vocal soloists sing in

tune. In a 1982 paper, Johan Sundberg reviewed research into intonation in solo

vocalists. First, he discussed intonation in relation to the equal temperament system.

As is well known, in this temperament system, the octave is divided into twelve equal

intervals. Next, he discussed intonation in relation to pure scales, which are

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constructed from three pure triads stacked one on top o f the other. The last

temperament system that Sundberg examined was the Pythagorean temperament

system. The scale in Pythagorean temperament is obtained by stacking perfect fifths

on top of each other until all seven scale degrees have been identified. The research

covered string instrument performance, barbershop singing, and concert singing. In

his conclusions, Sundberg found that small number integer scales such as pure scales

and Pythagorean scales did not explain the intonation practices of performing

musicians. He went further in saying that it is “rather questionable whether the pure

and the Pythagorean theoretical scales are o f relevance to the scale tone frequencies

used in musical reality .R eg ard in g the equally tempered scale, he felt that it was only

used in organs. Sundberg reported that barbershop singers perform much closer to

pure tuning. He speculated that this was due to the vibrato-free tone that they used.

This tone was more unforgiving compared to tone qualities that possess vibrato. In the

later case, variations in intonation are more accepted. He also noted that the concert

singing tones, with their natural vibrato, resulted in much wider fundamental

frequency variations being accepted as in tune by judges (Sundberg, 1982).

Researchers also have turned their attention toward intonation in the practice o f

choral singers. A study by Temstrom and Sundberg examined six choral singers

individually. The authors found that the following affected the accurate performance,

by a choir singer, of a pitch played for the singer: (a) the loudness o f the stimulus tone,

(b) changes in vowel quality, (c) absence or presence o f certain partials. and (d)

absence or presence of vibrato. Since the procedure involved pitch matching instead

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o f melodic performance, the temperament system was not discussed (Temstrom.

1988).

Resonance Studies

Some researchers have concentrated their efforts studying timbre and the

listener's preference for timbre. In a 1988 study. Faes used an experimental design to

test whether a lexical set o f words designed to describe music preference would

change when timbral aspects o f the performance were changed. The words used were

exciting, fa n , intense, melodic, and relaxing. He found that, among other things, it was

helpful to use the listeners own vernacular in evaluating their preference (Faes. 1988).

Madsen, and Geringer conducted a study o f good versus bad tone quality in

accompanied and unaccompanied vocal and string performances. In this study, the

fifth in a series of focus-of-attention studies, the researchers tested forty-eight college

music students using musical exerpts from a soprano, tenor, violin and cello

performing with good and bad tone and intonation. They found that the musicians

were able to discriminate between good and bad performances. Intonation was rated

as most in need o f improvement. The soprano excerpts were rated higher than the

other three instruments and performance with accompaniment was rated higher than

performance with no accompaniment (Madsen. 1998).

Dolson examined solo and a chorus using a tracking phase vocoder in an

attempt to discover the minimum amount o f differences required to make the listener

perceive an ensemble - as opposed to a solo. This system is an additive analysis -

synthesis procedure. Part o f Dolson's study was directed toward discovering and

explaining errors in previous studies with the equipment. The second part o f his study

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investigated the choral versus solo timbre questions. He concluded that the sound

must contain at least four to eight harmonics o f distinct and proportional amplitude

modulation to the fundamental frequency in order to be perceived as an ensemble

sound. (Dolson, 1982).

Harper recorded subjects while they were singing in a choir by using close

microphone techniques. The researcher observed that there were no consistent

differences between the first two formant frequencies between solo and choral singing.

However, the judges did find a significant difference between the vowel sounds o f

solo and choral singing. There seemed to be no pattern of change between the vowel

sounds during solo and choral singing. He also reported a difference from solo to

choral singing in the amount o f energy located between formant frequencies (Harper,

1967).

Recently, some voice researchers have begun to focus their attention on choral

tone quality in comparison with solo tone quality (Goodwin, 1980: Rossing, 1985a;

Rossing, 1985b: Temstrom. 1989a; Temstrom. 1989b; Titze. 1994). These studies

have dealt with fundamental pitch intensity, formant intensity, singer's formant, and

vibrato. Because o f the limitations o f the electronic measurement equipment, almost

all of these studies have investigated the individual voice in a choral situation as

compared to the total sound o f all o f the voices o f a chorus singing simultaneously.

Bolster published an article entitled “The Fixed Formant Theory and its

Implications for Choral Blend and Choral Diction," in which he equated the fixed

formant to the singer's formant. He stated that "ideally, the singer's formant is found

to some degree in every vocal sound.-' Further. Bolster stated that this resonance

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should be in choral tone and the removal o f it from the voice is unhealthy for the

voice. He cited Coffin (1976) in reference to his belief that the amount o f time that

the glottis is closed on a cycle determines the amount o f singer’s formant in the voice

(Bolster, 1983).

Christiansen conducted a study in 1988 using four college-age baritone singers

and spectral analysis of their vowel sounds. The researcher was investigating the

intelligibility of [i] and [u] vowel sounds on a single frequency as sung with various

oral shapes. He used both a mechanical spectral analysis to describe the physical

properties of the sound, but he also used a panel o f judges to evaluate the intelligibility

of the vowel sounds. He concluded that even through manipulation o f the oral

cavities, it was possible to maintain intelligibility o f the vowel. This study also

provides data on the frequencies o f the formants during oral manipulation

(Christiansen, 1988).

Rossing, Sundberg, and Temstrom conducted two studies in 1985 that

investigated the solo versus the choral voice. The first study was an “Acoustic

comparison o f soprano solo and choir singing.” The researchers recorded five soprano

singers singing in solo mode and choral mode on the same text. Recordings were

made from inside the soprano section o f a choir and played back for the subject

through headphones while she sang. This made it seem that she was in the soprano

section o f a choir while she sang. However, since she only heard the sound through

the headphones, her voice could be recorded separately. The researchers noted that

the singers sang with more intensity in the singer’s formant range and a slightly

greater vibrato extent in solo mode compared to choral mode (Rossing, 1985a). In

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their second study entitled “Voice timbre in solo and choir singing: is there a

difference?,” the researchers examined bass and baritone singers using similar

methods from the earlier study. They found that articulation and phonation seem to be

different from solo to choral singing. Similar to the first study, the strength o f the

singer’s formant was greater in solo singing than it was in choral singing. They also

found that the fundamental was weaker in solo singing than it was in choral singing.

The lower-voice men seem to cluster their third, fourth and fifth formants in order to

strengthen the singer’s formant (Rossing, 1985b).

Sten Temstrom, in his 1989 dissertation at the Royal Institute o f Technology in

Sweden, investigated the acoustical features o f choirs with three different types of

studies (Temstrom, 1989a). An overview of this dissertation research was presented

in an article for the Journal o f Voice in 1991 (Temstrom. 1991). The first study

investigated the intonation precision and the vowel articulation o f singers in a choir.

In this study the author found that intonation was affected by the aural feedback that

the singer received from the physical environment, including the singer's own voice

and the voices of the rest of the chorus. The author also found that singers from one

choir used different vowel articulations in choral singing than they used in speech and.

to a lesser extent, in solo singing. The second area o f study in the dissertation dealt

with choir sound level and frequency scatter, its relation to room acoustics, and sound

spectra o f individual singers in a choir. Frequency scatter occurs when different

voices attempting to sing a unison pitch sing with slightly different fundamental

frequencies. In these studies, Temstrom found that choirs adapted their sound level

and vocal technique to the acoustics o f the room. He also found that room acoustics

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affected the long-time (or long-term) average spectrum (LTAS) o f the choir sound.

The researcher cited Kitzing’s 1986 study, ”LTAS criteria pertinent to the

measurement of voice quality,” in his statement that the LTAS is “designed to ignore

the short-term spectral variations that are caused by the phonematic variations in

running speech or singing, and to retain long-term aspects of voice timbre that are

more related to basic phonatory and articulatory function” (Temstrom, 1989c, p. 15).

He examined a boy’s choir, youth choir, and an adult choir singing in three different

acoustical environments. By taking LTAS o f the choir sound he concluded among

others: (a) the acoustics o f the room had a large effect on the spectral shape of the

sound; (b) the youth choir and adult choir increased vocal effort in acoustically

absorptive rooms; (c) and all choirs raised their larynx during voice production in

acoustically absorptive rooms.

The third area of study in the dissertation dealt with synthesizing vocal sound

and examining the aspects o f flutter. Flutter is the natural frequency variation that is

present in the human voice. The author synthesized a single human voice and added

flutter. He found that without it, synthesized voices sounded more like a "mediocre

electric organ” than a chorus; however, with the presence o f flutter, the synthesized

chorus sounded realistic (Temstrom, 1991. 141). In the author's discussions on vocal

tone quality he made reference to the singer’s formant. The singer's formant was

defined here as the clustering o f the higher overtones in the male and sometimes alto

voices. This clustering produces a strong area o f concentrated energy or resonance in

the 2 to 4 kHz range. In reference to vocal tone quality in a chorus. Temstrom stated

that this "singer's formant ...would defeat choral blend, unless it is used by most or all

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of the choir members." He also stated that through his research he had only rarely

recorded an experienced chorus singer singing with a pronounced singer's formant.

In a separate study, Temstrom investigated the formant frequencies o f eight

bass choir singers in an attempt to try and discover whether or not the singers alter

their formant frequencies from those used in normal speech and those used in an

attempt to blend with other voices. One observation that the researcher made was that

none o f the choral singers sang with a pronounced singer’s formant. As for the vowel

formants, the researcher noted a difference between those used for speech and those

used for singing (Temstrom, 1989b).

Ekholm examined choral tone quality and choral blend in a yet unpublished

study. She was kind enough to share the abstract through a personal electronic mail

correspondence. In this study, the researcher recorded four choral pieces with a

twenty-two-voice choir singing in a “soloistic choral mode” and again in a "blended

choral mode.” She also varied the seating arrangement o f the choir from random

sectional seating to a seating arrangement o f acoustically matched voices. The judges

were 37 choral conductors, 33 voice teachers and 32 non-vocal musicians. Also, eight

of the singers were recorded while they sang in the chorus and then re-recorded

singing the same part as if it were a solo. Twelve voice teachers evaluated the

recordings.

As for the choral singing recordings, the choral directors picked blended

singing significantly more often than solo singing. Also, the voice teachers picked

blended singing significantly more than solo singing only in relation to the category o f

"blend/homogeneity.’’ For the rest o f the evaluation categories, both voice teachers

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and non-vocalists showed no significant difference in their preferences. On the single

voice recordings, the voice teachers ranked singing mode in the following order: (a)

solo mode; (b) solo choral mode; (c) blended choral mode. Ekholm reported that the

voice teachers commented that the blended voice production was unsatisfactory due to

"a lack o f freedom, intonation problems (especially flatting in the higher range), lack

o f vibrancy due to straightening of the tone, lack o f breath control, lack of focus or

ring in the tone, and a dull, weak and breathy tone quality.” She also noted that when

the singers sang in a soloistic mode they tended to over-sing because they could not

hear themselves as well. She concluded that singing in a choir does involve a different

technique from that employed as a solo singer (Ekholm, 1998).

Summary

All o f the above studies and writings have dealt with either a conductor’s ideal

tonal qualities, an investigation into the acoustical properties o f the individual singing

voice, or an investigation into the differences between the solo voice and the vocal

tone produced to blend with a chorus. Preference studies have investigated subjects'

preferences for tempo in music performance (LeBlanc, 1988; Montgomery. 1996) and

length o f the musical example (Palmquist, 1990). However, to this date, no study has

investigated the preference o f undergraduate vocal music majors, instrumental music

majors with no choral experience, and nonmusicians for a choral tone quality

produced with a fully resonant sound as opposed to a choral tone quality with weak

resonance.

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Need for the Study

Conductors, voice teachers, and choral music educators have contributed to the

discussion o f choral tone quality. However, these discussions have been largely

anecdotal. Voice scientists, among others, have undertaken investigations into the

acoustical components of the solo singing voice. In dealing with resonance issues

alone, studies have shown that full upper resonance in the singer's formant range is

one of the components that is preferred for a solo voice quality to be judged as good

(Bartholomew. 1934: Bloothooft, 1987).

Now that it is becoming possible to identify and more closely analyze the

spectral components of choral sound, studies dealing with musician's and non­

musician's preference o f specific elements o f choral tone quality are becoming

possible. A few studies have been undertaken in an attempt to measure the changes a

singer makes when singing with a choral group as opposed to singing in a solo "mode"

o f performance (Bartholomew. 1934; Rossing. 1985a; Rossing. 1985b: Temstrom.

1989a: Temstrom. 1989b; Temstrom, 1991). However, no research has been found

that attempts to isolate specifically the resonance factor of tone quality and also tries

to ascertain undergraduate vocal music major's, instrumental music major's with no

choral experience, and non-musician's preference for a choral tone quality with a fully

resonant tone in the singer's formant range as opposed to a choral tone quality with

little resonance in the singer's formant range.

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CHAPTER THREE

METHOD

Definitions

Fast Fouier Transform (FFT): The FFT is spectral analysis system that uses a

mathematical algorithm to convert a sound signal from time to frequency domain.

Formant: Formants are resonance frequencies within the vocal tract.

Singer's Formant, Singer s Formant Resonance: “This is a prominent

spectrum envelope peak appearing in the range of 2 to 4 kHz in all vowel spectra sung

by male singers and also by altos. It belongs to the typical features o f a sung vowel”

(Sundberg. 1988b).

Spectrogram. Spectrograph: A graph that displays sound spectral data over

time. Time is shown horizontally, frequency is shown vertically and amplitude is

shown in shading or color.

Limitations

1. This study involved choral music from the Renaissance and Romantic time periods

only. No attempt was made to transfer the results to all choral music.

2. The chorus for the stimulus recording was limited to eight adult male and female

voices due to the size o f the anacohic chamber and the amount o f singers who

could alter the singer's formant resonance in their voices without


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substantially altering the dynamic level or the vibrato speed or amplitude.

3. The subjects for this study were taken from the populations o f undergraduate

college choral or vocal music majors with extensive choral training or experience,

undergraduate college instrumental music majors with very little or no experience

or training in choral music, and undergraduate college students who had no

experience or training in choral or instrumental music. All subjects were from a

single University in the Southeastern United States.

Stimulus Recording

A group o f eight graduate students from the voice and choral department o f the

Florida State University (2 soprano. 2 alto. 2 tenor. 2 bass) were selected based on

their ability to sing with full singer's formant resonance and reduced singer's formant

resonance without greatly altering the vibrato or the dynamic level of their voice.

Each singer was instructed in the task and asked to sing into a Radio Shack PRO-3010

dynamic microphone connected to a personal computer which was running the

software package Spectra Plus™ version 2.32.01 by Sound Technology Inc (1998).

Spectra Plus™ is a Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) spectral analysis system. The FFT

system is a mathematical algorithm that converts the sound signal from time to

frequency domain. The software was running in real time mode and a spectrographic

representation of the singers vocal tone was displayed on the monitor. Each singer

was then able to see the prominence o f the singer's formant and was able to

experiment with altering the energy level in the frequency range that corresponded to

that of the singer's formant (2 kHz-4 kHz). After instruction and experimentation, the

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singers performed an exercise while singing once with full singer's formant resonance

and then again while attempting to greatly reduce the singer's formant resonance. The

singers were instructed to attempt to make this resonance change without significantly

altering dynamics or vibrato speed. Those singers that were most successful were

selected for the recording.

Music

Upon identifying the eight singers, they met to record eight musical examples.

Four of the examples were basic four voice chord progressions that were seven

measures long. These chord progressions were psalm settings taken from The Hymnal

1982 (Butcher. 1985). The chord progressions were sung to an [a] vowel. The

remaining four examples were selected from “real music,'' sung with the original text:

two of the final four examples were from the Renaissance time period and two were

from the Romantic time period. The pieces selected from the Renaissance were I f Ye

Love Me by Thomas Tallis (1505-1585). and Adoramus Te by Giovanni Gastoldi

(1550-1609). commonly attributed to Giovanni Palestrina. The pieces selected from

the Romantic period were Waldesnacht (Op. 62 No. 3) by Johannes Brahms (1833-

1897). and Locus iste by Anton Bruckner (1824-1896). The pieces were selected

because each had an opening phrase that was almost completely homophonic. Each of

the music examples used for the study consisted o f roughly 8s to 14s o f the opening

phrase o f each piece performed at the same tempo. The first four pieces with no text

were judged as redundant and were discarded following the first pilot study. The two

pieces from the Renaissance and the two pieces from the Romantic period were used

for the main study (See appendix B).

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Recording Process

The recordings were made in an anechoic chamber in the School o f Music at

Florida State University. The anechoic chamber is a specially designed room that

produces almost no echo or reverberation and eliminates all outside sound. Its

construction was a joint project o f the Center for Music Research in the School of

Music at Florida State University, the Institute o f Molecular Biophysics at Florida

State University, and the Department o f Mechanical Engineering at Florida

Agricultural and Mechanical University and Florida State University. Tom Phipps

and Michael Kasha designed the anechoic chamber and Yulu Krothapalli completed

the calibration. The eight singers stood in a circle along the walls of the chamber

facing toward the center. The two sopranos stood beside each other as did the two

altos, tenors, and bases. A Briiel and Kjaer Type 2669 microphone was suspended

from the ceiling in the center o f the chamber. The singers were placed an equal

distance (0.75 m) from the microphone for the recording. However, during the

recording process it became evident that the tenors were louder than the other sections

of the chorus so the tenors were moved to a distance o f 0.92 m from the microphone.

This process of balancing the voices was viewed as less vocally inhibiting than asking

the tenors to alter their vocal production in order to balance with the other voices. The

recording was made on a Sony digital audio tape recorder, model DTC-75ES.

Each of the eight musical examples was recorded twice, once with a fully

resonant tone in the singer's formant range and once with a tone with much less

resonance. In addition to the above mentioned training experience with the Spectra

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Plus software, the singers relied on the use o f a hand-held Singer s Formant Analyzer 1

which was monitored during the recording in order to further assure that there was a

difference in the level of the singer’s formant. This hand-held unit uses a relative

scale to indicate the intensity o f sounds in the frequency range o f the singer's formant.

All other frequencies are filtered out. The Singer's Formant Analyzer has an

adjustable intensity response and therefore does not represent the singer s formant in a

standard fixed scale such as a decibel scale. It was used to give the singers a visual aid

in singing with a reduced singer’s formant.

The following instructions were read to the singers before the recording

process:

1. *'We will sing through the 8 pieces before we begin recording so that we are

sure o f the notes.

2. On entering the anechoic chamber: (a) stand with your toes touching the

masking tape lines, (b) stand in sections, (c) face the microphone with your

head facing forward instead o f down at your music.

3. One o f the singers will give the pitch, you may hum your first note, and he will

then direct the examples.

4. You will sing examples 1.2,3. & 4 on an [a] vowel and examples 5.6.7. & 8

on the printed text.

5. You will sing all 8 examples with full resonance then you will go back to the

first example and sing all 8 examples with tone quality that is lacking the

1The singer's formant analyzer was designed and built by Dr. Allen Goodwin o f
Advantage Showare. Inc. in Ringgold Georgia.
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resonance, ring, or singer’s formant (which ever term you are familiar with).

The object is to not alter the vibrato speed or the dynamic level. We are not

aiming for a “straight tone” sound. Vibrato needs to remain constant so that it

does not become a variable in the study.

6. You may be asked to repeat a recording if the diction varies from recording to

recording or if the intonation becomes inconsistent. Also, one o f the singers

will be monitoring the Singer’s Formant Meter and if the presence of singer’s

formant approaches that used when singing with full resonance, he will start

the music example over.

7. Thank you for making this recording for me. Please fill out the form and

include your mailing address.”

