0 valutazioniIl 0% ha trovato utile questo documento (0 voti)

1 visualizzazioni7 pagineCAD material

Mar 01, 2019

© © All Rights Reserved

0 valutazioniIl 0% ha trovato utile questo documento (0 voti)

1 visualizzazioni7 pagineSei sulla pagina 1di 7

Journal of the Institute of Engineering, Vol. 3, No. 1, pp. 188-194
TUTA/OE/PCU
© TUTAMOE/PCU
All rights reserved. Printed in Nepal
Fax : 977-1-5525830
DEVELOPMENT OF A DESIGN CALCULATOR FOR
AN ISOLATED SQUARE FOOTING
Jagat Kumar Shrestha
Department of Civil Engineering, Pulchowk Campus, Institute of Engineering, Tribhuvan University
Abstract : This paper deals with the development of software (Design Calculator) to
design a square footing. This calculator is programmed in a popular language Visual
Basic 6. Designs are based on limit state method of design following IS 456:2000. The
results from the calculator were compared with manual calculations and found no
discrepancy in the results. The calculator is error free and reliable. The calculator will be
useful to the designers to estimate the
and depth of the footings during planning
phase of a building and later detailed design of the footings.
Key words: Calculator, footing, code, pressure, moments, shears, effective depth, one way
shear, two way shear, stress, development length, dowel bars.
1 INTRODUCTION
Foundations are required to transfer loads
from a structure. to the earth. Foundations
are designed to provide adequate safety
against sliding and overturning. Depending,
upon the site condition and the type of
structure, various types of foundation can
be designed. The most widely used building
foundations are isolated footings.
Isolated footings are shallow type of
foundation in which the foundation is kept
for individual columns. The square footings
are economical for square and circular
columns. Under a rectangular column,
rectangular footing is considered to be
more appropriate. It is desirable to keep
the thickness of a footing uniform. It is
common in practice to gradually reduce the
depth of the footings towards the edges to
achieve economy.
Structural design of a reinforced
concrete footing is an iterative work. It
takes a considerable time to design even a
simple footing. The designer feels a need of
computer software that can design a
footing. To meet the need, this is an
attempt to make a calculator for designing
square footings.
2. OBJECTIVE
The objective of this paper is to develop a
design calculator, which designs an isolated
footing.
3. BASIS FOR DESIGN
The program for the calculator is written
in a popular coding language Visual Basic 6.
The calculator designs an isolated footing
based on IS 456:2000. Limit state of design
is implemented in the program
3.1 Depth of Footings
For normal buildings the minimum
depth of footings below ground level is
calculated by the Rankine’s formula:
h= phy [(1-sino)/(1+sino)?
where,
h = minimum depth of footing, m
P = gross bearing capacity, kN/m?
y= Density of soil, KN/m*
9 = Angle of repose of soilDevelopment of a Design Calculator for An Is
42 Pressure Distribution Under
Footings
The pressure distribution under
mmetrically loaded footings is not
form. The actual stress distribution
vvads on the nature of subsoil strata and
the rigidity of the footings.
A footing is assumed to act as rigid
body, which is equilibrium under the action
of applied forces from the structure and the
Stress on the soil. When rigid footing is
placed on loose cohesion less soil, due to
the load transmitted by the footing the soil
grains at the edges having no lateral
restraint displaced laterally and in the
enter the soil remain relatively confined.
On the other hand in case of rigid footing
‘on cohesive soils, the load transmitted by
the footing causes very large pressure at
the edges and the parabola pressure
distribution under the footing. In practice,
the pressure distribution beneath the
footings is assumed to be linear to simplify
the analysis. The designs based on this
assumption comply fairly with actual
pressure under existing footings and hence
linear pressure distribution is considered to
be acceptable and used in the program.
aed q
Figure 1: uniform pressure distribution
3.3 Analysis and Design of Footings
The analysis and design of footing is
divided in the following steps.
* Determination of the area of footing;
Determination of bending moments
and shears at critical section and fixing
the depth of footing;
Determination of
Teinforcement; and
Check for development length at the
Critical section.
the area of
'd Square Footin,
Square Footing 189
The area of the footing is work
based on the load in the member including
self-weight of footing and the bearing
capacity of the soil. The calculations for
bending moment and shear force are made
based on provision in the code.
3.3.1 Bending Moment
The bending moment at the section is
determined by passing through the section
a vertical plane which extends completely
across the footing and computing the
Moments of the forces acting over the
entire area of the footing on one side of
the said plane as shown in Figure 2.
BM = q(B -by/8
B = width of footing; b = width of column;
447 pressure of the footing
Figure 2: Critical section for bending
The tensile reinforcement at any
section is provided so that the moment of
resistance is greater than the bending
moment of the section due to factored
forces. The reinforcement is distributed
uniformly across the full width of the
footing in each direction.
3.3.2 Shear Force
‘The shear strength of footings is checked
in one-way bending action and in two-way
bending action in accordance with the
Code.190 Journ
+ One-way shear — the footing is
checked in vertical shear.
+ Two-way shears — the footing is
checked in punching shear
The critical sections for checking
shear are the vertical shear across the full
width of the base on a vertical section
located from the face of column, pedestal
or wall at a distance equal to the effective
depth of the footing as shown in Figure 3
and punching shear around the column on a
perimeter 0.5 times the effective depth
away from the face of column as shown in
Figure 4,
For one-way shear action, the nominal
shear stress is calculated as:
tv =Vu/ (b*d)
where, Vy = factored vertical shear force
b = breadth of the critical section
d =effective depth
When shear reinforcement is not provided,
the nominal shear stress at the critical
section will not exceed k t,.
For two- way shear action,
t= Vu (bo*d)
where, by = perimeter of the critical section
of the Institute of Engineering
Where shear reinforcement is nop
provided, the nominal shear stress at the
critical section will not exceed ks tc,
where, k, = 0.5 + Be SI
Be = (short dimension of column or
pedestal / long dimension of column o
pedestal) and
t, = 0.25 ¥ (fy) MPa
In practice the base is deep enough so that
shear reinforcement is not required. The
thickness of footing is normally governed
by shear.
3.4 Transfer of Load at Base of
Column
All forces acting at the base of column or
pedestal should be transferred into the
footing. Tensile forces are transferred
through development reinforcements,
Compressive forces area transferred
through direct bearing, The permissible
bearing stress on full area of concrete is
given by,
foe = 0.45 fax
The stress is the allowable stress in
column concrete. The permissible bearing
sa
Figure 3: Critical section for one-way shear
Figure 4: Critical section for two-way shear

## Molto più che documenti.

Scopri tutto ciò che Scribd ha da offrire, inclusi libri e audiolibri dei maggiori editori.

Annulla in qualsiasi momento.