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Review of Related Literature

When you start college it seems like you have an eternity to make up your mind

about what you will do after graduation. While some people might have known since

fresher’s week where they were going after college, many don’t begin to consider it until

their final year. There are plenty of options facing final-year students, from graduate

programmers to working abroad to further study. Whether you’ve always known what

you want to do after finishing your degree or are only recently thinking about it, it’s

important to know what all your options are and what will work best for you. (McAuliffe,


Graduating from high school is a momentous transition. Gone are the days of

compulsory learning. Now that you have a basic education, you get to decide how to

build on it. Your future is wide open! That, in and of itself, can be a stressful thought,

though. With so many options, choosing one can feel scary. Below are just a few of the

many paths you can take. Whichever you choose, be prepared to put in some effort to

make your adult years as productive, fulfilling, and comfortable as possible. (Hardcastle,


Teens should think about and list the qualities they're looking for in a college: do

they want to go away to school, stay close to home, or take online courses, for

example? Armed with this preliminary information, it's time to begin the research.

Guidebooks, the Internet, and counselors at school are particularly helpful resources.

As your teen chooses potential schools, start visiting campuses and talking with

students who go there Experts suggest narrowing the choices to a diverse mix of about
six to 10 schools where the odds range from low too high for gaining admission.

Applications should be filled out completely and neatly, including the essay, which

you’re teen, should revise until confident that it's his or her best work. Many schools

offer help in these areas. (Dowshen, 2018)

National and community service is a pathway to post-graduate success,

further developing graduates into well-rounded, compassionate, and engaged citizens,

tying together academics with real world experiences in a way that makes a difference

in communities and appeals to employers and graduate programs. With the variety of

service sites and projects that national service programs offer, nearly any student from

any academic background can find an opportunity that will afford them insight and skill

development before heading into the job market. Also, if cultivating student self-

authorship is a priority during the college years and beyond, further building this skill

through national service can result in fewer job transitions, saving employer’s money in

recruitment and training. Students may also find employment in a field compatible with

their most authentic self—and isn’t this what higher education is all about? (Gay, 2016)

The Philippines has implemented the K-12 educational system in 2013 and its

impact will be felt by 2016. While the intention of this educational shift is good, its impact

on higher education institutions (HEIs) is overlooked. Among those who will be affected

are the computing education and its faculty members. Considering this pressing

concern, the researcher is currently developing a study to determine the possible

impacts of this educational shift on faculty's tenure and financial stability. The concept of

the paper and its research instrument will be presented to gather feedbacks from the

audience. (ACM NY, 2015)

As a former college professor, I see the drive for most students to complete a

college education. I’m not sure how many would be in college if not for the pressure and

expectations from family members, and while that is good for some students, others

obviously might be better off pursuing options other than college. The reality is that

college is not for everyone — nor is it truly needed for everyone — and forcing teens to

attend college only to have them flunk out is doing a disservice to them. Only a few

generations ago, high-school graduates rarely went on to college, yet somehow through

the years, college has almost become a rite of passage for teens to pass into adulthood

and a good career. But teens do not need to attend college to become adults and they

certainly do not need to attend to land a good career. By (Hansen, 2018)

The two best courses to prepare you for a complete secondary education would

be critical thinking and English composition (some kind of writing course). After that, the

core classes’ fall into place according to the degree program and what your academic

advisor feels is most appropriate. It's absolutely important that one is able to critically

think through concepts and be able to synthesize information in written form to show the

instructors you understand what has been taught. Without these two courses all other

courses will be difficult at best. (Flagg, 2015)

In the United States, community colleges offer two year degrees in a wide range

of fields. There is great and often surprising breadth: culinary arts, firefighting,

entertainment technology, criminal justice, vocational nursing, theater, digital arts,

graphic design, and there are training programs of varying length like the Job Corps

(Welcome to Job Corps, Regional Opportunity Centers (,

adult high schools and programs like the YWCA's Digital Learning Academy
(Partnership with Xerox Corporation Establishes Pioneering Digital Learning Academy)

can be very useful. (Lewis, 2015)

Whether a high school graduate enters college, goes to work, takes vocational

training, or follows any other path open to him is of concern not only to the youth himself

but to the nation and its manpower needs. This study throws light on the question of

what influences determine the decision for a college education. It is based on

information obtained from 25,000 graduating high school seniors in Minnesota,

interviews with a sampling of their parents, and a follow-up study to check on how

closely the young people followed the plans they indicated in the original survey. The

book, a volume in the Minnesota Library on Student Personnel Work, will be helpful to

high school and college administrators and counselors. (Berdie, 1954)

There are purely academic, tech-voc and other types of schools. The majority of

those who choose academic track are students who plan to proceed to college. There is

still a stigma in selecting tech-voc and other courses as this are seen by many as the

course for poor performing/problematic students. The enrollment in tech-voc schools in

the US is declining despite the surge of demand for skilled workers. In the three

countries, the availability of qualified teachers is still an issue. This situation is very real

in the Philippines as it started the SHS program in June 2016. Other problems include

the need to construct a huge number of classrooms and facilities. All of these are

currently being addressed too by the government. (Villena, 2018)

Students who belong to the K-12 generation but do not complete Grade 12 will

be disadvantaged in that they will not be accepted into a college degree or technical-

vocational certificate program without a SHS diploma. They will also miss out on an
opportunity to learn skills that can qualify them for employment right after SHS, or

prepare them for starting up a business. (Primer, 2018)