The recordings from the digital audio tape were then converted into wave files

and recorded onto a Compact Disk. Following the recording process, the stimuli were

converted to monaural wave files and analyzed using the Spectra Plus software

package running on a Personal Computer. Then the wave files were used to make the

stimulus recording for the study. The Spectra Plus software package uses a Fast

Fouier Transform (FFT) algorithm to convert sound from the time domain (amplitude

versus time) into the frequency domain (amplitude versus frequency). The sampling

rate for the wave file was 44,100 Hz or CD quality at 16 bits per sample. The FFT

size was set to 8192 points and the decimation ratio was set at one. This produced

spectral lines of 5.38 Hz. For additional clarity, the Blackman smoothing window was

employed on the data.

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The recorded music examples were arranged into matched pairs o f the same

example with a resonant tone and without a resonant tone using Cool Edit 96 software

by Syntrillium Software Corporation (Johnston, 1996). The matched pairs were

measured for total power using the Spectra Plus software. The overall power level o f

the two examples was matched using a gain control in the Spectra Plus software that

adjusted all aspects of the sound uniformly. In this way, individual spectral

components o f the sound were not altered in relation to the fundamental frequency. A

panel of six judges of music faculty and doctoral choral music students rated the

performances as being resonant or not resonant and the results were examined for

inteijudge reliability. The judges were only in complete agreement on examples 5, 7

and 8 . One of the six judges differed on example 1 and two o f the six judges differed

on examples 2, 3 ,4 , and 6 . Upon examining the results and the comments made by

the judges, it appeared that by adjusting the gain on the examples that lacked

resonance, the recording o f the non-resonant example was perceived as louder and

more sonorous than the resonant example. Due to this effect it seemed prudent to

make another tape without adjusting the gain on the examples with less resonance then

have six new judges rate the examples. This produced a slight perceived volume

difference between the two examples but the judges were instructed to attend to the

tone quality differences and to not consider volume in their decision. The judges were

in 100% agreement on all eight o f the examples. The adjusted recordings were

discarded and the unadjusted recordings were used for the study. The total root mean

square (RMS) power output for both versions o f the four music excerpts used is

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contained in a table in Table 1. Furthermore, an instruction to disregard the volume

difference was incorporated into the questionnaire used by the subjects.

Recordings For The Main Study

The composite choral sound o f the four music excerpts was analyzed using the

Spectra Plus™ software to investigate any difference o f energy in the singer's formant

range. The data for the analysis o f the four pieces used in the main study is contained

in appendixes D. E, F, and G. While the Spectra Plus™ software does not separate

voices for individual comparisons o f vocal spectra it does indicate if a strong sound

component or energy level exists in the singer's formant range o f the total sound.

Table 1

Total RMS Power for Each Music Example and Differences Between Versions

Example Total RMS Power Difference Between Resonant


and Non-Resonant Version

Tallis Resonant -18.69 dB -4.08 dB


Tallis Non-Resonant -22.77 dB

Gastoldi Resonant -17.77 dB -4.31 dB


Gastoldi Non-Resonant -22.08 dB

Brahms Resonant -20.80 dB -4.83 dB


Brahms Non-Resonant -25.63 dB

Bruckner Resonant -18.71 dB -4.84 dB


Bruckner Non-Resonant -23.55 dB

The recordings that were used for stimuli for the main study were the opening

phrases o f the Tallis. Gastoldi. Brahms, and Bruckner pieces (Appendix B). Eight
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graduate voice students recorded the stimuli in an anechoic chamber in the School o f

Music at Florida State University. Each o f the four pieces was recorded, in its original

language, once with a fully resonant placement and once again with diminished

resonance in the singer's formant frequency range (approximately 2-4 kHz).

The analysis o f the wave files revealed information about the relative strength

o f the singer's formant in each o f the recordings. The Spectra Plus ™ software

package was used to compute an average spectrum for each o f each o f the wave files

and to view spectrographic data on the wave file. The average spectrum plots the

average strength in decibels for specific frequencies over time throughout, in this case,

the entire musical example.

Tallis - I f Ye Love Me Keep Mv Commandments. A comparison o f the

spectrographs o f the wave files for the resonant (Figure 1) and the non-resonant

version (Figure 2) of the Tallis example demonstrates the difference in singer's

formant resonance. A concentration o f energy in the singer's formant range

(approximately 2 —1 kHz) can be observed from the resonant example (Figure 1).

That energy is much weaker in the non-resonant example (Figure 2).

The vibrato can be seen in both examples by noting the oscillating lines.

Based on this visual information, it is clear that vibrato is present in both the resonant

and the non-resonant examples. The lightening o f the color denotes the intensity.

Darker shades o f color note less intense sound (or non-existent sound) and the lighter

shades represent increasing intensity.

The average strength over the entire musical example can be seen in the

average spectrum o f both the resonant example and the non-resonant example (Figure

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3). The average spectra for both versions o f the song are represented on this chart.

The black line is the average spectra of the non-resonant example and the red line

(gray line for photocopies o f this study) is the average spectra o f the resonant example.

A slight peak in the red (or gray if you are reading from a photo copy) average

spectrum from roughly 2.5 kHz to 3 kHz in Figure 3 represents the singer's formant

resonance averaged over the entire sound file.

Even more detail can be noted in the Table o f Relative Strength o f Frequency

for the Tallis example (Appendix D). This table lists frequencies from 10.8 Hz in

roughly 5 to 6 Hz increments up to 5676.5 Hz. The relative strength is listed in two

columns beside the frequency. The first column o f data represents the resonant

example and the second column represents the non-resonant example. The column on

the right side represents the difference in sound level between the resonant and the

non-resonant examples. All o f the sound measurements in Appendix D. E. F. and G

are in decibels (dB).

Gastoldi - Adoramus te. The spectrogram o f the Gastoldi Adoramus te

illustrates a greater difference in the strength o f the energy level in the singer's

formant range between the resonant example (Figure 4) and the non-resonant example

(Figure 5). Also, the average spectrum o f the resonant and the non-resonant (Figure 6)

versions of the Gastoldi example reveal a difference in the strength o f the sound at the

singer's formant level. The individual frequency data for the Gastoldi examples

reveals large differences in the frequencies in the singer's formant range (Appendix

E).

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Figure 2. Tallis - non-resonant - average o f left and right channel with spectrum
expanded

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Figure 4. Gastoldi - resonant - average o f left and right channel with spectrum
expanded

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Figure 5. Gastoldi - non-resonant - average o f left and right channel with spectrum
expanded

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Brahms - Waldesnacht du wunderkiihle (Od.62 No. 3). The spectrogram o f the

Brahms piece was similar to that o f the two Renaissance pieces in that the sound

energy in the singer’s formant range is noticeably stronger in the resonant example

(Figure 7) than the non-resonant example (Figure 8). The average spectrum also

reveals this difference in energy from the resonant example to the non-resonant

example (Figure 9). The average spectrum data (Appendix F) illustrates this point

numerically with a larger difference in intensity between the resonant example and the

non-resonant example in the singer's formant range.

Bruckner - Locus iste. The final musical example used for the present study

was Locus isle by Anton Bruckner. The spectrograms for these recordings also

demonstrate a difference in energy at the singer’s formant level from the resonant

example (Figure 10) to that o f the non-resonant example (Figure 11). The average

spectrum for the resonant example and the non-resonant example (Figure 12) show

similar differences to the other three examples. In the fundamental frequency range, it

is possible to see that the intensities are very similar. However, as the graph

progresses to the singer's formant range the gap between the intensity o f the resonant

example and the non-resonant example widens. As in the other examples, the data

generated from the average spectrum o f each o f the examples reveal a widening gap in

intensity levels between the two examples throughout the singer's formant range

(Appendix G)

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Figure 7. Brahms - resonant - average o f left and right channel with spectrum
expanded

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Figure 8. Brahms - non-resonant - average o f left and right channel with spectrum
expanded

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Tlm«(TgeettM*
Figure 11. Bruckner - non-resonant - average o f left and right channel with spectrum
expanded

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Figure 12. Bruckner- average spectrum- black = non-resonant, red (gray) = resonant

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Pilot Studies

Pilot Study One

A questionnaire was developed that included demographic questions and a

forced-choice response grid for the matched pair music examples. The forced-choice

design was selected due to the fact that neither specialized knowledge of music nor

previous experience in music was required to make a decision on preference. Also,

studies conducted by Schuman and Presser indicate, the outcome is not significantly

affected when a questionnaire using forced-choice design is given in comparisons to a

questionnaire with a “don't know" option (Schuman, 1981 149).

The music examples were paired with resonant versus non-resonant or non­

resonant versus resonant music examples. On each pair the subject was asked to

indicate which of the two examples he or she preferred. In addition, the subjects were

asked to respond to the intensity o f their preference by circling a number on a scale

from one to five with one being a low intensity and five being a high intensity

preference. Each of the pairings was used twice to make thirty-two possible

combinations. Three random orderings o f the examples were developed and recorded

for the study.

The first pilot study was conducted using graduate students and non-student

adults (;V = 38) so that potential subjects would not be disqualified from the main

study. The subjects were divided into two groups. The first group (N = 11) were

subjects with little or no training in choral music. The second group TV = 27) were

subjects with training in choral music.

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The first pilot study revealed a difference between the two groups. The results

indicated that the first four chord progressions were redundant, therefore they were

removed from future versions o f the study. Another observation from the pilot study

indicated that the subjects changed their minds considerably between the resonant and

non-resonant examples. However, data were examined for potential bias due to fatigue

and order effects, and no apparent patterns emerged. Nevertheless, it was decided to

limit the study to the point of each subject responding to either the two pieces from the

Renaissance or the two pieces from the Romantic period. The repetitions were

increased to three o f each presentation order, which resulted in six paired examples o f

each piece. The questionnaire was rewritten and new stimulus recordings were made

for a second pilot study.

Pilot Study Two

The subjects for the second pilot study were graduate students and non-student

adults (A1’ = 12) so that potential subjects (undergraduates) would not be disqualified

from the main study. The subjects listened to six randomly ordered presentations o f

two pieces of choral music from the Renaissance (/V = 6) or Romantic (N = 6) time

periods. This produced a total o f twelve parings o f music examples. The subjects

were divided into two groups with one group representing subjects with training in

choral music (N= 10) and one group representing subjects with no musical training {N

= 2 ).

The number of subjects who changed their minds from either resonant to non­

resonant or non-resonant to resonant example was greatly reduced in the second pilot

study. Also, after examining the demographic data from both pilot studies, there

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appeared to be a distinct third group. That group was made up ot instrumental

musicians who had no training in choral music. Therefore, the final study was

designed with three groups instead o f two.

Main Study

The participants in the study were students from a large public university in the

southeastern United States. Demographic data were collected on each subject that was

used to three groups based on training: (a) undergraduate music majors who had

training in choral music (choral training) (N= 49), (b) undergraduate music majors

who had training in instrumental music but very little or no training in choral music

(instrumental training) (/V = 47), and (c) undergraduate students who had no training in

music (no music) (N = 43). The designation o f very little or no choral music training

was made based on no choral music training or choral training that either consisted o f

(a) elementary school experience that was judged limited in amount o f time and five

or more years in the past, (b) elementary school and middle school experience and a

self-rating o f very little or no choral training, or (c) elementary school training and

church choir experience if their self-rating was very little or no choral training.

The subjects were randomly assigned to one o f two listening groups. One of

these groups listened to a presentation consisting o f two short choral music exerpts

from the Renaissance (choral training N = 28, instrumental training N = 23. no music

N = 24) and the other group listened to an equivalent presentation o f two choral

exerpts from the Romantic period (choral training A' = 21. instrumental training A' =

24. no music Ar = 19). Each o f the four pieces (two Renaissance and two Romantic)

was paired with the identical piece that was recorded with the same voices, in the

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same acoustical environment but with a different vocal technique. Each pairing was

presented six times (three times in one order and three times in the reverse order). The

result was a stimulus tape that contained twelve pairings o f two choral music exerpts

that were randomly ordered. Three different random orderings o f the two groups o f

music were prepared and the subjects were randomly assigned to one o f the six

random orderings.

The questionnaire was rewritten for the main preference study (Appendix C).

The music examples were paired with resonant versus non-resonant or non-resonant

versus resonant music examples. On each pair or trial, subjects were asked to indicate

which o f the two examples they preferred. Additionally, the subjects were asked to

respond to the intensity o f their preference by circling a number on a scale from one to

five with one being a low intensity and five being a high intensity preference. Each o f

the trials were used three times to make twelve possible combinations. Three random

orderings o f the Renaissance pieces and three random orderings o f the Romantic

pieces were developed and recorded for the study. The instructions for the subjects

were also recorded so they would have the instructions both in written and in audible

forms.

The recording of each trial was comprised o f a beginning three-second silence

followed by an announcement o f "pair N.” The instructions on the CD were equalized

to roughly the same intensity level as the musical examples. The announcement was

followed by a two-second silence, followed by one version o f the music excerpt,

another two-second silence, and the alternate version o f the music excerpt. The three

random orderings o f Renaissance music excerpts and the three random orderings of

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Romantic music excerpts were recorded onto six separate compact discs for the main

study.

The experimental room was a sound dampened room with the approximate

dimensions of 4 m by 5.5 m. Tables, desks, and chairs lined the walls and two desks

were placed in the center o f the room. Blinders were constructed so that the subjects

could not see each other’s responses. Cabling was laid throughout the room so that a

total of 10 headphones could be connected to a single music source. Eitaro

Kawaguchi, who is the Senior Engineer in the Center for Music Research at Florida

State University, constructed the cabling for the study. The 10 headphones were Koss

gt/4 portable headphones with a frequency response o f 20 to 20,000 Hz. Each

headphone had an intensity control on the cord. The headphones were connected to a

Pioneer SA1510 amplifier and a JVC XL-2441 compact disc player.

The subjects were instructed to enter the room, take a seat and fill out the

demographic portion of the questionnaire (Appendix C). Upon completion o f the

demographic information, the subjects were instructed to put on their headphones and,

during the instructions, adjust the volume to a comfortable level. The instructions

(Appendix C) were printed on the questionnaire and were read on the compact disc.

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CHAPTER FOUR

RESULTS

Order Effect

Frequencies and general descriptive statistics were used on all o f the analysis.

In addition, a paired-samples /-test was used to investigate the first question and a

One-Way Analysis of Variance was used for the second question.

A separate Paired Samples /-test was used to investigate any order effect that

might have occurred. A significance level o f a = .05 was used for all o f the statistical

tests. The /-test compared the three presentations o f each ordering of each piece. For

example, the three orderings o f the Tallis piece that had the non-resonant version first

were compared with the three orderings that had the resonant version first. This test

revealed that there were no significant order effects in the first three pieces. The Tallis

piece produced a two-tailed significance o fp = .390. the Gastoldi piece produced a

two-tailed significance of p = .260. and the Brahms piece produced a two-tailed

significance o f p = .717. However, the Bruckner piece revealed a two-tailed

significance o fp < .000 (Table 2). This level o f significance would normally suggest

an order effect for this piece.

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Demographic Data

The subjects for this study totaled 139. O f those subjects. 28 (20%) were

freshmen, 39 (28%) were sophomores, 30 (22%) were juniors, and 42 (30%) were

seniors.

Table 2

T-Test Results for Order Effect

Paired Differences

Music Mean sd sd error t df Sig.


mean 2-tailed

Tallis NR/R .08 .80 .09 .865 75 .390


Renaissance Group

Gastoldi NR/R -.13 1.01 .12 -1.134 75 .260


Renaissance Group

Brahms NR/R -.05 1.02 .13 -.364 64 .717


Romantic Group

Bruckner NR/R -.58 .96 .12 -4.837 63 .000


Romantic Group

Music Majors With Choral Training

Of the subjects that comprised the group Music Majors with Choral Training

(.V = 49). 5 (10%) were freshmen. 9 (18%) were sophomores. 16 (33%) were juniors.

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and 19 (39%) were seniors. Two o f the subjects (4%) reported that they had from one

to two years of experience singing in a choir. Three o f the subjects (6%) reported that

they had from three to four years o f experience singing in a choir. Naturally, the

majority o f subjects in this group had more extensive experience in choir: eleven

(22%) that had between five and six years o f experience, and 34 (69%) that had seven

or more years of experience singing in a choir.

This group also contained subjects with considerable experience in singing in a

solo situation. Only nine (18%) reported that they had no experience singing solo.

Three subjects (6%) reported one year o f solo experience, five subjects (10%) reported

two years o f experience, one subject (2%) reported three years o f experience, and

seven subjects (14%) reported four years o f experience singing in a solo setting.

Finally, 25 (51%) o f the subjects had five or more years of experience singing in a

solo setting.

Forty-one (84%) o f the subjects in this group had some private voice

instruction. Seven (14%) of the subjects had one year o f private instruction, six (12%)

of the subjects had two years o f instruction, six (12%) had three years o f instruction,

and eight (16%) of the subjects had four years o f private instruction in voice. The

greatest concentration of experience was with 15 (31%) of the subjects who had five

or more years of private voice instruction.

Only one (2%) o f the subjects had no instrumental music experience, while

three (6%) had two years of instrumental experience, four (8%) had three years o f

experience, and five (10%) had four years o f experience with a musical instrument.

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The majority o f students (37 or 76%) had five or more years o f experience playing a

musical instrument.

Music Majors With Instrumental Training But No Choral Training

The second group examined in this study was comprised o f subjects (N = 47)

who were instrumental music majors who had very little or no choral music training or

experience. O f the 47 subjects. 13 (28%) were freshmen. 19 (40 %) were sophomores,

5 (11%) were juniors, and 10 (21%) were seniors.

As would be expected from the orientation of the group, most o f the subjects

(40 or 85%) had no experience in choral music. A total o f 7 students had limited

experience in choral ensembles. O f those, 5 (11%) had from one to two years o f

experience, one subject (2%) had from three to four years experience, and one subject

(2%) had from five to six years o f experience singing in a chorus. O f the subjects with

limited choral experience, two had only been in elementary school choir, one had been

in elementary school choir and middle school choir, and four had been in elementary

school choir and church choir. They all gave themselves a voluntary rating o f very

little or no training in choral music.

All of the subjects (N = 47) reported that they had no experience singing in a

solo setting. Further. 46 (98%) o f the subjects responded that they had no private

voice instruction. One subject (2%) had private voice lessons for one year or less. As

would be expected, all of the subjects reported that they had five years or more of

experience playing a musical instrument.

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Nonmusic Majors With No Choral Or Instrumental Training

The final group of subjects (/V = 43) consisted o f individuals with no

experience or training in choral music or in instrumental music. O f the 43 subjects, 10

(23%) were freshmen, 11 (26%) were sophomores, 9 (21%) were juniors, and 13

(30%) were seniors.

As expected from subjects in this group, there were almost no subjects with

music experience. Only one subject (2%) had from one to two years o f experience in

an elementary school choir and the rest o f the subjects (42 or 98%) had no experience

in a choral ensemble. None o f the subjects (/V = 43) reported experience singing in a

solo situation or experience in private voice instruction. Finally, none o f the 43

subjects reported that they had any experience in playing a musical instrument.

Research Question One

All o f the statistical tests used on the two research questions were computed at

the .05 alpha level. The first question involved an investigation into all o f the

subject's preference for a choral tone quality with or without singer's formant

resonance. The results of all four of the music examples were combined and a Paired

Samples /-test was used to carry out the investigation. Also, frequencies, mean scores,

and standard deviations were used in the analysis o f the first question. The range of

scores for non-resonant or resonant was from zero to twelve. That is. each subject had

the possibility of preferring a resonant or a non-resonant version o f any or all o f the 12

pairings of the two pieces. The mean score for the non-resonant responses was 7.95

compared to the mean o f the resonant responses, which was 4.05. The standard

deviation for the two categories was 3.42. The standard deviation scores were

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identical due to the fact that the design used was forced-choice. For example, if the

response was not a preference for a resonant tone, the answer had to be non-resonant

(Table 3).

Table 3

Non-resonant versus resonant responses across all subjects

N Minimum Maximum Mean SD

Non-resonant 139 0 12 7.9496 3.4206

Resonant 139 0 12 4.0504 3.4206

Only 28 of the subjects (20%) responded with a preference for non-resonant

choral tone in every case (Table 4). However, out of the total 139 subjects, only 3

subjects (2%) responded with a preference for a resonant choral tone in every case

(Table 5). The rest of the subjects were less consistent in their judgments. Still a

strong trend toward a non-resonant preference is observable (Table 4). Figures 13 and

14 are a representation o f the frequency that the subjects chose the resonant versus the

non-resonant version o f each song.

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T a b le 4

Frequency o f Non-resonant responses

number o f non­ Frequency Percent Cumulative


resonant Percent
responses

0 3 2.2 2.2

1 6 4.3 6.5

2 5 3.6 10.1
s
4 2.9 12.9

4 5 3.6 16.5

5 6 4.3 20.9

6 16 11.5 32.4

7 15 10.8 43.2

8 8 5.8 48.9

9 18 12.9 61.9

10 11 7.9 69.8

11 14 10.1 79.9

12 28 20.1 100.0

Total 139 100.0

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T ab le 5

Frequency o f Resonant responses

number o f Frequency Percent Cumulative


resonant Percent
responses

0 28 20.1 20.1

1 14 10.1 30.2

2 11 7.9 38.1

j 18 12.9 51.1

4 8 5.8 56.8

5 15 10.8 67.6

6 16 11.5 79.1

7 6 4.3 83.5

8 5 3.6 87.1

9 4 2.9 89.9

10 5 3.6 93.5

11 6 4.3 97.8

12 3 2.2 100.0

Total 139 100.0

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Frequency

•Tallis F requency
■Gastoldi F req u e n cy

0
0N-6R 1N-5R 2N-4R 3N-3R 4N-2R 5N -IR 6N-0R
Figure 1 3 . F r e q u e n c y o f r e s o n a n t v e r s u s n o n ­
re s o n a n t re s p o n s e s to R e n a i s s a n c e e x c e rp ts

30

25

20
O
5 ■B r a h m s F r e q u e n c y
O’ 15
■Bruckner Frequency
10

0
0N -6R IN -5R 2N -4R 3N -3R 4N -2R 5N -IR 6N -0R
F igure 1 4 . F r e q u e n c y o f r e s o n a n t v e r s u s n o n ­
r e s o n a n t r e s p o n s e s to R o m a n t i c e x c e r p t s

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Finally, a Paired Samples r-test was used to determine if the differences

between the two preference choices were significant. The result was a two-tailed

significance level o fp < .000 (Table 6). This reveals a significant difference at the

alpha level of .05. There is a basic difference in the choral tone quality that the

subjects preferred for all four musical examples. All groups demonstrated a

preference for non-resonant tone quality.

Table 6

T-Test Results fo r All Subject's Preference fo r a Non-resonant


or a Resonant Choral Tone Quality

Paired Differences

SD
Music Mean SD error t df Sig.
mean 2-tailed

N on-resonant- 3.90 6.84 .58 6.720 138 .000


Resonant

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Research Question Two

A One-Way Analysis o f Variance test was used to determine if the subjects in

the three training groups differed significantly in their preference for a resonant or a

non-resonant choral tone quality across all four o f the music examples. The test

revealed a significant difference existed between the three training groups in both the

non-resonant responses and the resonant responses. Table 7 shows the F-ratios for

both resonance and non-resonance responses (the F-ratios are identical because o f the

forced-choice procedure).

Table 7

One-Way A NOVA fo r Training versus Resonance Preference

Factor Source o f Variation Sum o f Mean df F Sig.


Squares Squares

Non­ Between Groups 219.638 109.819 11.101 .000


resonant Within Groups 1395.009 10.257 136

Resonant Between Groups 219.638 109.819 2 11.101 .000


Within Groups 1395.009 10.257 136

Upon the examination o f a Scheffe post hoc test and the descriptive statistics.

several differences could be observed. The Scheffe post hoc test revealed a significant

difference {p < .000) between the group with choral training and the group with

instrumental training but no choral training (Table 8). There was also a significant
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Reproduced
with permission

I’able 8
of the copyright owner.

Multiple C'omparisons fo r the Three Training Groups, Non-Resonanl Preferences (Scheffe Test)

Dependent Variable Training (I) Training (J) Mean Standard Sig.


Difference Deviation
(I-J) Error
Further reproduction

Non-Resonant Choral Training Instrumental Training / 2.653a .654 .000


No Choral

No Music Training 2.607“ .669 .001


O
IO
prohibited without p e r m is s io n .

InstrunienlalTraining / Choral Training -2.653“ .654 .000


No Choral

No Music Training -.047 .676 .998

No Music Training Choral Training -2.607“ .669 .001

Instrumental Training / .047 .676 .998


No Choral

Note. “ The mean difference is significant at the .05 level.


Reproduced
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Table 9
of the copyright owner.

Multiple C'omparisons fo r the Three Training Groups, Resonant Preferences (Scheffe Test)

Mean Standard
Dependent Training (I) Training (J) Difference Deviation Sig.
Variable (I-J) Error
Further reproduction

Resonant Choral 'Training Instrumental Training -2.653a .654 .000


/ No Choral

No Music Training -2.607 s .669 .001


prohibited without p e r m is s io n .

Instrumental Training Choral Training 2.653a .654 .000


/ No Choral

No Music Training .047 .676 .998

No Music Training Choral Training 2.607“ .669 .001

Instrumental Training -.047 .676 .998


/ No Choral

Note. a The mean difference is significant at the .05 level.


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of the copyright owner.

Table 10

Descriptive Statistics fo r Three Training Groups Across Non-Resonance Versus Resonance Preference

Resonance Training N Mean sd sd Minimum Maximum


error
Further reproduction

Factor

Non-resonant Choral Training 49 9.653 2.521 .360 0 12

Instrumental Training / 47 7.000 3.394 .495 0 12


No Choral
prohibited without p e r m is s io n .

No Music Training 43 7.047 3.651 .557 1 12

Total 139 7.950 3.421 .290 0 12

Resonant Choral Training 49 2.347 2.521 .360 0 12

Instrumental Training / 47 5.000 3.394 .495 0 12


No Choral

No Music Training 43 4.954 3.651 .557 0 11

Total 139 4.050 3.421 .290 0 12


1 2 ---
Mean of non-resonant

Choral Inst. No Music


Figure 15. Mean scores of non-resonant responses by three
training groups

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difference (p = .001) between the group with choral training and the group with no

musical training. The difference between the group with instrumental training and the

group with no musical training was not significant (p = .998). The Scheffe post hoc

text for training versus a resonant preference yielded the same results due to the

forced-choice design (Table 9). The mean scores for the non-resonant and resonant

responses revealed that all three training groups preferred the non-resonant version

over the resonant version (Table 10). However, the group with choral training had a

significantly higher mean score (9.653) for a non-resonant preference when compared

to the instrumental group (7.000) or the group with no musical training (7.047) (Figure

15). The standard deviation also revealed a stronger consensus o f opinion for the

choral training group (2.521) than that o f the instrumental training group (3.394) or the

group with no musical training (3.651).

Intensity of Preference

Finally, data were collected on the intensity o f each o f the subjects' preference

choices. Each time they listened to a pairing o f music excerpts they were asked to

mark the performance that they preferred. They were then asked to circle a number on

a Likert type scale from one to five with one representing a weak intensity and five

representing a strong intensity o f preference (Appendix C). When all of the subjects'

scores are examined together the mean score for their intensity ratings was 3.059 out

o f the possible five points. Only a slight difference can be noted in the mean scores of

each o f the three training groups. The choral training group had a mean score o f

3.362. the instrumental training group had a mean score o f 2.88, and the no music

training group had a mean score of 2.842. The overall standard deviation was 0.78

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while the individual groups were 0.755 for the choral training group. 0.787 tor

instrumental training group, and 0.8 for the no music training group (Table 11)

Table 11

Intensity o f Preference data by subjects

Subject Groups Mean scores Standard


deviations

Choral training 3.362 0.755

Instrumental training 2.880 0.787

No music training 2.842 0.800

All subjects 3.059 0.780

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C H A P T E R FIVE

DISCUSSION

Interpretation o f the Results

Research Questions

The first research question was concerned with the choral tone quality that

undergraduate college students (musician and non-musician) preferred. Specifically.

their preference for a choral tone that possessed a strong resonance in the singer's

formant range over a choral tone quality that was produced with the same voices using

a much weaker singer's formant resonance was the subject o f interest. The results of

the paired-samples /-test indicated a significant difference (p < .000) between the

resonant versus non-resonant responses for all o f the subjects. This result indicates

that there is a difference in the tone quality that college students prefer when given the

choice between one with strong resonance in the singer's formant range and one with

weak resonance in the singer's formant range. More specifically, the mean scores

indicate that the subjects preferred the non-resonant example (7.95) to the resonant

example (4.05). This would indicate that all subjects preferred a non-resonant choral

tone quality to a resonant tone quality.

The second research question sought to ascertain whether the training or

musical background o f the subjects influenced their choice in preferred tone quality.

It was hypothesized that the subjects who were trained in singing and experienced in
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singing in a chorus would react differently from subjects who lacked this training or

background. When the subjects' responses were examined based on their training

level, a difference in the tone quality preference became evident. The study revealed a

significant difference between the choral training group and the instrumental training

group {p < .000) and the choral training group and the group with no music training ip

= .001). The study did not reveal a significant difference between the instrumental

group and the group with no music training (p = .998). When considering these

results, the impact that training has on tone quality preference becomes evident.

However, upon examining the mean scores for each o f the training groups, it becomes

clear that the difference lies more with the degree o f their preference and the

consistency o f their preference. It is interesting to note that each o f the three training

groups preferred a non-resonant rather than a resonant tone quality. Out o f twelve

possible non-resonant responses, the subjects with choral training indicated their

preference for a non-resonant tone quality with a mean score o f 9.653 compared to the

instrumental group's mean score o f 7.0, and the group with no music training's mean

score o f 7.047. When you compare this information with the standard deviation scores

o f (a) choral training (2.521), (b) instrumental training (3.394), and (c) no music

(3.421), an even stronger case is made for consistency of preference. The smaller

standard deviation for the group with choral training indicates that the responses from

this group did not vary as much from the mean as did the responses o f the other two

groups.

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Problem s w ith the Study

Order effect

As related in the previous chapter, when the paired-samples /-test was used on

the data, a difference was observed in the Bruckner music excerpt but not in the other

three excerpts (Table 1). The fact that a difference was not observed in three out o f

the four music excerpts makes the interpretation o f this as an order effect seem

suspect. The Bruckner excerpt was the only one o f the four that had an instance where

one vocal section was heard without the other three vocal sections. All o f the music

excerpts were homophonic except for two beats o f the Bruckner excerpt where the

basses were heard alone. Except for the Brahms excerpt, which had a slightly

different rhythm in the soprano and tenor voices for one beat, and the mentioned two

beats of the Bruckner excerpt, all o f the pieces were homorhythmic. The two exposed

bass notes in the Bruckner excerpt could have contributed to the difference in the test

for order effect. As the subjects listened to this excerpt over six repetitions, they could

have changed their minds based on the two exposed notes. Three o f the subjects

commented on the bass section. One commented "Sometimes the lower voices were

blaring which affected my decision.*' while another commented that "The basses

seemed to stand out in a way that I disliked." Still one other subject had a positive

reaction to the bass section. This subject stated that he or she "like[d the] powerful

male voice!" (Appendix H). It seems that the two notes that the basses sang alone

drew the attention of the subjects. Since the difference in the singer's formant was

strong in the bass voices, as measured in pre-recording sessions with the Spectra

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Plus™ software, it could have contributed to the confusion. There still seems to be

much that is not known about human preference o f choral tone quality.

Other Aspects O f The Study

Care should always be taken in interpreting preference when human voices are

used. It is impossible to completely control for all aspects of vocal production when

attempting to alter one specific aspect. Even with instructions to the highly skilled

singers to alter only their resonance, other changes are inevitable. For instance, while

vibrato was present in all o f the recordings, it was impossible to keep the vibrato speed

and amplitude exactly the same. Also, in some cases increasing the resonance altered

the balance and blend in the voices. Some of the imbalance was counteracted by

positioning the singers at different distances from the microphone for the resonant

recordings. However, due to the limited size of the anechoic chamber, this was not

always completely sufficient.

The act o f increasing the resonance in the singer's formant range added volume

to the sound. Although the sound level at the fundamental frequencies was relatively

the same, as can be seen in the combined average spectra contained in Figures 3. 6. 9,

and 12. the increased energy in the upper frequencies, including the singer's formant,

produced a louder perceived volume. Had the overall sound been adjusted to the non­

resonant level, so that the intensities were even, the intensity and proportion o f sound

distributed would have given the listener the impression that the sound was o f a lower

volume. Conversely, if the sound level o f the non-resonant version had been adjusted

to equal the intensity o f the resonant version, the perception of the tone quality of the

non-resonant version would have been o f a more sonorous tone. Therefore, for this

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study, the recordings were used as recorded and the volume or intensity was not

equalized. The subjects were instructed to disregard the volume o f sound as a factor

in their decisions. Based on the comments that the subjects made, most were able to

do this. However, there were seven subjects that admitted this posed a difficulty for

them. Twelve of the free response comments concerned the difficulty of choosing

between the tone quality choices and three comments concerned balance. One subject

felt that the soprano section was under pitch. Finally, two comments were directed

toward vocal production (Appendix H).

The act o f singing is an extremely complex process. When all of the aspects of

vocal production are combined with the correct pronunciation o f text and with the

aspect o f singing in an ensemble, the amount o f variables is enormous. The difficulty

in controlling all o f the variables in singing is why some researchers have used

synthesized voices in their experiments (Bemdtsson, 1995: Karlsson. 1992; Sundberg.

1988a; Temstrom. 1989a). However, the natural quality o f the sound, especially when

the vocal production involves text, becomes an issue with artificial voices. This

researcher felt that to answer the research questions involved with this study, it was

necessary to have human subjects evaluating human voices.

Implications for Music

Researchers have found that a choral singer who is also an experienced solo

singer will lower the energy level in the singer's formant range when switching from a

solo singing mode to a choral singing mode (Ekholm, 1998: Goodwin. 1977; Rossing.

1985a: Temstrom. 1989a). This study dealt with only one aspect o f choral tone

quality. That aspect was the amount o f resonance in the singer's formant range. This

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study has shown that subjects with (a) choral training, (b) instrumental training but no

choral training, and (c) no music training all prefer a choral tone quality with less

singer's formant resonance to one with a strong singer's formant resonance. Further,

the subjects with choral training prefer a choral tone quality with less resonance more

often than did subjects from the other two groups. This seems to indicate that

although though training and experience in choral music seems to increase ones

preference for a choral tone with less resonance, the training is not the sole

determining factor in the preference decision. It would appear that a general

preference for a choral tone quality with less resonance compared to one with strong

resonance is present to varying degrees in most o f the present sample and perhaps in

the population.

Recommendations for Future Research

Measurement Tools

The spectrographic software has an enormous potential for aiding research into

choral tone quality as well as research into choral conducting. The software can aid

researchers in investigating vowel tuning by looking more closely at the first two

formant frequencies in relation to the overall choral tone. It can aid researchers with

investigation into the impact vowels have on intonation. Also, research into the

posture of the singer and its effect on choral tone and intonation can be aided with

spectrographic equipment. Even more possibilities for research into choral tone will

exist accomplished when improvements in the software enable the location o f

individual voices out of a conglomerate choral sound and identify their component

partials.

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Spectrographic equipment also has the potential to benefit research into choral

conducting. For instance, the effect that a specific gesture has on the choral sound

could be measured objectively through the use of spectrographic software. Also, the

effect of a conductor’s posture on the choral tone or intonation could be measured

using spectrographic tools.

Future Research Implied Bv This Study

This study dealt with only one aspect o f choral tone quality (singer's formant

resonance), in a recording by one particular group o f singers and using subjects

representing three training areas. Future studies could include subjects with other

training backgrounds. For example, voice majors who have limited choral experience

could be compared to voice students with extensive choral experience. Professional

conductors could be compared to singers or student conductors. Future studies could

use different singers in order to see if the individual voices in this study influenced the

preferences. Other studies could include choruses o f various sizes to ascertain if the

number of voices has an impact o f preference decisions.

This study involved music from the Renaissance and the Romantic periods.

Future studies could include performance practice as a factor by investigating any

difference in tone quality preference between stylistic periods. Future investigations

could also include different styles o f choral music.

Resonance investigations could be done within the context o f a larger choral

excerpt. These studies could investigate whether added resonance within certain

portions of a text increases the communication o f meaning to the listener. Still, more

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research into choral resonance could investigate if intonation is improved by

increasing singer's formant resonance.

The choral music field can derive much benefit from acoustical and perceptual

research. While this study indicates only the most basic preferences in choral tone

quality, future research has the potential to more accurately define tonal ideals and

their physical properties. This will allow choral conductors to more clearly formulate

and articulate their tonal ideals for a given piece of music. It will benefit teachers of

future conductors by giving further insight into the components o f choral tone quality

and preferences for those components that they can then convey to their students. Both

conductors and singers can benefit from an increased knowledge o f tonal concepts and

their possible uses in the coloration o f vocal or choral sound.

One component o f a healthy vocal technique is flexibility in tonal production.

As the singers who make up the personnel o f choral ensembles, become more highly

trained, the flexibility and variety o f tonal possibilities for choral tone improve. It is

necessary for the choral conductor to be aware of the many aspects o f good vocal

production and to be aware of how those aspects fit in with his or her choral tonal

ideals. In this manner, research into the practices and preferences o f the choral and

vocal art is a valuable tool for further development o f the profession.

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A P P E N D IX E S

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APPENDIX A

International Phonetic A lphabet11

Chart fo r Symbols used in this study

IPA Approximate English


svmbol English Spelling Example

e ay weigh

i ee meet

u 00 glue

a ah father

j y yes

n n no

0 ng ring

a ah Ger. Mann

ae a cat

a Note. This chart is freely based on information from the


International Phonetic Association contained on their
world wide web site (http://www.arts.gla.ac.uk/IPA7ipa.html).

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
APPENDIX B

Four Music Examples

SOPRANO
yc love m e. keep my com • m in d - m en d

ALTO

ye love m e, keep my com - m in d - m en u ,—

TENOR

love m e. keep my cum - m in d • m e n d .—

BASS

If yc love m e. keep my com - m in d - m e n d .—

Music Example 5 :TaIlas - I f Ye Love Me

S oprano
ra C h ri ste.

A lto
n
C h ri s te .

Tenor
m us C h ri ate.

B ass
m us C h ri

Music Example 6: Gastoldi - Adoramus te

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Wal nacht du wun

nacht du dcr kuh le

H M fd l ; ---- ' " | j ' ■'

Wal d« nacht du wun dcr kuh Ic

Wal • dcs • nacht du wun • d cr ♦ kuh

Music Example 7 : Brahms - Waldesnacht Op. 62 No. 3

S o p ra n o

La - c u j 1 - ste Do-o fik-ctua eat


i ; P
A lio

La - cue 1 - ate e De-o fa -c tu se a t


P
Tenor
Lo - ous 1 - ate e Do-o fe-otuaeat

B ua

Lo . c m i - ate & De o fe-c lu ae a t

Music Example 8 : Bruckner - Locus isle

11 9

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A P P E N D IX C

Q u e stio n n a ir e

120

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C horal Tone Q uestionnaire
[reformated to f i t the page]

1. W h a t is y o u r a c a d e m i c le v e l9 F re sh m a n ; S o p h o m o re; J u n io r ; S e n io r ; G ia d u a te ; O th e r

2. W h a t is y o u r m a j o r ? (ex. BS Music Education: Vocal)

major:____ : ________________

3. H o w m a n y to ta l y e a r s o f e x p e r ie n c e , i f a n y . d o y o u h a v e in s i n g in g in a c h o ir ?
( I f th e a n s w e r is 0 o r n o n e th e n a n s w e r a n d g o to q u e s tio n # 7 ) O (n o n e ). 1 -2 . 3 -4 . 5 -6 , 7^

4. P le a s e m a r k t h e s e n te n c e th a t b e s t s ta te s th e h ig h e s t le v e l o f e x p e r ie n c e y o u h a v e s i n g in g in
ch o ru ses:

I have n o e x p e r i e n c e s in g in g in a c h o r u s .
I have v e r y l i t t l e e x p e r ie n c e s i n g in g in a c h o r u s .
1 have s o m e e x p e r i e n c e s i n g in g in a c h o r u s .
I have e x t e n s i v e e x p e r i e n c e s in g in g in a c h o r u s .

5. P le a s e m a r k th e s e n te n c e th a t b e s t s ta te s th e h ig h e s t le v e l o f t r a in in g in c h o r a l m u s ic th a t y o u h a v e :

I have n o t r a i n i n g in c h o r a l m u s ic .
I have v e r y l i t t l e t r a in in g in c h o r a l m u s ic .
1 have s o m e tr a i n i n g in c h o r a l m u s ic .
I have e x t e n s i v e tr a i n i n g in c h o r a l m u s ic .

6. M a r k e a c h o f t h e ty p e s o f c h o ir s , i f a n y , in w h ic h y o u h a v e e x p e r ie n c e s in g in g :

E le m e n ta r y S c h o o l C h o ir
M id d le S c h o o l o r J u n i o r H ig h S c h o o l C h o ir
H ig h S c h o o l C h o ir
C o lle g e C h o ir
C h u r c h o r S y n a g o g u e C h o ir
C o m m u n i t y C h o ir

7. H o w m a n y y e a r s , i f a n y . o f e x p e r i e n c e d o y o u h a v e in s in g in g s o lo ?
O (n o n e ), 1. 2. 3. 4. 5~

8. H o w m a n y y e a r s , i f a n y . h a v e y o u s tu d ie d p r iv a te v o ic e le s s o n s ?

O (n o n e ). I. 2. 3. 4. 5*

9. W h a t, i f a n y . m u s ic a l in s tr u m e n t d o y o u p l a y ? _________________________________

10. H o w m a n y y e a r s o f e x p e r ie n c e d o y o u h a v e in p la y in g a m u s ic a l in s tr u m e n t?
( I f y o u h a v e e x p e r i e n c e o n m o r e th a n o n e i n s tr u m e n t, in c lu d e th e to ta l tim e s p a n . F o r e x a m p le ,
i f y o u b e g a n p ia n o le s s o n s a t a g e 10 a n d q u it a t a g e 12 b u t s ta r te d c la r in e t a t a g e 11 a n d q u it a t
a g e 14. th e n y o u w o u ld c o u n t a g e s 10 t h r o u g h 14 o r 4 y e a r s to ta l.)
0 (n o n e ). I. 2. 3. 4. 5^
P le a s e p u t o n y o u r h e a d p h o n e s a n d t u r n th is fo r m o v e r to th e b a c k p a g e .

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C h o ral Tone Q uestionnaire page 2

A s th e fo llo w in g p a r a g r a p h o f in s tr u c tio n s a r e r e a d to y o u , a d j u s t th e v o lu m e o n th e c o r d o f y o u r
h e a d p h o n e s t o a c o m f o r t a b l e le v e l.

T h i s s tu d y d e a l s w ith a s p e c if i c e l e m e n t in th e t o n e q u a lity o r s o u n d o f a c h o r u s . Y o u a r e a b o u t to b e
a s k e d to lis te n to 12 s h o r t p a i r s o f r e c o r d e d c h o r a l m u s ic . E a c h e x a m p le is fro m 8 t o 12 s e c o n d s lo n g
a n d b o th m u s ic a l e x a m p le s in e a c h p a i r a r e id e n tic a l. E v e r y e f f o r t h a s b e e n m a d e to e n s u r e th a t th e
o n ly e l e m e n t t h a t c h a n g e s is t h e s p e c if i c e l e m e n t in th e t o n e q u a l i t y o r s o u n d th a t w e a r e in te r e s te d in.
H o w e v e r , a s lig h t d i f f e r e n c e in v o lu m e d id a p p e a r in th e r e c o r d in g . T h e r e f o r e w e w o u l d lik e f o r y o u to
r u l e o u t v o l u m e a s a n e l e m e n t in y o u r p r e f e r e n c e d e c is io n . F o r in s ta n c e , i f o n e e x a m p le is lo u d e r th a n
th e o th e r , d o n ’t c h o o s e it b e c a u s e it is lo u d e r b u t lis te n f o r th e t o n e q u a lity o r s o u n d s u n g b y th e s in g e r s
a n d m a k e y o u r d e c i s i o n b a s e d o n t h a t in s te a d . T h e firs t e x a m p le o f e a c h p a i r w ill b e la b e le d “ A ” a n d
th e s e c o n d e x a m p le w ill b e la b e le d “ B .” Y o u r j o b is to c i r c l e th e le tte r th a t c o r r e s p o n d s w ith th e p a ir
m e m b e r t h a t y o u fe e l h a s t h e t o n e q u a l i t y o r t h e s o u n d th a t y o u l ik e b e s t . T h e n , c ir c le a n u m b e r fro m I
to 5 th a t r e p r e s e n ts t h e i n t e n s i ty o f y o u r p r e f e r e n c e . T h e s c a le is a f iv e - p o in t s c a le w ith I r e p r e s e n tin g
w e a k in te n s ity a n d 5 r e p r e s e n ti n g s t r o n g in te n s ity . F o r e x a m p le , i f in o n e o f th e p a ir s , y o u lik e e x a m p le
" A ” j u s t a little m o r e th a n e x a m p le “ B ” th e n y o u w o u ld c i r c l e “ A ” a n d th e n c ir c le n u m b e r 1, o r 2 o n th e
in te n s ity s c a le . H o w e v e r , i f y o u lik e e x a m p le “ A " a lo t m o r e th a n e x a m p le “ B ” th e n y o u w o u ld c ir c le
"A" a n d th e n c i r c l e n u m b e r 4 o r 5 . O n c e a g a in , p le a s e d o n o t le t th e v o lu m e o r l o u d n e s s o f th e e x a m p le
a f f e c t y o u r j u d g m e n t . A ls o , r e m e m b e r t h a t th e r e a r e n o r ig h t o r w r o n g a n s w e r s , j u s t m a r k th e m u s ic a l
e x a m p le th a t is p e r f o r m e d w ith a s o u n d th a t y o u lik e b e s t.

T h e s tu d y w ill n o w b e g in .

W eak S tr o n g

P a ir 1- A B 1 2 3 4 5

P a ir 2- A B 1 2 3 4 5

P a ir 3- A B 1 2 3 4 5

P a ir 4- A B 1 2 3 4 5

P a ir 5- A B I 2 3 4 5

P a ir 6- A B 1 2 3 4 5

P a ir 7- A B 1 2 3 4 5

P a ir 8- A B 1 2 3 4 5

P a ir 9- A B I 2 3 4 5

P a ir 10- A B 1 2 3 4 5

P a ir 11- A B 1 2 3 4 5

P a ir 12- A B I 2 3 4 5

C o m m e n ts : (More space iv<zsr given in the original document fo r comments. ]


P le a s e tu rn in th is f o r m to th e r e s e a r c h e r a s y o u le a v e .
Thank you fo r completing this research project!

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APPENDIX D

Average Spectrum Data for Tallis Example

Tallis - " If Ye Love Me "

Difference in
Amplitude
Frequency Relative Amplitude Relative Amplitude Between Resonant
(Hz) resonant (dB) Non-resonant (dB) and Non-Resonant
________________________________________________ Versions (dB)

10.8 -36.7 -36.0 -0.6


16.1 -44.4 -43.1 -1.3
21.5 -47.9 -47.0 -0.9
26.9 -52.1 -51.6 -0.5
32.3 -56.5 -55.9 -0.6
37.7 -61.0 -59.6 -1.4
43.1 -65.0 -64.0 -1.0
48.4 -68.6 -68.6 0.0
53.8 -70.5 -70.0 -0.5
59.2 -68.6 -68.2 -0.5
64.6 -67.2 -67.4 0.2
70.0 -68.5 -69.7 1.2
75.4 -73.1 -73.3 0.2
80.7 -75.6 -75.3 -0.4
86.1 -78.0 -78.4 0.3
91.5 -76.8 -77.7 0.9
96.9 -71.7 -73.1 1.3
102.3 -63.9 -64.5 0.7
107.7 -54.7 -56.0 1.3
113.0 -47.8 -49.6 1.7
118.4 -46.8 -47.5 0.6
123.8 -47.3 -46.3 -1.0
129.2 -44.2 -43.6 -0.5
134.6 -45.8 -45.8 0.0

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140.0 -47.9 -45.8 -2.1
145.3 -45.4 -44.0 -1.4
150.7 -47.3 -45.9 -1.4
156.1 -50.7 -50.0 -0.7
161.5 -48.7 -48.4 -0.3
166.9 -42.2 -40.7 -1.6
172.3 -36.1 -36.1 0.0
177.6 -35.7 -37.3 1.7
183.0 -41.7 -43.9 2.1
188.4 -50.8 -52.7 1.8
193.8 -57.6 -59.6 2.0
199.2 -57.4 -60.1 2.7
204.6 -54.4 -55.2 0.8
209.9 -52.8 -51.1 -1.7
215.3 -50.1 -50.1 0.0
220.7 -49.3 -49.4 0.1
226.1 -51.1 -49.0 -2.1
231.5 -51.5 -50.0 -1.4
236.9 -48.9 -49.3 0.4
242.2 -45.9 -47.1 1.3
247.6 -43.1 -43.9 0.8
253.0 -39.8 -41.1 1.3
258.4 -38.4 -39.6 1.1
263.8 -39.5 -38.6 -0.9
269.2 -42.1 -39.2 -2.9
274.5 -45.2 -41.1 -4.1
279.9 -45.0 -43.3 -1.7
285.3 -42.9 -44.9 2.1
290.7 -41.6 -44.5 2.9
296.1 -41.5 -42.4 0.9
301.5 -43.3 -42.6 -0.7
306.8 -44.5 -45.2 0.7
312.2 -44.1 -48.1 4.0
317.6 -42.1 -46.8 4.7
323.0 -39.5 -41.7 2.2
328.4 -37.0 -38.4 1.3
333.8 -35.0 -37.2 2.2
339.1 -33.3 -35.7 2.4
344.5 -31.3 -33.4 2.1
349.9 -30.4 -32.3 1.9
355.3 -30.6 -33.0 2.4
360.7 -32.4 -35.7 3.4
366.1 -34.5 -39.1 4.6
371.4 -37.8 -42.0 4.2
376.8 -40.6 -43.5 3.0
382.2 -41.6 -42.3 0.7
1 24

Reproduced with permission o f the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
387.6 -41.9 -40.4 -1.5
393.0 -41.6 -40.9 -0.7
398.4 -41.1 -42.7 1.5
403.7 -40.9 -42.8 1.9
409.1 -39.9 -42.2 2.4
414.5 -38.0 -43.1 5.1
419.9 -37.6 -41.7 4.1
425.3 -38.8 -39.0 0.2
430.7 -38.8 -38.2 -0.6
436.0 -38.1 -38.5 0.4
441.4 -38.1 -38.6 0.5
446.8 -38.0 -38.3 0.2
452.2 -36.6 -36.7 0.1
457.6 -37.1 -37.1 0.0
463.0 -39.6 -39.4 -0.2
468.3 -41.9 -40.6 -1.3
473.7 -43.0 -40.4 -2.6
479.1 -41.2 -39.6 -1.6
484.5 -40.1 -39.4 -0.7
489.9 -41.5 -41.6 0.1
495.3 -42.9 -45.2 2.2
500.6 -40.2 -45.9 5.7
506.0 -36.9 -44.6 7.7
511.4 -35.4 -42.9 7.5
516.8 -34.9 -41.3 6.4
522.2 -34.4 -40.7 6.3
527.6 -34.2 -40.5 6.3
532.9 -35.2 -40.3 5.1
538.3 -37.8 -42.3 4.5
543.7 -41.0 -46.0 5.0
549.1 -43.0 -47.2 4.2
554.5 -43.9 -47.1 3.2
559.9 -42.7 -47.7 5.0
565.2 -39.3 -48.9 9.6
570.6 -37.2 -48.0 10.7
576.0 -37.2 -46.0 8.8
581.4 -37.2 -44.6 7.4
586.8 -36.0 -44.2 8.2
592.2 -34.5 -44.4 9.9
597.5 -36.2 -45.3 9.1
602.9 -39.7 -46.3 6.6
608.3 -42.1 -47.1 5.0
613.7 -42.5 -48.6 6.0
619.1 -42.8 -51.4 8.6
624.5 -44.2 -54.4 10.1
629.8 -45.8 -55.2 9.5
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635.2 -45.7 -54.6 8.9
640.6 -42.7 -51.3 8.6
646.0 -40.2 -46.9 6.7
651.4 -39.1 -45.2 6.1
656.8 -38.9 -44.5 5.7
662.1 -38.3 -43.3 5.1
667.5 -38.0 -43.6 5.6
672.9 -39.2 -43.6 4.4
678.3 -39.7 -42.9 3.2
683.7 -39.5 -42.1 2.6
689.1 -39.9 -41.2 1.3
694.4 -41.1 -41.3 0.2
699.8 -42.4 -41.7 -0.7
705.2 -42.6 -42.0 -0.6
710.6 -42.2 -43.3 1.0
716.0 -42.2 -44.3 2.1
721.4 -42.3 -44.7 2.4
726.7 -42.3 -45.6 3.3
732.1 -42.1 -46.8 4.7
737.5 -42.8 -49.0 6.2
742.9 -45.3 -51.7 6.4
748.3 -46.2 -52.8 6.6
753.7 -43.5 -51.8 8.3
759.0 -41.1 -51.8 10.7
764.4 -40.5 -52.3 11.8
769.8 -41.3 -52.2 10.9
775.2 -41.0 -51.6 10.6
780.6 -40.6 -50.0 9.4
786.0 -39.8 -48.6 8.8
791.3 -39.6 -48.7 9.1
796.7 -40.0 -49.6 9.6
802.1 -39.7 -50.7 11.0
807.5 -40.6 -51.1 10.6
812.9 -42.0 -51.5 9.5
818.3 -42.4 -52.7 10.2
823.6 -43.1 -52.7 9.5
829.0 -43.8 -52.1 8.3
834.4 -43.6 -52.1 8.5
839.8 -43.4 -52.5 9.1
845.2 -43.6 -53.5 9.9
850.6 -42.9 -54.2 11.3
855.9 -42.0 -54.8 12.8
861.3 -41.2 -55.3 14.1
866.7 -40.2 -54.9 14.6
872.1 -39.9 -53.6 13.6
877.5 -41.1 -54.2 13.2
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882.9 -43.0 -55.2 12.2
888.2 -42.2 -54.6 12.3
893.6 -42.9 -55.2 12.3
899.0 -43.9 -54.7 10.8
904.4 -44.7 -54.5 9.8
909.8 -46.5 -55.2 8.7
915.2 -48.0 -55.5 7.5
920.5 -50.1 -55.4 5.4
925.9 -50.3 -56.5 6.2
931.3 -50.3 -56.6 6.3
936.7 -51.3 -56.8 5.5
942.1 -52.3 -58.3 5.9
947.5 -51.9 -58.3 6.4
952.8 -51.8 -56.7 4.9
958.2 -50.9 -56.2 5.3
963.6 -48.7 -56.2 7.5
969.0 -47.2 -55.7 8.5
974.4 -46.5 -55.0 8.5
979.8 -46.8 -54.1 7.3
985.1 -46.5 -54.4 7.9
990.5 -46.0 -51.6 5.6
995.9 -45.4 -49.1 3.7
1001.3 -44.4 -50.7 6.3
1006.7 -42.6 -51.0 8.4
1012.1 -41.0 -50.8 9.8
1017.4 -40.8 -50.4 9.6
1022.8 -40.8 -49.7 8.9
1028.2 -41.1 -48.9 7.8
1033.6 -42.2 -47.9 5.7
1039.0 -42.4 -47.2 4.8
1044.4 -42.2 -46.9 4.7
1049.7 -42.3 -46.5 4.3
1055.1 -41.5 -45.7 4.2
1060.5 -40.7 -44.6 3.9
1065.9 -40.9 -45.1 4.2
1071.3 -40.7 -46.1 5.4
1076.7 -40.6 -47.4 6.7
1082.0 -41.1 -49.2 8.1
1087.4 -41.0 -52.1 11.1
1092.8 -40.5 -53.9 13.4
1098.2 -40.7 -55.3 14.6
1103.6 -41.4 -56.4 15.1
1109.0 -42.8 -56.1 13.3
1114.3 -45.1 -56.5 11.4
1119.7 -45.5 -57.1 11.6
1125.1 -45.0 -55.7 10.8
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1130.5 -45.4 -54.9 9.5
1135.9 -44.9 -51.3 6.4
1141.3 -45.4 -49.1 3.6
1146.6 -45.1 -49.4 4.3
1152.0 -43.6 -50.3 6.7
1157.4 -44.8 -50.2 5.4
1162.8 -45.3 -49.5 4.2
1168.2 -44.9 -48.5 3.6
1173.6 -44.2 -48.0 3.9
1178.9 -43.3 -48.8 5.6
1184.3 -42.9 -49.5 6.6
1189.7 -42.4 -49.9 7.5
1195.1 -43.2 -50.5 7.4
1200.5 -44.4 -50.6 6.2
1205.9 -45.9 -50.2 4.2
1211.2 -47.1 -50.0 2.9
1216.6 -47.6 -50.5 2.9
1222.0 -48.2 -51.0 2.8
1227.4 -48.3 -51.8 3.5
1232.8 -47.6 -52.6 4.9
1238.2 -46.8 -54.0 7.2
1243.5 -45.4 -55.7 10.3
1248.9 -45.3 -57.5 12.2
1254.3 -43.8 -58.2 14.4
1259.7 -42.0 -57.7 15.7
1265.1 -41.3 -57.0 15.7
1270.5 -41.9 -56.2 14.3
1275.8 -42.7 -54.9 12.2
1281.2 -43.6 -53.6 10.0
1286.6 -43.7 -53.2 9.5
1292.0 -42.5 -52.8 10.3
1297.4 -41.7 -52.7 11.0
1302.8 -41.8 -52.8 11.1
1308.1 -42.9 -52.0 9.1
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Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
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Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
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Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
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Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
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Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
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Reproduced with permission o f the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
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Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
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Reproduced with permission o f the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
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Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
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Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
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3822.1 -55.4 -68.0 12.6
3827.5 -55.9 -68.1 12.2
3832.9 -56.3 -68.0 11.7
3838.3 -55.6 -67.6 11.9
3843.7 -55.7 -67.4 11.7
3849.1 -55.7 -66.7 11.0
138

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
3854.4 -55.1 -65.4 10.3
3859.8 -55.4 -65.7 10.3
3865.2 -56.2 -66.4 10.2
3870.6 -55.3 -66.4 11.1
3876.0 -54.7 -65.7 11.0
3881.4 -54.9 -64.4 9.6
3886.7 -54.7 -64.5 9.7
3892.1 -54.4 -65.3 10.9
3897.5 -54.0 -65.9 11.9
3902.9 -54.0 -65.7 11.7
3908.3 -54.3 -65.3 11.1
3913.7 -54.7 -65.1 10.4
3919.0 -55.3 -64.9 9.6
3924.4 -56.5 -64.5 7.9
3929.8 -56.9 -64.9 8.0
3935.2 -55.8 -65.4 9.5
3940.6 -55.5 -66.2 10.7
3946.0 -56.7 -67.1 10.5
3951.3 -57.2 -67.5 10.3
3956.7 -56.1 -67.6 11.5
3962.1 -55.4 -67.6 12.2
3967.5 -56.0 -68.0 12.0
3972.9 -56.1 -68.4 12.4
3978.3 -56.3 -68.8 12.5
3983.6 -56.1 -70.2 14.1
3989.0 -56.2 -71.6 15.3
3994.4 -56.5 -71.9 15.4
3999.8 -56.4 -72.2 15.9
4005.2 -56.7 -73.0 16.3
4010.6 -57.9 -72.9 15.0
4015.9 -58.4 -72.9 14.5
4021.3 -58.8 -73.5 14.7
4026.7 -59.1 -74.1 15.0
4032.1 -58.2 -75.5 17.4
4037.5 -58.3 -76.4 18.1
4042.9 -58.6 -75.8 17.2
4048.2 -59.0 -74.7 15.6
4053.6 -59.8 -74.0 14.2
4059.0 -60.7 -74.4 13.8
4064.4 -61.3 -75.5 14.2
4069.8 -61.7 -75.5 13.8
4075.2 -61.1 -75.8 14.7
4080.5 -61.0 -76.6 15.6
4085.9 -61.7 -76.3 14.6
4091.3 -61.0 -76.4 15.4
4096.7 -60.6 -77.8 17.2
139

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
4102.1 -60.2 -78.0 17.8
4107.5 -60.3 -77.5 17.2
4112.8 -61.3 -77.6 16.2
4118.2 -62.6 -77.4 14.9
4123.6 -62.9 -77.8 14.9
4129.0 -62.7 -78.0 15.3
4134.4 -62.5 -77.9 15.4
4139.8 -63.1 -77.4 14.3
4145.1 -63.3 -77.7 14.4
4150.5 -63.5 -77.2 13.7
4155.9 -62.4 -77.4 14.9
4161.3 -62.1 -78.2 16.1
4166.7 -63.3 -78.2 14.9
4172.1 -63.8 -78.4 14.5
4177.4 -63.6 -76.9 13.3
4182.8 -63.8 -76.0 12.3
4188.2 -63.4 -76.5 13.2
4193.6 -63.2 -76.2 13.0
4199.0 -63.9 -75.9 12.0
4204.4 -64.1 -75.9 11.8
4209.7 -63.9 -76.2 12.3
4215.1 -64.1 -76.5 12.4
4220.5 -64.9 -76.6 11.7
4225.9 -65.0 -75.8 10.8
4231.3 -64.5 -76.4 12.0
4236.7 -65.4 -77.1 11.7
4242.0 -66.5 -76.9 10.4
4247.4 -66.8 -77.7 10.9
4252.8 -66.5 -78.7 12.3
4258.2 -66.8 -78.5 11.8
4263.6 -67.9 -78.3 10.4
4269.0 -68.4 -78.3 9.9
4274.3 -67.9 -78.1 10.2
4279.7 -67.9 -78.2 10.3
4285.1 -68.1 -78.0 9.9
4290.5 -68.4 -79.0 10.5
4295.9 -68.5 -78.0 9.6
4301.3 -68.5 -76.4 7.9
4306.6 -68.6 -75.8 7.2
4312.0 -68.9 -76.1 7.2
4317.4 -68.6 -77.9 9.3
4322.8 -68.2 -78.7 10.5
4328.2 -68.5 -78.2 9.6
4333.6 -68.6 -78.1 9.5
4338.9 -67.8 -79.0 11.2
4344.3 -67.3 -79.7 12.4
140

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
4349.7 -67.2 -79.7 12.5
4355.1 -66.5 -80.0 13.5
4360.5 -66.3 -81.1 14.8
4365.9 -66.9 -81.5 14.6
4371.2 -67.6 -82.0 14.4
4376.6 -68.0 -81.8 13.8
4382.0 -67.5 -80.7 13.2
4387.4 -67.3 -80.7 13.4
4392.8 -67.5 -81.2 13.7
4398.2 -67.8 -81.8 13.9
4403.5 -68.0 -82.4 14.4
4408.9 -67.8 -82.0 14.3
4414.3 -68.1 -81.6 13.5
4419.7 -68.4 -81.4 13.0
4425.1 -68.7 -80.8 12.1
4430.5 -68.9 -81.8 12.9
4435.8 -68.8 -83.0 14.2
4441.2 -69.4 -82.4 13.1
4446.6 -69.7 -82.1 12.4
4452.0 -70.2 -81.8 11.5
4457.4 -70.8 -82.9 12.1
4462.8 -71.1 -83.1 12.0
4468.1 -71.3 -82.4 11.1
4473.5 -71.8 -81.4 9.7
4478.9 -71.6 -81.5 9.8
4484.3 -71.9 -81.4 9.5
4489.7 -71.2 -81.8 10.6
4495.1 -71.3 -81.5 10.2
4500.4 -71.7 -81.7 10.1
4505.8 -72.0 -81.8 9.9
4511.2 -72.4 -81.9 9.4
4516.6 -72.0 -82.4 10.4
4522.0 -71.4 -83.1 11.7
4527.4 -71.9 -82.4 10.5
4532.7 -70.9 -82.2 11.2
4538.1 -70.6 -82.6 12.1
4543.5 -70.8 -82.2 11.3
4548.9 -70.7 -82.3 11.7
4554.3 -71.3 -82.8 11.4
4559.7 -71.4 -82.7 11.3
4565.0 -70.5 -83.3 12.7
4570.4 -71.0 -83.7 12.7
4575.8 -70.6 -83.9 13.3
4581.2 -70.5 -84.0 13.4
4586.6 -70.6 -83.2 12.7
4592.0 -70.6 -83.8 13.1
141

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
4597.3 -71.4 -84.2 12.8
4602.7 -71.6 -83.6 11.9
4608.1 -71.5 -83.2 11.7
4613.5 -71.7 -84.4 12.7
4618.9 -71.4 -85.2 13.8
4624.3 -71.1 -85.1 14.0
4629.6 -71.4 -84.6 13.2
4635.0 -72.2 -85.7 13.6
4640.4 -71.6 -86.0 14.3
4645.8 -71.7 -85.3 13.5
4651.2 -73.0 -84.5 11.5
4656.6 -72.6 -85.0 12.4
4661.9 -72.3 -85.4 13.1
4667.3 -72.9 -85.4 12.5
4672.7 -74.2 -85.7 11.5
4678.1 -73.2 -85.8 12.6
4683.5 -72.6 -85.6 13.1
4688.9 -73.1 -84.9 11.8
4694.2 -74.6 -84.9 10.3
4699.6 -73.9 -85.8 11.9
4705.0 -73.4 -86.3 12.9
4710.4 -73.8 -86.8 13.1
4715.8 -74.0 -87.8 13.8
4721.2 -73.6 -87.9 14.3
4726.5 -73.2 -87.2 14.1
4731.9 -73.2 -87.4 14.1
4737.3 -73.7 -87.5 13.8
4742.7 -73.8 -87.5 13.7
4748.1 -74.1 -87.1 13.0
4753.5 -73.9 -86.3 12.4
4758.8 -74.0 -86.6 12.6
4764.2 -74.4 -86.2 11.7
4769.6 -74.4 -86.0 11.6
4775.0 -74.0 -86.7 12.7
4780.4 -73.8 -86.6 12.8
4785.8 -73.6 -85.7 12.1
4791.1 -73.0 -85.6 12.6
4796.5 -72.7 -87.4 14.7
4801.9 -73.3 -87.6 14.3
4807.3 -73.1 -87.3 14.2
4812.7 -73.2 -87.8 14.6
4818.1 -73.7 -87.5 13.7
4823.4 -73.7 -85.8 12.1
4828.8 -73.9 -85.0 11.1
4834.2 -74.2 -86.5 12.3
4839.6 -74.6 -87.3 12.6
142

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
4845.0 -74.7 -86.3 11.6
4850.4 -74.7 -85.9 11.1
4855.7 -75.6 -86.2 10.7
4861.1 -75.9 -86.7 10.8
4866.5 -76.0 -87.7 11.7
4871.9 -76.8 -87.3 10.5
4877.3 -76.9 -85.6 8.7
4882.7 -75.4 -85.7 10.3
4888.0 -75.4 -86.2 10.8
4893.4 -75.8 -86.7 10.8
4898.8 -75.2 -87.8 12.6
4904.2 -74.1 -87.7 13.6
4909.6 -74.4 -85.9 11.5
4915.0 -74.3 -85.4 11.1
4920.3 -73.7 -86.4 12.7
4925.7 -72.9 -86.0 13.1
4931.1 -72.2 -85.1 13.0
4936.5 -72.6 -85.6 13.0
4941.9 -73.9 -85.5 11.6
4947.3 -75.4 -85.4 10.0
4952.6 -75.4 -84.7 9.3
4958.0 -75.9 -84.2 8.4
4963.4 -76.7 -84.4 7.8
4968.8 -76.4 -84.8 8.4
4974.2 -76.8 -84.7 7.8
4979.6 -76.2 -84.2 8.0
4984.9 -76.9 -84.7 7.8
4990.3 -76.8 -84.5 7.7
4995.7 -76.1 -84.3 8.3
5001.1 -75.7 -85.4 9.7
5006.5 -75.0 -85.8 10.8
5011.9 -74.9 -84.7 9.8
5017.2 -75.4 -84.8 9.4
5022.6 -74.5 -84.8 10.3
5028.0 -73.5 -84.3 10.8
5033.4 -71.7 -84.2 12.5
5038.8 -71.5 -84.4 12.9
5044.2 -71.3 -84.0 12.7
5049.5 -72.0 -84.0 12.0
5054.9 -72.8 -84.4 11.7
5060.3 -71.9 -84.5 12.6
5065.7 -71.2 -84.4 13.2
5071.1 -71.8 -84.4 12.6
5076.5 -73.0 -84.4 11.3

143

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
APPENDIX E

Average Spectrum Data for Gastoldi Example

Gastoldi - "Adoramus (e, Christe ”

Difference in
Amplitude
Frequency Relative Amplitude Relative Amplitude Between Resonant
(Hz) Resonance (dB) Non-Resonance (dB) and Non-Resonant
___________________________________________________ Versions (dB)

10.8 -36.5 -36.1 -0.4


16.1 -43.3 -43.1 -0.3
21.5 -47.5 -47.0 -0.6
26.9 -51.3 -51.7 0.3
32.3 -55.3 -55.7 0.4
37.7 -59.0 -58.4 -0.6
43.1 -62.0 -62.3 0.2
48.4 -64.3 -65.9 1.6
53.8 -65.6 -67.8 2.2
59.2 -65.5 -66.3 0.8
64.6 -65.7 -65.5 -0.3
70.0 -66.9 -67.4 0.5
75.4 -68.6 -70.5 1.9
80.7 -68.7 -71.5 2.8
86.1 -69.3 -73.0 3.7
91.5 -68.6 -74.5 5.9
96.9 -64.9 -67.5 2.6
102.3 -55.3 -55.4 0.1
107.7 -49.6 -50.9 1.3
113.0 -50.4 -54.0 3.6
118.4 -56.9 -62.3 5.5
123.8 -63.8 -69.8 6.1

1 44

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
129.2 -62.5 -71.7 9.2
134.6 -57.5 -67.4 9.9
140.0 -53.6 -62.6 9.0
145.3 -52.4 -58.6 6.3
150.7 -51.1 -53.9 2.8
156.1 -43.4 -46.6 3.2
161.5 -38.8 -40.0 1.2
166.9 -39.6 -38.9 -0.7
172.3 -39.4 -41.0 1.6
177.6 -40.6 -43.4 2.8
183.0 -47.9 -50.8 2.8
188.4 -59.4 -60.1 0.7
193.8 -60.9 -58.5 -2.4
199.2 -55.5 -53.7 -1.7
204.6 -50.2 -49.4 -0.7
209.9 -46.4 -46.7 0.3
215.3 -45.5 -45.0 -0.5
220.7 -47.5 -45.5 -2.0
226.1 -49.7 -48.5 -1.2
231.5 -48.7 -50.1 1.4
236.9 -45.2 -47.1 1.9
242.2 -43.2 -43.7 0.6
247.6 -43.6 -41.8 -1.8
253.0 -44.4 -42.2 -2.1
258.4 -45.2 -43.4 -1.8
263.8 -45.4 -44.6 -0.8
269.2 -46.1 -46.9 0.8
274.5 -47.5 -49.1 1.6
279.9 -47.9 -49.2 1.2
285.3 -47.4 -47.0 -0.4
290.7 -45.9 -43.8 -2.1
296.1 -45.0 -43.0 -2.1
301.5 -44.2 -45.2 1.0
306.8 -43.0 -48.9 5.8
312.2 -41.8 -47.4 5.6
317.6 -39.5 -43.3 3.9
323.0 -36.1 -39.2 3.1
328.4 -34.6 -35.7 l.l
333.8 -35.7 -35.8 0.1
339.1 -37.7 -39.2 1.5
344.5 -38.4 -41.2 2.8
349.9 -36.4 -41.9 5.6
355.3 -37.5 -45.6 8.0
360.7 -42.5 -53.2 10.7
366.1 -48.5 -60.5 12.0
371.4 -55.3 -61.7 6.4
145

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
376.8 -53.4 -56.5 3.0
382.2 -48.0 -49.4 1.4
387.6 -44.6 -43.9 -0.8
393.0 -42.1 -40.4 -1.7
398.4 -39.4 -39.1 -0.3
403.7 -37.7 -38.5 0.8
409.1 -36.8 -37.2 0.3
414.5 -36.2 -36.2 0.0
419.9 -34.9 -35.6 0.7
425.3 -33.6 -35.5 1.8
430.7 -33.7 -34.8 1.2
436.0 -35.2 -34.8 -0.4
441.4 -36.7 -34.6 -2.1
446.8 -36.2 -34.3 -2.0
452.2 -35.7 -34.9 -0.9
457.6 -37.2 -36.2 -1.0
463.0 -39.1 -37.8 -1.4
468.3 -37.9 -37.7 -0.2
473.7 -35.3 -36.3 1.0
479.1 -33.4 -35.4 2.0
484.5 -30.7 -35.0 4.2
489.9 -29.8 -33.9 4.1
495.3 -30.0 -34.5 4.5
500.6 -30.0 -36.1 6.1
506.0 -30.1 -35.5 5.4
511.4 -30.9 -34.8 3.9
516.8 -32.5 -34.3 1.8
522.2 -32.8 -34.3 1.5
527.6 -32.1 -35.2 3.0
532.9 -32.9 -36.4 3.5
538.3 -36.2 -38.4 2.2
543.7 -40.5 -42.0 1.5
549.1 -44.9 -46.5 1.6
554.5 -49.5 -50.6 1.1
559.9 -53.8 -53.4 -0.4
565.2 -55.6 -54.9 -0.6
570.6 -55.9 -55.2 -0.7
576.0 -56.7 -55.1 -1.6
581.4 -57.9 -54.4 -3.5
586.8 -58.0 -54.0 -4.0
592.2 -53.0 -55.5 2.5
597.5 -47.4 -56.8 9.4
602.9 -44.5 -58.0 13.5
608.3 -44.4 -58.4 14.0
613.7 -45.0 -56.7 11.7
619.1 -43.8 -53.9 10.1
146

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
624.5 -40.8 -50.9 10.1
629.8 -38.1 -47.5 9.4
635.2 -36.8 -45.9 9.1
640.6 -37.0 -45.6 8.6
646.0 -37.7 -44.6 6.9
651.4 -38.0 -43.6 5.5
656.8 -38.8 -43.0 4.2
662.1 -38.3 -42.1 3.8
667.5 -38.7 -42.3 3.6
672.9 -40.3 -42.9 2.5
678.3 -40.1 -43.3 3.2
683.7 -39.8 -44.6 4.8
689.1 -41.1 -46.5 5.3
694.4 -42.6 -49.0 6.5
699.8 -44.0 -50.7 6.7
705.2 -45.1 -51.3 6.2
710.6 -46.0 -52.7 6.7
716.0 -46.1 -53.2 7.1
721.4 -45.0 -51.8 6.8
726.7 -44.4 -51.7 7.3
732.1 -45.1 -51.6 6.5
737.5 -45.8 -51.5 5.7
742.9 -45.6 -52.0 6.4
748.3 -46.4 -51.8 5.4
753.7 -47.4 -51.7 4.2
759.0 -47.1 -51.9 4.7
764.4 -46.4 -52.1 5.7
769.8 -45.9 -52.7 6.8
775.2 -46.8 -53.0 6.2
780.6 -46.9 -52.1 5.2
786.0 -46.2 -51.0 4.9
791.3 -44.8 -50.2 5.5
796.7 -44.2 -50.6 6.4
802.1 -43.3 -51.2 7.9
807.5 -42.0 -50.4 8.3
812.9 -41.5 -48.5 6.9
818.3 -41.9 -47.9 6.0
823.6 -41.9 -48.5 6.6
829.0 -41.6 -49.6 8.0
834.4 -42.7 -50.8 8.2
839.8 -43.1 -52.1 9.0
845.2 -42.1 -52.2 10.1
850.6 -41.7 -52.0 10.3
855.9 -42.5 -51.0 8.5
861.3 -43.9 -49.9 6.0
866.7 -43.9 -50.0 6.1
147

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
872.1 -44.5 -49.4 4.9
877.5 -43.9 -47.5 3.5
882.9 -42.7 -48.7 6.0
888.2 -43.7 -49.4 5.7
893.6 -46.4 -48.8 2.4
899.0 -48.3 -49.2 0.9
904.4 -47.5 -50.7 3.2
909.8 -46.2 -51.6 5.4
915.2 -46.2 -52.8 6.6
920.5 -47.5 -55.9 8.3
925.9 -50.0 -56.9 6.9
931.3 -50.0 -57.4 7.4
936.7 -48.6 -56.8 8.1
942.1 -46.6 -54.3 7.7
947.5 -44.6 -51.5 6.9
952.8 -43.9 -50.6 6.7
958.2 -43.7 -52.3 8.6
963.6 -42.6 -52.7 10.1
969.0 -42.1 -51.5 9.4
974.4 -41.2 -50.3 9.0
979.8 -40.8 -49.2 8.4
985.1 -41.0 -48.1 7.2
990.5 -41.0 -47.6 6.7
995.9 -40.1 -46.6 6.6
1001.3 -39.7 -46.1 6.4
1006.7 -39.3 -47.0 7.7
1012.1 -39.1 -48.2 9.0
1017.4 -39.3 -48.9 9.5
1022.8 -39.2 -49.7 10.5
1028.2 -39.4 -49.6 10.2
1033.6 -41.3 -49.7 8.4
1039.0 -41.3 -49.8 8.5
1044.4 -39.8 -49.8 10.0
1049.7 -39.6 -50.4 10.8
1055.1 -40.1 -50.9 10.9
1060.5 -40.1 -51.0 10.9
1065.9 -39.6 -51.5 11.9
1071.3 -39.6 -52.2 12.6
1076.7 -40.8 -52.1 11.3
1082.0 -40.2 -52.8 12.6
1087.4 -39.9 -51.9 11.9
1092.8 -39.9 -51.7 11.7
1098.2 -40.6 -53.9 13.3
1103.6 -4U.S -5o .7 15.9
1109.0 -40.9 -58.6 17.6
1114.3 -41.7 -60.1 18.4
148

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
1119.7 -42.7 -60.8 18.2
1125.1 -44.5 -62.4 17.9
1130.5 -44.3 -62.9 18.6
1135.9 -43.7 -61.5 17.8
1141.3 -44.5 -60.1 15.6
1146.6 -46.9 -60.2 13.2
1152.0 -49.6 -60.0 10.4
1157.4 -51.3 -58.5 7.2
1162.8 -52.6 -57.4 4.8
1168.2 -51.5 -55.9 4.4
1173.6 -49.6 -55.0 5.4
1178.9 -47.6 -54.6 7.0
1184.3 -45.7 -54.8 9.1
1189.7 -44.6 -54.5 9.8
1195.1 -43.4 -53.5 10.1
1200.5 -43.0 -53.6 10.6
1205.9 -44.3 -54.4 10.1
1211.2 -44.8 -55.5 10.7
1216.6 -44.1 -55.9 11.8
1222.0 -43.8 -55.3 11.5
1227.4 -44.6 -55.4 10.7
1232.8 -45.6 -56.1 10.4
1238.2 -46.4 -55.3 8.9
1243.5 -46.5 -54.3 7.8
1248.9 -46.1 -53.8 7.7
1254.3 -45.9 -54.8 8.9
1259.7 -45.4 -54.4 8.9
1265.1 -44.7 -53.5 8.8
1270.5 -43.5 -54.1 10.6
1275.8 -42.5 -55.4 12.9
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3789.8 -59.1 -65.7 6.6
3795.2 -59.2 -65.8 6.6
3800.6 -59.9 -65.3 5.4
3806.0 -60.0 -65.1 5.2
3811.4 -59.7 -65.1 5.4
3816.8 -58.9 -65.9 6.9
3822.1 -59.1 -66.6 7.5
3827.5 -60.3 -67.5 7.2
3832.9 -61.0 -68.3 7.2
3838.3 -61.2 -67.7 6.5
159

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
3843.7 -60.9 -67.9 7.1
3849.1 -60.6 -68.1 7.5
3854.4 -60.7 -68.4 7.8
3859.8 -60.5 -68.2 7.7
3865.2 -60.0 -68.8 8.8
3870.6 -60.1 -70.0 9.9
3876.0 -60.5 -70.4 9.9
3881.4 -59.6 -70.6 11.0
3886.7 -59.6 -70.7 11.1
3892.1 -59.5 -71.5 11.9
3897.5 -60.1 -71.6 11.4
3902.9 -60.2 -71.3 11.1
3908.3 -59.9 -70.8 10.9
3913.7 -60.2 -69.8 9.6
3919.0 -60.8 -69.5 8.7
3924.4 -60.3 -70.0 9.7
3929.8 -59.6 -69.4 9.8
3935.2 -59.7 -68.5 8.8
3940.6 -59.7 -66.1 6.4
3946.0 -59.2 -64.7 5.6
3951.3 -59.4 -65.7 6.3
3956.7 -60.1 -67.5 7.4
3962.1 -59.6 -68.8 9.1
3967.5 -59.2 -69.5 10.2
3972.9 -60.0 -68.9 8.8
3978.3 -61.2 -69.2 8.0
3983.6 -60.6 -70.4 9.7
3989.0 -60.0 -70.4 10.4
3994.4 -59.8 -70.2 10.4
3999.8 -59.2 -70.3 11.1
4005.2 -59.0 -70.7 11.7
4010.6 -59.3 -71.9 12.6
4015.9 -60.0 -72.2 12.2
4021.3 -61.0 -72.2 11.1
4026.7 -60.7 -72.5 11.8
4032.1 -61.1 -72.5 11.4
4037.5 -60.9 -71.7 10.7
4042.9 -61.3 -71.2 9.8
4048.2 -61.7 -72.1 10.4
4053.6 -60.6 -72.0 11.4
4059.0 -60.9 -71.5 10.6
4064.4 -61.8 -72.6 10.9
4069.8 -62.0 -73.1 11.1
4075.2 -63.2 -73.3 10.1
4080.5 -64.0 -72.9 8.9
4085.9 -64.1 -73.4 9.3
160

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
4091.3 -63.8 -74.1 10.3
4096.7 -64.7 -74.4 9.7
4102.1 -65.5 -75.2 9.6
4107.5 -65.0 -75.3 10.3
4112.8 -64.8 -75.5 10.7
4118.2 -65.0 -76.2 11.1
4123.6 -66.2 -76.6 10.4
4129.0 -67.6 -77.2 9.6
4134.4 -68.0 -77.3 9.3
4139.8 -67.5 -76.5 9.0
4145.1 -66.7 -76.7 10.0
4150.5 -66.7 -77.5 10.8
4155.9 -66.5 -77.1 10.5
4161.3 -66.2 -77.9 11.8
4166.7 -67.3 -78.0 10.7
4172.1 -67.9 -77.4 9.5
4177.4 -67.4 -77.5 10.1
4182.8 -67.9 -78.3 10.3
4188.2 -68.7 -78.9 10.3
4193.6 -68.4 -79.5 11.1
4199.0 -68.6 -79.9 11.2
4204.4 -68.5 -79.7 11.2
4209.7 -68.1 -80.7 12.6
4215.1 -68.2 -81.4 13.2
4220.5 -68.7 -80.1 11.3
4225.9 -68.9 -79.0 10.1
4231.3 -69.5 -79.4 9.9
4236.7 -69.6 -79.6 10.0
4242.0 -69.3 -79.3 10.0
4247.4 -69.8 -78.6 8.8
4252.8 -70.0 -78.0 7.9
4258.2 -69.5 -77.4 7.9
4263.6 -69.0 -77.7 8.7
4269.0 -69.8 -78.3 8.5
4274.3 -70.3 -79.1 8.8
4279.7 -70.4 -79.1 8.7
4285.1 -70.1 -79.0 8.9
4290.5 -70.4 -79.8 9.5
4295.9 -70.7 -79.7 9.0
4301.3 -71.5 -79.5 8.0
4306.6 -72.0 -78.9 6.9
4312.0 -71.8 -78.9 7.1
4317.4 -71.5 -79.2 7.7
4322.8 -71.2 -80.1 8.9
4328.2 -71.5 -80.6 9.2
4333.6 -72.5 -80.3 7.8
161

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
4338.9 -72.7 -80.2 7.5
4344.3 -73.1 -80.4 7.3
4349.7 -73.3 -81.3 7.9
4355.1 -74.0 -81.2 7.1
4360.5 -73.5 -80.6 7.2
4365.9 -72.9 -80.2 7.3
4371.2 -73.2 -80.0 6.9
4376.6 -73.6 -79.4 5.8
4382.0 -73.0 -78.8 5.8
4387.4 -72.7 -79.0 6.3
4392.8 -72.8 -79.1 6.3
4398.2 -72.7 -79.2 6.5
4403.5 -72.1 -79.3 7.2
4408.9 -72.5 -79.0 6.5
4414.3 -72.3 -78.5 6.2
4419.7 -72.7 -78.1 5.4
4425.1 -72.5 -77.9 5.4
4430.5 -71.4 -78.0 6.6
4435.8 -70.9 -78.4 7.5
4441.2 -71.2 -79.6 8.3
4446.6 -72.5 -80.1 7.6
4452.0 -72.0 -79.7 7.7
4457.4 -71.2 -80.4 9.2
4462.8 -71.4 -80.6 9.2
4468.1 -71.5 -79.5 8.0
4473.5 -71.6 -79.2 7.6
4478.9 -71.4 -79.4 8.0
4484.3 -71.3 -80.2 8.9
4489.7 -71.8 -80.1 8.3
4495.1 -72.4 -79.5 7.2
4500.4 -72.9 -79.6 6.7
4505.8 -72.9 -79.5 6.5
4511.2 -72.1 -79.4 7.3
4516.6 -71.9 -79.8 7.9
4522.0 -71.4 -80.2 8.8
4527.4 -71.2 -79.8 8.6
4532.7 -71.4 -79.7 8.4
4538.1 -72.0 -80.3 8.3
4543.5 -72.4 -80.6 8.1
4548.9 -72.6 -80.2 7.6
4554.3 -72.4 -79.6 7.2
4559.7 -72.4 -79.0 6.6
4565.0 -71.6 -80.1 8.6
4570.4 -71.1 -80.7 9.7
4575.8 -71.9 -80.4 8.5
4581.2 -73.1 -80.0 6.9
162

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
4586.6 -73.4 -80.0 6.6
4592.0 -72.9 -80.5 7.6
4597.3 -73.1 -81.5 8.4
4602.7 -73.5 -82.0 8.5
4608.1 -73.9 -82.4 8.6
4613.5 -74.4 -82.5 8.1
4618.9 -74.6 -81.6 7.0
4624.3 -74.6 -81.8 7.2
4629.6 -74.2 -83.4 9.2
4635.0 -73.7 -84.4 10.8
4640.4 -73.6 -84.3 10.7
4645.8 -73.4 -83.4 10.0
4651.2 -73.7 -83.7 10.0
4656.6 -74.1 -83.8 9.7
4661.9 -74.9 -84.2 9.3
4667.3 -75.7 -84.3 8.7
4672.7 -75.7 -84.0 8.3
4678.1 -75.4 -83.5 8.1
4683.5 -76.3 -83.5 7.2
4688.9 -76.2 -84.0 7.8
4694.2 -75.8 -83.0 7.3
4699.6 -75.5 -82.5 7.0
4705.0 -75.6 -83.7 8.1
4710.4 -75.7 -84.9 9.2
4715.8 -74.8 -84.8 10.1
4721.2 -75.1 -84.8 9.7
4726.5 -75.4 -83.3 7.8
4731.9 -75.0 -82.1 7.1
4737.3 -75.8 -81.5 5.7
4742.7 -75.6 -82.1 6.5
4748.1 -74.2 -83.1 9.0
4753.5 -74.2 -83.8 9.6
4758.8 -74.0 -84.1 10.0
4764.2 -73.6 -83.4 9.8
4769.6 -73.5 -83.8 10.3
4775.0 -74.2 -84.1 9.9
4780.4 -73.6 -84.2 10.6
4785.8 -72.8 -84.2 11.4
4791.1 -73.0 -82.8 9.8
4796.5 -73.4 -82.3 8.8
4801.9 -73.4 -81.1 7.7
4807.3 -73.2 -80.5 7.3
4812.7 -73.4 -80.9 7.5
4818.1 -74.8 -81.9 7.2
4823.4 -75.1 -82.2 7.1
4828.8 -74.3 -82.6 8.3
163

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
4834.2 -74.0 -82.7 8.7
4839.6 -74.6 -83.2 8.6
4845.0 -75.2 -83.7 8.5
4850.4 -76.4 -84.1 7.7
4855.7 -77.2 -83.6 6.4
4861.1 -76.7 -83.3 6.6
4866.5 -76.9 -83.1 6.2
4871.9 -77.5 -82.8 5.3
4877.3 -76.4 -82.5 6.1
4882.7 -76.7 -82.5 5.9
4888.0 -78.0 -82.8 4.8
4893.4 -78.2 -82.8 4.5
4898.8 -78.2 -82.1 4.0
4904.2 -78.0 -81.9 3.9
4909.6 -77.9 -82.0 4.1
4915.0 -78.2 -81.6 3.4
4920.3 -78.4 -80.7 2.2
4925.7 -78.2 -80.3 2.1
4931.1 -78.4 -81.5 3.1
4936.5 -78.6 -81.8 3.1
4941.9 -78.4 -81.2 2.8
4947.3 -78.7 -80.8 2.1
4952.6 -79.3 -80.9 1.6
4958.0 -78.5 -81.8 3.3
4963.4 -77.9 -82.2 4.3
4968.8 -78.0 -82.5 4.6
4974.2 -78.5 -83.5 5.0
4979.6 -77.7 -83.3 5.6
4984.9 -77.8 -82.2 4.4
4990.3 -78.2 -81.2 3.0
4995.7 -77.6 -81.1 3.4
5001.1 -77.4 -81.0 3.6

16 4

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
APPENDIX F

Average Spectrum Data for Brahms Example

Brahms "Waldesnacht"

Difference in
Amplitude
Frequency Relative Amplitude Relative Amplitude Between
(Hz) Resonant (dB) Non-resonant (dB) Resonant and
Non-Resonant
_____________ Versions (dB)

10.8 -37.6 -36.4 -1.1


16.1 -44.4 -44.2 -0.3
21.5 -47.2 -47.8 0.6
26.9 -51.0 -51.2 0.2
32.3 -55.8 -55.8 0.1
37.7 -60.5 -60.2 -0.3
43.1 -64.1 -63.8 - 0.2

48.4 -67.5 -67.7 0.2


53.8 -69.1 -69.5 0.4
59.2 -67.1 -67.6 0.5
64.6 -66.7 -66.8 0.2
70.0 -68.5 -69.3 0.8
75.4 -71.3 -72.1 0.8
80.7 -69.6 -68.6 - 1.0
86.1 -64.1 -61.0 -3.0
91.5 -59.6 -57.5 - 2.0
96.9 -57.0 -55.7 - 1.2
102.3 -50.9 -49.9 - 1.0
107.7 -47.5 -46.1 -1.4
113.0 -48.6 -46.6 - 2.0

118.4 -48.8 -45.1 -3.7


123.8 -50.4 -45.0 -5.4
129.2 -51.0 -46.6 -4.4
134.6 -47.0 -45.3 -1.7
140.0 -42.9 -43.0 0.0
165

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
145.3 -42.1 -43.1 1.0
150.7 -44.1 -46.4 2.2
156.1 -46.8 -43.7 -3.2
161.5 -41.2 -39.7 -1.5
166.9 -37.4 -41.2 3.9
172.3 -40.3 -47.4 7.1
177.6 -46.9 -51.6 4.7
183.0 -49.9 -52.2 2.3
188.4 -52.4 -53.1 0.8
193.8 -53.6 -53.0 -0.7
199.2 -51.4 -50.2 -1.1
204.6 -49.1 -48.3 -0.7
209.9 -46.6 -47.8 1.2
215.3 -44.8 -48.0 3.1
220.7 -45.2 -48.9 3.7
226.1 -46.5 -50.0 3.5
231.5 -46.2 -50.9 4.7
236.9 -44.5 -47.5 3.1
242.2 -42.5 -43.7 1.2
247.6 -42.8 -44.4 1.5
253.0 -44.3 -47.5 3.2
258.4 -44.7 -49.9 5.2
263.8 -44.5 -47.6 3.2
269.2 -43.5 -43.6 0.1
274.5 -42.1 -41.2 -0.9
279.9 -40.7 -41.0 0.4
285.3 -39.1 -40.2 l.l
290.7 -38.3 -41.3 3.0
296.1 -38.9 -42.2 3.3
301.5 -39.8 -41.6 1.8
306.8 -40.2 -41.5 1.3
312.2 -39.3 -41.6 2.4
317.6 -38.9 -39.4 0.5
323.0 -38.7 -37.3 -1.4
328.4 -37.2 -36.8 -0.3
333.8 -34.5 -38.3 3.8
339.1 -33.8 -40.0 6.2
344.5 -34.5 -41.1 6.6
349.9 -37.0 -41.8 4.8
355.3 -39.2 -42.3 3.1
360.7 -39.2 -40.6 1.4
366.1 -38.3 -38.5 0.2
371.4 -36.6 -37.7 1.1
376.8 -35.6 -38.3 2.7
382.2 -34.2 -38.7 4.5
387.6 -34.9 -38.6 3.7

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
393.0 -36.7 -39.4 2.7
398.4 -36.7 -39.8 3.1
403.7 -37.5 -41.7 4.2
409.1 -38.7 -43.2 4.6
414.5 -39.2 -44.1 4.8
419.9 -38.4 -43.8 5.4
425.3 -37.2 -43.0 5.8
430.7 -36.5 -42.6 6.2
436.0 -36.6 -42.4 5.7
441.4 -37.0 -43.1 6.1
446.8 -37.0 -43.6 6.7
452.2 -37.5 -43.0 5.5
457.6 -38.3 -44.1 5.8
463.0 -39.3 -46.5 7.2
468.3 -40.3 -48.6 8.3
473.7 -41.5 -50.4 9.0
479.1 -43.8 -51.9 8.1
484.5 -47.9 -53.7 5.8
489.9 -49.6 -57.4 7.8
495.3 -49.0 -61.2 12.2
500.6 -49.7 -62.9 13.2
506.0 -50.5 -63.6 13.0
511.4 -49.4 -62.7 13.3
516.8 -48.9 -59.2 10.3
522.2 -47.8 -56.0 8.2
527.6 -47.8 -53.5 5.6
532.9 -47.1 -51.7 4.7
538.3 -44.5 -50.5 6.0
543.7 -43.5 -49.2 5.7
549.1 -44.2 -48.7 4.5
554.5 -43.7 -49.1 5.4
559.9 -42.7 -48.9 6.1
565.2 -41.5 -48.5 7.0
570.6 -42.3 -47.9 5.6
576.0 -42.6 -47.4 4.8
581.4 -43.4 -47.5 4.1
586.8 -43.5 -47.3 3.8
592.2 -44.6 -48.1 3.5
597.5 -47.5 -49.2 1.7
602.9 -47.1 -49.5 2.4
608.3 -46.1 -50.3 4.2
613.7 -45.5 -51.1 5.6
619.1 -46.0 -52.0 5.9
624.5 -45.3 -51.6 6.3
629.8 -41.8 -50.4 8.6
635.2 -39.9 -50.2 10.4
167

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
640.6 -38.2 -50.9 12.7
646.0 -36.6 -49.7 13.0
651.4 -37.5 -48.9 11.4
656.8 -39.9 -49.7 9.7
662.1 -41.0 -49.5 8.4
667.5 -40.2 -49.4 9.2
672.9 -40.1 -50.4 10.3
678.3 -41.9 -52.0 10.1
683.7 -43.9 -51.9 8.0
689.1 -45.5 -53.9 8.5
694.4 -46.7 -55.5 8.8
699.8 -46.8 -55.7 8.9
705.2 -46.2 -56.8 10.5
710.6 -47.8 -58.6 10.8
716.0 -49.6 -59.6 10.0
721.4 -50.7 -60.4 9.7
726.7 -51.3 -60.2 8.9
732.1 -49.9 -61.1 11.2
737.5 -50.3 -61.1 10.8
742.9 -51.5 -60.0 8.5
748.3 -51.1 -59.7 8.6
753.7 -49.7 -60.5 10.8
759.0 -49.2 -60.3 11.0
764.4 -48.6 -58.7 10.1
769.8 -47.6 -58.0 10.3
775.2 -48.9 -57.1 8.2
780.6 -50.0 -57.7 7.7
786.0 -47.1 -57.7 10.6
791.3 -45.6 -57.4 11.8
796.7 -45.8 -57.0 11.2
802.1 -47.2 -55.9 8.7
807.5 -49.1 -54.3 5.2
812.9 -51.0 -55.0 4.1
818.3 -52.2 -58.5 6.3
823.6 -51.5 -59.0 7.5
829.0 -49.3 -56.1 6.8
834.4 -47.9 -54.8 6.8
839.8 -48.2 -55.1 6.9
845.2 -47.8 -54.2 6.5
850.6 -47.9 -53.1 5.2
855.9 -47.7 -52.9 5.2
861.3 -46.4 -51.5 5.0
866.7 -46.6 -50.4 3.8
872.1 -47.2 -50.8 3.6
877.5 -46.8 -50.9 4.1
882.9 -46.2 -52.4 6.3
168

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
888.2 -46.8 -53.4 6.6
893.6 -46.1 -53.5 7.4
899.0 -46.0 -54.9 8.9
904.4 -47.1 -54.9 7.8
909.8 -48.1 -55.1 7.0
915.2 -48.3 -56.6 8.3
920.5 -49.2 -57.4 8.2
925.9 -49.8 -59.4 9.6
931.3 -50.2 -60.8 10.6
936.7 -51.7 -61.8 10.2
942.1 -51.5 -63.1 11.6
947.5 -50.7 -63.1 12.4
952.8 -51.2 -61.9 10.7
958.2 -51.8 -61.7 10.0
963.6 -51.8 -62.4 10.6
969.0 -52.5 -62.6 10.1
974.4 -53.2 -60.8 7.7
979.8 -53.1 -60.2 7.1
985.1 -52.1 -61.3 9.2
990.5 -52.7 -62.7 10.0
995.9 -54.0 -63.2 9.2
1001.3 -53.1 -62.5 9.4
1006.7 -52.0 -62.3 10.4
1012.1 -50.8 -61.5 10.6
1017.4 -50.0 -60.6 10.6
1022.8 -48.9 -59.9 11.0
1028.2 -47.3 -58.9 11.6
1033.6 -46.0 -58.2 12.2
1039.0 -45.0 -58.6 13.6
1044.4 -45.6 -58.1 12.5
1049.7 -48.6 -56.9 8.3
1055.1 -47.8 -56.6 8.8
1060.5 -45.5 -56.8 11.3
1065.9 -46.0 -55.9 9.9
1071.3 -45.6 -54.9 9.3
1076.7 -42.7 -53.2 10.5
1082.0 -43.3 -52.3 9.1
1087.4 -45.0 -52.6 7.6
1092.8 -46.7 -54.1 7.4
1098.2 -46.8 -54.3 7.5
1103.6 -45.8 -54.4 8.6
1109.0 -45.6 -54.0 8.4
1114.3 -44.9 -53.3 8.4
1119.7 -45.5 -54.9 9.4
1125.1 -44.6 -57.5 12.8
1130.5 -44.8 -58.9 14.1
169

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
1135.9 -45.9 -58.6 12.7
1141.3 -48.0 -59.5 11.6
1146.6 -47.2 -61.0 13.8
1152.0 -47.0 -59.6 12.6
1157.4 -48.4 -59.2 10.8
1162.8 -49.5 -59.2 9.7
1168.2 -48.1 -58.8 10.7
1173.6 -47.1 -57.5 10.4
1178.9 -49.1 -58.0 8.9
1184.3 -49.5 -59.4 9.9
1189.7 -49.6 -60.4 10.8
1195.1 -50.7 -59.8 9.1
1200.5 -50.9 -58.9 8.0
1205.9 -50.7 -58.8 8.0
1211.2 -50.0 -60.0 10.0
1216.6 -49.8 -60.1 10.3
1222.0 -50.8 -59.4 8.6
1227.4 -52.5 -60.5 8.0
1232.8 -52.0 -62.0 10.0
1238.2 -51.4 -61.5 10.1
1243.5 -51.7 -61.1 9.4
1248.9 -50.3 -61.7 11.4
1254.3 -49.9 -63.1 13.2
1259.7 -49.7 -63.8 14.1
1265.1 -49.2 -62.7 13.5
1270.5 -48.3 -63.1 14.8
1275.8 -47.3 -61.2 14.0
1281.2 -46.1 -59.4 13.3
1286.6 -45.0 -60.6 15.6
1292.0 -45.0 -62.8 17.8
1297.4 -46.3 -62.3 16.1
1302.8 -45.4 -62.4 17.0
1308.1 -43.9 -61.5 17.5
1313.5 -44.1 -60.4 16.3
1318.9 -45.7 -60.1 14.5
1324.3 -46.1 -59.6 13.5
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Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
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Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
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Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
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3838.3 -58.6 -76.9 18.4
3843.7 -58.9 -76.9 17.9
3849.1 -59.8 -77.0 17.2
3854.4 -59.8 -75.9 16.1
180

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
3859.8 -60.3 -75.6 15.3
3865.2 -60.5 -76.6 16.1
3870.6 -60.0 -77.3 17.2
3876.0 -59.4 -76.8 17.4
3881.4 -59.8 -76.5 16.7
3886.7 -59.9 -76.5 16.6
3892.1 -60.1 -76.7 16.6
3897.5 -59.6 -77.4 17.8
3902.9 -58.7 -76.8 18.2
3908.3 -58.0 -76.4 18.4
3913.7 -59.1 -77.1 18.0
3919.0 -59.6 -78.5 18.9
3924.4 -59.2 -79.3 20.2
3929.8 -58.5 -78.3 19.8
3935.2 -58.4 -76.9 18.5
3940.6 -58.6 -76.8 18.2
3946.0 -59.5 -77.3 17.7
3951.3 -59.6 -77.3 17.7
3956.7 -60.1 -77.3 17.2
3962.1 -61.0 -78.7 17.7
3967.5 -61.4 -78.7 17.3
3972.9 -60.3 -77.1 16.7
3978.3 -60.1 -75.5 15.4
3983.6 -61.2 -75.6 14.4
3989.0 -62.0 -75.3 13.4
3994.4 -61.4 -75.6 14.2
3999.8 -61.1 -75.8 14.8
4005.2 -61.1 -75.9 14.8
4010.6 -60.5 -76.6 16.1
4015.9 -60.6 -75.5 14.9
4021.3 -60.9 -74.9 14.0
4026.7 -60.2 -74.8 14.6
4032.1 -59.1 -74.1 15.0
4037.5 -59.6 -74.6 15.0
4042.9 -59.7 -75.5 15.8
4048.2 -60.1 -75.5 15.4
4053.6 -61.5 -75.5 13.9
4059.0 -61.5 -75.0 13.5
4064.4 -61.0 -74.4 13.4
4069.8 -61.6 -73.8 12.2
4075.2 -62.8 -73.4 10.6
4080.5 -63.1 -74.6 11.5
4085.9 -62.4 -76.9 14.5
4091.3 -62.9 -77.7 14.9
4096.7 -62.7 -77.3 14.6
4102.1 -62.2 -76.5 14.3
181

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
4107.5 -62.6 -77.8 15.1
4112.8 -62.1 -78.6 16.5
4118.2 -62.2 -77.2 15.1
4123.6 -62.3 -77.5 15.2
4129.0 -61.9 -77.4 15.5
4134.4 -61.5 -77.6 16.0
4139.8 -61.1 -77.9 16.8
4145.1 -62.4 -78.1 15.6
4150.5 -63.9 -78.6 14.7
4155.9 -62.8 -79.1 16.2
4161.3 -63.0 -79.4 16.4
4166.7 -64.2 -80.1 15.9
4172.1 -64.1 -81.2 17.1
4177.4 -63.7 -81.8 18.0
4182.8 -63.7 -80.2 16.5
4188.2 -64.1 -79.8 15.7
4193.6 -64.1 -79.9 15.8
4199.0 -64.1 -80.3 16.2
4204.4 -64.0 -80.1 16.1
4209.7 -64.3 -80.0 15.7
4215.1 -64.7 -79.8 15.1
4220.5 -66.1 -79.2 13.1
4225.9 -66.9 -79.2 12.3
4231.3 -65.8 -79.9 14.0
4236.7 -66.4 -79.4 13.0
4242.0 -68.0 -79.0 11.0
4247.4 -67.9 -78.7 10.8
4252.8 -69.0 -78.7 9.7
4258.2 -68.1 -78.4 10.4
4263.6 -67.5 -77.9 10.4
4269.0 -67.8 -78.3 10.5
4274.3 -68.0 -78.3 10.2
4279.7 -68.4 -78.5 10.1
4285.1 -68.6 -79.4 10.8
4290.5 -68.7 -78.9 10.1
4295.9 -70.2 -79.1 8.9
4301.3 -69.9 -78.5 8.5
4306.6 -69.1 -78.0 8.8
4312.0 -69.8 -78.6 8.7
4317.4 -70.3 -78.4 8.1
4322.8 -69.4 -77.8 8.3
4328.2 -69.2 -77.2 7.9
4333.6 -70.2 -77.4 7.1
4338.9 -71.5 -78.0 6.5
4344.3 -71.7 -77.9 6.2
4349.7 -70.7 -78.4 7.7
182

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
4355.1 -70.8 -78.4 7.6
4360.5 -70.2 -77.2 7.0
4365.9 -70.4 -77.6 7.2
4371.2 -71.2 -77.9 6.8
4376.6 -71.1 -77.4 6.3
4382.0 -70.1 -78.0 7.9
4387.4 -70.1 -77.9 7.8
4392.8 -69.8 -78.9 9.1
4398.2 -69.1 -79.1 9.9
4403.5 -69.4 -78.8 9.4
4408.9 -68.4 -79.1 10.7
4414.3 -67.3 -79.9 12.6
4419.7 -68.6 -80.3 11.8
4425.1 -69.0 -81.1 12.1
4430.5 -69.0 -81.5 12.5
4435.8 -68.2 -81.5 13.3
4441.2 -67.7 -81.6 13.9
4446.6 -67.8 -81.8 14.0
4452.0 -68.4 -82.1 13.8
4457.4 -68.3 -81.6 13.3
4462.8 -68.5 -80.3 11.8
4468.1 -68.1 -80.2 12.1
4473.5 -67.9 -81.0 13.1
4478.9 -68.1 -80.9 12.8
4484.3 -68.0 -80.5 12.5
4489.7 -68.8 -81.8 13.1
4495.1 -69.2 -82.6 13.3
4500.4 -68.1 -80.5 12.4
4505.8 -66.9 -80.2 13.3
4511.2 -67.1 -81.4 14.4
4516.6 -67.1 -83.0 15.9
4522.0 -66.3 -83.0 16.7
4527.4 -66.9 -82.1 15.3
4532.7 -68.4 -81.8 13.4
4538.1 -67.9 -82.0 14.1
4543.5 -67.7 -80.7 13.0
4548.9 -68.1 -81.3 13.2
4554.3 -68.1 -82.5 14.4
4559.7 -68.8 -83.0 14.2
4565.0 -69.1 -84.0 14.9
4570.4 -67.6 -83.9 16.2
4575.8 -67.6 -85.0 17.3
4581.2 -68.5 -85.2 16.7
4586.6 -68.4 -85.0 16.6
4592.0 -69.3 -83.8 14.5
4597.3 -70.1 -84.0 14.0
183

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
4602.7 -69.3 -84.8 15.5
4608.1 -69.3 -84.1 14.8
4613.5 -69.7 -83.2 13.5
4618.9 -70.3 -81.8 11.5
4624.3 -71.6 -81.6 10.1
4629.6 -72.0 -82.3 10.3
4635.0 -71.6 -83.6 12.0
4640.4 -70.9 -84.2 13.3
4645.8 -71.1 -83.6 12.5
4651.2 -71.7 -81.9 10.2
4656.6 -71.8 -82.5 10.7
4661.9 -70.9 -84.1 13.2
4667.3 -70.9 -84.0 13.0
4672.7 -71.8 -84.1 12.3
4678.1 -72.1 -84.4 12.3
4683.5 -71.7 -84.7 13.0
4688.9 -72.0 -84.5 12.6
4694.2 -73.0 -83.4 10.4
4699.6 -73.2 -82.1 8.9
4705.0 -73.0 -81.7 8.7
4710.4 -72.9 -82.4 9.5
4715.8 -73.6 -83.9 10.4
4721.2 -74.2 -84.2 10.0
4726.5 -73.5 -84.1 10.6
4731.9 -75.3 -84.4 9.2
4737.3 -76.0 -84.4 8.4
4742.7 -74.5 -85.0 10.5
4748.1 -76.6 -83.9 7.3
4753.5 -74.9 -83.1 8.2
4758.8 -75.7 -83.4 7.6
4764.2 -77.4 -84.0 6.6
4769.6 -76.7 -84.8 8.0
4775.0 -76.1 -84.7 8.6
4780.4 -76.1 -84.9 8.8
4785.8 -76.1 -85.0 8.9
4791.1 -77.1 -84.9 7.8
4796.5 -76.9 -84.8 8.0
4801.9 -76.4 -84.5 8.1
4807.3 -77.7 -84.6 6.9
4812.7 -77.5 -85.1 7.6
4818.1 -79.0 -85.0 6.1
4823.4 -80.5 -83.4 2.9
4828.8 -79.9 -82.4 2.5
4834.2 -81.1 -83.3 2.3
4839.6 -78.7 -84.1 5.4
4845.0 -77.5 -84.7 7.2
184

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
4850.4 -79.1 -85.3 6.2
4855.7 -80.6 -84.6 4.0
4861.1 -80.2 -84.0 3.8
4866.5 -80.9 -84.2 3.3
4871.9 -80.2 -83.7 3.5
4877.3 -80.6 -82.4 1.8
4882.7 -81.9 -82.4 0.5
4888.0 -81.3 -85.1 3.8
4893.4 -81.5 -85.8 4.3
4898.8 -81.1 -84.9 3.7
4904.2 -81.0 -84.5 3.5
4909.6 -81.0 -85.5 4.4
4915.0 -80.6 -86.3 5.8
4920.3 -79.8 -85.8 6.0
4925.7 -78.1 -86.2 8.2
4931.1 -78.1 -87.0 8.9
4936.5 -79.0 -86.3 7.3
4941.9 -79.4 -85.3 5.9
4947.3 -79.7 -84.1 4.4
4952.6 -79.5 -82.5 3.0
4958.0 -79.2 -83.4 4.2
4963.4 -78.9 -87.0 8.1
4968.8 -78.4 -88.4 10.0
4974.2 -78.6 -86.1 7.5
4979.6 -78.4 -82.8 4.4
4984.9 -78.8 -83.5 4.7
4990.3 -79.3 -85.7 6.5
4995.7 -78.7 -86.2 7.5
5001.1 -78.1 -86.4 8.3
5006.5 -79.4 -84.9 5.5
5011.9 -81.5 -83.4 1.9
5017.2 -80.9 -84.7 3.7
5022.6 -80.4 -85.7 5.2
5028.0 -81.2 -84.3 3.1
5033.4 -81.3 -82.8 1.5
5038.8 -80.7 -82.5 1.8
5044.2 -80.9 -82.9 1.9
5049.5 -81.4 -83.2 1.9
5054.9 -81.8 -83.7 1.9
5060.3 -82.0 -84.6 2.6
5065.7 -80.6 -85.6 5.0
5071.1 -79.7 -85.8 6.1
5076.5 -80.2 -87.4 7.1

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
APPENDIX G

Average Spectrum Data for Bruckner Example

Bruckner - "Locus isle "

Difference in
Amplitude
Frequency Relative Amplitude Relative Amplitude Between
(Hz) Resonant Non-Resonant Resonant and
Non-Resonant
Versions

10.8 -37.1 -36.0 - 1.1


16.1 -43.8 -43.4 -0.4
21.5 -47.7 -46.6 -1.1
26.9 -52.0 -51.0 -1.0
32.3 -56.2 -56.5 0.4
37.7 -60.7 -60.4 -0.3
43.1 -64.8 -64.0 -0.8
48.4 -68.1 -67.6 -0.5
53.8 -70.2 -69.8 -0.4
59.2 -68.3 -67.5 -0.8
64.6 -67.6 -66.2 -1.4
70.0 -69.9 -68.2 -1.7
75.4 -73.5 -72.6 -0.9
80.7 -75.9 -75.1 -0.7
86.1 -78.2 -77.8 -0.3
91.5 -77.9 -77.6 -0.4
96.9 -76.7 -75.9 -0.8
102.3 -72.7 -72.7 0.0
107.7 -68.3 -67.2 -1.1
113.0 -63.5 -56.9 -6.6
118.4 -56.5 -48.6 -7.8
123.8 -45.9 -41.9 -3.9
129.2 -39.5 -38.4 -1.0
134.6 -40.6 -40.6 0.0
140.0 -46.2 -45.5 -0.7

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
145.3 -44.1 -45.0 0.9
150.7 -45.5 -47.7 2.2
156.1 -52.8 -54.7 1.8
161.5 -61.6 -61.9 0.3
166.9 -65.6 -61.8 -3.8
172.3 -65.6 -57.5 -8.0
177.6 -60.7 -54.5 -6.2
183.0 -54.6 -53.0 -1.6
188.4 -51.1 -52.4 1.3
193.8 -50.3 -52.3 2.1
199.2 -51.2 -53.0 1.7
204.6 -54.8 -54.2 -0.6
209.9 -55.3 -55.4 0.1
215.3 -53.3 -56.1 2.7
220.7 -52.6 -56.8 4.2
226.1 -53.1 -58.4 5.3
231.5 -55.5 -58.2 2.7
236.9 -57.8 -55.1 -2.6
242.2 -53.9 -50.9 -3.0
247.6 -48.0 -46.7 -1.3
253.0 -41.7 -42.8 1.1
258.4 -37.1 -40.2 3.1
263.8 -36.4 -40.0 3.7
269.2 -39.3 -42.3 3.0
274.5 -43.5 -46.1 2.6
279.9 -46.9 -48.0 1.1
285.3 -46.8 -47.9 1.1
290.7 -45.5 -47.0 1.5
296.1 -43.1 -46.1 3.0
301.5 -42.8 -47.5 4.7
306.8 -42.5 -49.5 7.0
312.2 -40.6 -46.8 6.2
317.6 -38.0 -41.9 3.9
323.0 -36.5 -37.4 1.0
328.4 -35.5 -35.8 0.3
333.8 -35.3 -36.9 1.6
339.1 -35.2 -40.4 5.3
344.5 -36.4 -45.4 9.0
349.9 -39.6 -48.5 8.9
355.3 -43.5 -47.6 4.2
360.7 -45.5 -46.9 1.4
366.1 -44.4 -45.6 1.2
371.4 -41.8 -43.3 1.5
376.8 -39.1 -41.4 2.3
382.2 -36.2 -39.1 2.9
387.6 -32.5 -35.9 3.4
187

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
393.0 -31.3 -35.9 4.6
398.4 -33.2 -39.2 6.0
403.7 -35.7 -41.5 5.8
409.1 -38.7 -41.7 2.9
414.5 -40.4 -42.1 1.7
419.9 -37.8 -43.2 5.5
425.3 -36.2 -41.9 5.8
430.7 -36.6 -40.6 4.0
436.0 -36.7 -40.7 4.0
441.4 -36.6 -39.9 3.3
446.8 -35.6 -40.8 5.3
452.2 -36.6 -41.8 5.1
457.6 -38.5 -42.4 3.9
463.0 -40.6 -44.3 3.7
468.3 -43.9 -46.5 2.7
473.7 -44.7 -46.5 1.8
479.1 -40.2 -45.3 5.0
484.5 -36.7 -44.8 8.1
489.9 -35.2 -41.5 6.3
495.3 -33.1 -39.0 5.9
500.6 -31.0 -38.6 7.6
506.0 -31.2 -38.5 7.3
511.4 -33.1 -38.3 5.2
516.8 -33.4 -39.1 5.7
522.2 -33.6 -38.3 4.7
527.6 -33.1 -37.0 3.9
532.9 -32.8 -37.5 4.7
538.3 -35.0 -38.2 3.2
543.7 -36.5 -39.6 3.1
549.1 -37.1 -43.6 6.5
554.5 -38.6 -48.1 9.5
559.9 -39.9 -49.8 9.9
565.2 -40.1 -49.7 9.6
570.6 -40.1 -49.9 9.8
576.0 -39.9 -49.6 9.7
581.4 -39.1 -50.2 11.1
586.8 -39.6 -50.1 10.4
592.2 -40.1 -49.6 9.6
597.5 -40.5 -50.7 10.1
602.9 -42.3 -50.9 8.6
608.3 -43.9 -50.0 6.1
613.7 -44.0 -49.9 5.9
619.1 -42.8 -50.9 8.1
624.5 -40.9 -51.1 10.2
629.8 -40.1 -49.6 9.6
635.2 -39.3 -47.6 8.3
188

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
640.6 -38.3 -45.4 7.1
646.0 -38.3 -44.6 6.3
651.4 -37.6 -43.8 6.2
656.8 -36.8 -42.5 5.7
662.1 -37.4 -42.4 5.0
667.5 -38.3 -43.8 5.5
672.9 -38.8 -45.6 6.7
678.3 -40.3 -48.0 7.6
683.7 -42.6 -51.5 8.9
689.1 -42.9 -55.5 12.6
694.4 -43.4 -59.5 16.1
699.8 -45.3 -61.3 16.0
705.2 -48.1 -60.6 12.6
710.6 -50.8 -59.1 8.3
716.0 -53.5 -57.9 4.4
721.4 -52.6 -57.8 5.2
726.7 -49.6 -58.4 8.8
732.1 -47.2 -57.0 9.8
737.5 -45.2 -54.9 9.6
742.9 -43.2 -53.5 10.3
748.3 -41.9 -53.0 11.1
753.7 -42.6 -53.0 10.4
759.0 -43.7 -53.0 9.3
764.4 -44.3 -53.2 8.8
769.8 -44.1 -51.8 7.7
775.2 -41.9 -51.2 9.3
780.6 -40.6 -50.8 10.2
786.0 -40.8 -51.7 10.9
791.3 -42.3 -53.6 11.3
796.7 -43.2 -54.4 11.2
802.1 -42.8 -55.1 12.3
807.5 -43.1 -54.7 11.6
812.9 -42.9 -54.1 11.2
818.3 -43.3 -53.9 10.7
823.6 -44.4 -54.2 9.9
829.0 -45.3 -54.6 9.3
834.4 -46.6 -54.7 8.1
839.8 -49.9 -56.0 6.1
845.2 -52.5 -55.1 2.6
850.6 -52.4 -53.9 1.5
855.9 -50.6 -54.5 3.9
861.3 -48.3 -55.2 6.9
866.7 -47.5 -54.4 6.9
872.1 -48.4 -54.6 6.1
877.5 -48.0 -56.7 8.7
882.9 -47.6 -56.9 9.3
189

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
888.2 -49.7 -55.1 5.5
893.6 -46.5 -56.4 9.9
899.0 -45.2 -56.2 11.0
904.4 -45.9 -55.3 9.4
909.8 -45.9 -54.3 8.4
915.2 -46.4 -54.2 7.8
920.5 -47.8 -56.4 8.5
925.9 -47.9 -59.0 11.1
931.3 -48.5 -60.5 12.0
936.7 -48.3 -60.9 12.5
942.1 -47.4 -60.0 12.6
947.5 -46.9 -58.7 11.8
952.8 -46.4 -57.2 10.8
958.2 -46.1 -55.2 9.1
963.6 -46.2 -54.0 7.8
969.0 -46.2 -53.5 7.4
974.4 -47.0 -52.5 5.5
979.8 -46.0 -51.2 5.2
985.1 -44.4 -48.4 4.0
990.5 -42.2 -48.2 5.9
995.9 -40.5 -48.5 8.0
1001.3 -39.6 -48.5 8.9
1006.7 -39.9 -48.4 8.5
1012.1 -40.6 -47.6 7.1
1017.4 -39.9 -47.1 7.2
1022.8 -38.7 -47.7 9.1
1028.2 -38.5 -47.4 8.9
1033.6 -38.3 -46.9 8.5
1039.0 -38.1 -47.9 9.8
1044.4 -37.6 -46.6 9.1
1049.7 -38.6 -46.1 7.5
1055.1 -38.6 -45.5 6.9
1060.5 -38.4 -46.2 7.9
1065.9 -38.8 -48.8 10.1
1071.3 -38.5 -49.1 10.6
1076.7 -39.1 -50.6 11.5
1082.0 -39.8 -51.6 11.8
1087.4 -38.9 -53.6 14.7
1092.8 -38.0 -55.9 17.8
1098.2 -37.9 -57.7 19.8
1103.6 -38.9 -59.1 20.1
1109.0 -41.0 -59.2 18.2
1114.3 -41.9 -57.4 15.5
1119.7 -42.5 -55.8 13.3
1125.1 -44.1 -55.4 11.3
1130.5 -45.2 -56.5 11.2
190

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
1135.9 -46.4 -57.9 11.5
1141.3 -48.7 -56.9 8.2
1146.6 -49.3 -54.9 5.6
1152.0 -47.9 -55.0 7.1
1157.4 -47.2 -55.2 8.1
1162.8 -45.3 -54.0 8.7
1168.2 -46.2 -53.6 7.3
1173.6 -47.6 -54.7 7.0
1178.9 -48.5 -56.0 7.5
1184.3 -48.0 -55.4 7.4
1189.7 -47.4 -54.9 7.5
1195.1 -47.6 -55.1 7.5
1200.5 -48.5 -55.1 6.7
1205.9 -49.4 -54.4 5.0
1211.2 -49.2 -55.0 5.8
1216.6 -49.7 -56.4 6.7
1222.0 -50.6 -57.2 6.6
1227.4 -51.3 -57.5 6.2
1232.8 -50.8 -58.4 7.5
1238.2 -50.8 -60.5 9.7
1243.5 -50.6 -62.5 11.9
1248.9 -50.1 -63.0 13.0
1254.3 -49.1 -62.5 13.3
1259.7 -48.6 -62.1 13.5
1265.1 -48.8 -62.2 13.3
1270.5 -48.2 -61.5 13.3
1275.8 -46.8 -60.2 13.3
1281.2 -46.5 -58.6 12.1
1286.6 -47.3 -57.0 9.7
1292.0 -46.8 -56.7 9.9
1297.4 -45.5 -56.1 10.6
1302.8 -44.8 -55.4 10.6
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Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
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Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
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Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
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Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
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Reproduced with permission o f the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
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3816.8 -58.2 -75.4 17.2
3822.1 -58.8 -75.1 16.3
3827.5 -59.0 -75.3 16.2
3832.9 -59.1 -75.5 16.4
3838.3 -59.2 -75.2 16.0
3843.7 -58.2 -72.9 14.7
3849.1 -58.2 -72.7 14.5
3854.4 -58.2 -73.2 15.0
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3859.8 -57.4 -73.6 16.3
3865.2 -57.2 -73.7 16.5
3870.6 -57.7 -73.4 15.7
3876.0 -58.0 -73.2 15.2
3881.4 -58.3 -72.7 14.4
3886.7 -58.4 -72.5 14.1
3892.1 -58.1 -72.6 14.5
3897.5 -58.3 -72.6 14.3
3902.9 -58.4 -72.2 13.9
3908.3 -58.3 -71.8 13.4
3913.7 -57.7 -72.5 14.8
3919.0 -56.6 -72.2 15.6
3924.4 -56.5 -71.1 14.6
3929.8 -58.1 -71.1 13.0
3935.2 -59.1 -70.9 11.8
3940.6 -59.1 -70.8 11.7
3946.0 -59.3 -71.4 12.1
3951.3 -60.3 -71.4 11.1
3956.7 -59.8 -70.6 10.7
3962.1 -60.1 -71.2 11.1
3967.5 -60.0 -72.3 12.4
3972.9 -60.4 -72.6 12.3
3978.3 -60.5 -72.4 11.9
3983.6 -61.1 -72.1 11.0
3989.0 -61.1 -72.1 11.0
3994.4 -60.3 -73.0 12.7
3999.8 -60.8 -73.1 12.2
4005.2 -61.6 -72.8 11.2
4010.6 -62.1 -73.2 11.1
4015.9 -61.9 -73.6 11.8
4021.3 -62.2 -74.7 12.5
4026.7 -62.0 -75.0 13.0
4032.1 -62.3 -74.9 12.6
4037.5 -63.6 -75.6 12.0
4042.9 -64.1 -76.6 12.5
4048.2 -63.1 -76.9 13.7
4053.6 -63.7 -77.0 13.3
4059.0 -65.4 -78.0 12.6
4064.4 -65.0 -77.6 12.6
4069.8 -64.5 -77.7 13.2
4075.2 -65.5 -78.3 12.7
4080.5 -65.5 -79.2 13.7
4085.9 -64.7 -79.5 14.8
4091.3 -65.2 -78.9 13.7
4096.7 -65.8 -78.2 12.4
4102.1 -66.3 -77.3 11.0
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4107.5 -65.9 -77.1 11.2
4112.8 -65.6 -77.4 11.7
4118.2 -65.8 -77.8 11.9
4123.6 -65.7 -78.1 12.4
4129.0 -66.1 -77.2 11.1
4134.4 -65.8 -76.6 10.8
4139.8 -66.2 -76.2 10.0
4145.1 -66.5 -76.3 9.7
4150.5 -66.3 -77.3 11.0
4155.9 -66.2 -77.6 11.5
4161.3 -66.1 -76.8 10.7
4166.7 -66.8 -76.4 9.6
4172.1 -66.5 -76.4 9.9
4177.4 -65.9 -76.2 10.3
4182.8 -65.6 -76.7 11.1
4188.2 -65.4 -77.8 12.4
4193.6 -65.8 -77.5 11.7
4199.0 -65.2 -77.6 12.4
4204.4 -65.5 -78.2 12.6
4209.7 -66.7 -78.2 11.5
4215.1 -67.2 -78.7 11.5
4220.5 -67.6 -78.5 10.9
4225.9 -67.9 -78.5 10.6
4231.3 -67.6 -78.7 11.1
4236.7 -67.7 -78.7 11.1
4242.0 -68.4 -79.1 10.8
4247.4 -68.5 -79.8 11.3
4252.8 -68.8 -80.9 12.2
4258.2 -68.2 -80.2 12.0
4263.6 -68.3 -79.3 11.0
4269.0 -68.1 -79.3 11.2
4274.3 -68.5 -80.6 12.2
4279.7 -68.6 -81.6 13.0
4285.1 -68.9 -80.8 11.9
4290.5 -68.5 -80.1 11.6
4295.9 -68.7 -80.8 12.1
4301.3 -69.3 -82.0 12.7
4306.6 -68.9 -82.2 13.3
4312.0 -68.9 -81.7 12.9
4317.4 -68.8 -81.8 13.0
4322.8 -68.9 -82.6 13.7
4328.2 -69.2 -82.0 12.9
4333.6 -69.0 -82.2 13.3
4338.9 -69.2 -81.8 12.7
4344.3 -69.7 -80.6 10.9
4349.7 -68.9 -81.5 12.6
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4355.1 -69.1 -81.9 12.8
4360.5 -69.5 -81.8 12.4
4365.9 -69.6 -80.9 11.2
4371.2 -69.6 -80.0 10.4
4376.6 -69.9 -81.6 11.7
4382.0 -70.1 -81.7 11.6
4387.4 -69.0 -80.4 11.4
4392.8 -68.3 -80.3 12.0
4398.2 -68.4 -80.8 12.4
4403.5 -68.5 -81.7 13.2
4408.9 -68.0 -82.5 14.4
4414.3 -68.0 -80.6 12.7
4419.7 -68.8 -79.6 10.8
4425.1 -69.4 -80.8 11.4
4430.5 -69.7 -81.4 11.7
4435.8 -69.0 -81.5 12.5
4441.2 -69.1 -82.0 13.0
4446.6 -68.8 -81.4 12.5
4452.0 -68.7 -80.4 11.7
4457.4 -70.1 -80.1 10.0
4462.8 -70.4 -80.2 9.7
4468.1 -69.7 -80.8 11.0
4473.5 -70.0 -81.8 11.8
4478.9 -70.4 -81.8 11.4
4484.3 -69.5 -81.1 11.6
4489.7 -69.0 -82.3 13.3
4495.1 -69.5 -82.3 12.8
4500.4 -70.6 -83.2 12.6
4505.8 -70.9 -84.1 13.1
4511.2 -70.7 -82.4 11.7
4516.6 -70.8 -81.2 10.4
4522.0 -71.5 -81.1 9.5
4527.4 -73.2 -81.1 7.9
4532.7 -72.6 -81.2 8.5
4538.1 -71.7 -80.5 8.8
4543.5 -71.1 -80.9 9.8
4548.9 -71.6 -81.6 10.0
4554.3 -72.5 -81.2 8.7
4559.7 -72.9 -81.8 8.9
4565.0 -72.3 -83.0 10.7
4570.4 -71.7 -80.6 8.9
4575.8 -73.4 -79.7 6.4
4581.2 -74.7 -80.4 5.7
4586.6 -74.8 -81.2 6.4
4592.0 -74.7 -81.1 6.4
4597.3 -74.8 -80.8 5.9
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4602.7 -74.9 -81.4 6.5
4608.1 -75.2 -82.4 7.1
4613.5 -74.9 -82.8 7.9
4618.9 -74.3 -81.7 7.4
4624.3 -74.3 -82.3 8.0
4629.6 -73.9 -84.2 10.3
4635.0 -73.7 -83.4 9.7
4640.4 -74.2 -82.8 8.6
4645.8 -75.1 -83.2 8.1
4651.2 -75.8 -83.4 7.6
4656.6 -75.9 -83.3 7.4
4661.9 -74.8 -83.0 8.2
4667.3 -74.7 -82.2 7.5
4672.7 -75.2 -82.1 6.9
4678.1 -76.4 -80.8 4.3
4683.5 -76.8 -80.6 3.7
4688.9 -75.8 -83.0 7.2
4694.2 -75.3 -84.1 8.8
4699.6 -75.8 -83.0 7.2
4705.0 -76.4 -82.1 5.7
4710.4 -77.4 -82.0 4.6
4715.8 -78.0 -82.8 4.8
4721.2 -78.0 -83.6 5.6
4726.5 -77.1 -81.6 4.5
4731.9 -75.7 -81.4 5.7
4737.3 -74.8 -82.2 7.4
4742.7 -75.6 -83.7 8.1
4748.1 -77.7 -83.8 6.1
4753.5 -78.3 -83.7 5.4
4758.8 -77.0 -84.2 7.2
4764.2 -76.8 -82.1 5.3
4769.6 -77.3 -81.1 3.8
4775.0 -77.0 -82.6 5.5
4780.4 -76.9 -82.3 5.5
4785.8 -75.8 -82.7 6.8
4791.1 -75.5 -84.2 8.7
4796.5 -76.2 -84.2 8.0
4801.9 -76.8 -82.7 5.9
4807.3 -76.3 -82.0 5.6
4812.7 -75.5 -81.6 6.1
4818.1 -75.7 -84.4 8.6
4823.4 -76.3 -86.0 9.7
4828.8 -76.7 -83.2 6.5
4834.2 -78.3 -82.1 3.8
4839.6 -78.8 -82.1 3.2
4845.0 -77.4 -83.8 6.4
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4850.4 -77.0 -85.1 8.0
4855.7 -77.4 -83.8 6.4
4861.1 -78.3 -83.1 4.7
4866.5 -79.2 -84.3 5.1
4871.9 -78.7 -84.0 5.3
4877.3 -77.5 -84.4 7.0
4882.7 -77.8 -84.1 6.2
4888.0 -78.3 -83.5 5.2
4893.4 -77.8 -83.6 5.7
4898.8 -78.1 -83.2 5.0
4904.2 -78.5 -82.9 4.4
4909.6 -78.6 -83.4 4.9
4915.0 -78.4 -83.7 5.4
4920.3 -78.9 -85.8 6.8
4925.7 -79.1 -87.1 8.0
4931.1 -78.1 -85.5 7.5
4936.5 -78.1 -83.2 5.1
4941.9 -78.1 -82.1 4.1
4947.3 -77.3 -82.1 4.7
4952.6 -77.6 -83.5 5.9
4958.0 -79.6 -85.0 5.3
4963.4 -78.6 -84.9 6.3
4968.8 -77.9 -84.7 6.8
4974.2 -78.2 -83.1 4.9
4979.6 -77.8 -83.2 5.4
4984.9 -77.0 -85.0 8.0
4990.3 -76.9 -85.6 8.6
4995.7 -77.6 -87.1 9.5
5001.1 -77.3 -86.4 9.0
5006.5 -77.7 -86.0 8.3
5011.9 -78.0 -85.7 7.7
5017.2 -78.0 -86.0 8.0
5022.6 -78.1 -84.7 6.6
5028.0 -77.5 -83.5 5.9
5033.4 -77.1 -83.5 6.4
5038.8 -77.6 -83.2 5.6
5044.2 -78.0 -82.4 4.4
5049.5 -78.0 -82.7 4.7
5054.9 -78.1 -84.6 6.6
5060.3 -77.6 -82.9 5.2
5065.7 -77.6 -82.2 4.5
5071.1 -77.9 -83.1 5.2
5076.5 -78.1 -85.0 6.9

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APPENDIX H

Subject Free Response Comments

hard to tell the difference

I didn’t hear a whole lot o f difference between pairs

It is difficult to separate tone quality and volume

On pair 1 A wasn't so bad but soon it became piercing so the intensity


stays at 5

I liked the examples in the way they were approached. I felt like the tone
was free in the softer singing, hence pushed with being loud.

Once you heard twice or three times the same piece o f music, after some
time is hard to really focus and pay attention to the sound quality or
intensity o f preference.

So many sounded like there no difference whatsoever!

With little experience with vocalists. I feel it is very hard to hear tone
quality.

Other musical contexts o f various dynamic levels would have been


helpful in establishing preference

It seemed like the difference between the recordings was a difference in


passion behind the music and passiveness

soprano flat

I liked the fuller, natural sound as opposed to the crisp sound.

Sometimes the lower voices were blaring which affected my decision.

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Some of the examples seemed to be equally bad or equally good so there
wasn't much difference.

Volume made the syllables more clear, which tended to steer me towards
that direction despite your warning.

Most of the ones I circled were smoother progressions than the other
ones.

.. .the basses seemed to stand out in a way that I disliked,

pair 5-10 sounded similar

I seem to like the less intense choruses - you could hear the different
voices better

The reason I liked certain ones better is because they sounded like one
voice not 4 or more

I really had a tough time deciphering between the two in each pair.

Personally. I noticed some differences easily and others not so easily.

In the softer recordings, the pronounced "s" sounds were more obvious
and distracting than in the other recording. However, I like the tone in the
softer recording.

I felt the volume did affect me, in that I liked the less intense sound better.
Also, while I might like a passage better on moving tones, on the long
notes either the balance did not sit as well, or the release didn't feel right.

very professionally done

Many o f the pairs sounded very similar and it was hard to choose.

The difference in loud versus soft volume made it hard to decide.

There were volume differences, but actual differences seemed very subtle.

It was sometimes hard to decide which one I liked more.

I had a hard time making a real distinction between the two. I'm not very
good with voice.

The loudness difference does have a tendency to distract my perception of


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the tone quality. It would be easier to distinguish between pairs if the
volume was equal [tone, loudness seems to distort tone, but it can also
bring out certain parts.]

I'm a big fan o f acoustical environments so it was hard to be specific in


my answers without thinking o f what it might sound like in a Cathedral or
even Opperman.

The music throughout the text sounded the same as in previous samples,
except the samples would be played in opposite order.

Good luck with your project.

Many o f them sounded basically the same so it was harder to decide.

One sounds clearer than the other.

I feel that the volume had direct impact on the timbre used by the
vocalists. It didn't sound like the recording was louder, it sounded like
the singer's sang louder. I also think that the volume has much to do with
the particular phrase that was sung. These two could have been either, I
suppose.

I found that one of the pairs had a smoother sound than the other in each
o f the 12 pairs.

like powerful male voice!

music is boring, sorry

Next time could have a variety o f music cause it all sounds the same.
Now the pitch changed and the voices were added but it was still the
same. I was expecting different types o f music.

How many pairs were there in reality? Sounded like 4 or so. not 12
distinct ones.

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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH

Joseph Kevin Ford was bom in Chickamauga, Georgia. He was

granted the Bachelor o f Science in Music Education (Choral and Instrumental) in 1986

from The University of Tennessee at Chattanooga. In 1992 he received the Master o f

Music Education (Choral) and in 1999, the Doctor of Philosophy in Music Education

(Choral) from The Florida State University. From 1986 until 1991, he taught High

School Chorus and Band and Middle School Band in Rossville, Georgia. From 1992

until 1996, he was the Program Coordinator and Choral Director at Chattanooga State

Technical Community College in Chattanooga, Tennessee. He is a member o f Florida

Music Educators Association, Music Educators National Conference. American

Choral Directors Association, and the International Federation for Choral Music. In

1998 he was the recipient o f the American Choral Directors Association Graduate

Fellowship.

228

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