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Journal of the Institute of Engineering, Vol. 3, No. 1, pp. 188-194 TUTA/OE/PCU © TUTAMOE/PCU All rights reserved. Printed in Nepal Fax : 977-1-5525830 DEVELOPMENT OF A DESIGN CALCULATOR FOR AN ISOLATED SQUARE FOOTING Jagat Kumar Shrestha Department of Civil Engineering, Pulchowk Campus, Institute of Engineering, Tribhuvan University Abstract : This paper deals with the development of software (Design Calculator) to design a square footing. This calculator is programmed in a popular language Visual Basic 6. Designs are based on limit state method of design following IS 456:2000. The results from the calculator were compared with manual calculations and found no discrepancy in the results. The calculator is error free and reliable. The calculator will be useful to the designers to estimate the and depth of the footings during planning phase of a building and later detailed design of the footings. Key words: Calculator, footing, code, pressure, moments, shears, effective depth, one way shear, two way shear, stress, development length, dowel bars. 1 INTRODUCTION Foundations are required to transfer loads from a structure. to the earth. Foundations are designed to provide adequate safety against sliding and overturning. Depending, upon the site condition and the type of structure, various types of foundation can be designed. The most widely used building foundations are isolated footings. Isolated footings are shallow type of foundation in which the foundation is kept for individual columns. The square footings are economical for square and circular columns. Under a rectangular column, rectangular footing is considered to be more appropriate. It is desirable to keep the thickness of a footing uniform. It is common in practice to gradually reduce the depth of the footings towards the edges to achieve economy. Structural design of a reinforced concrete footing is an iterative work. It takes a considerable time to design even a simple footing. The designer feels a need of computer software that can design a footing. To meet the need, this is an attempt to make a calculator for designing square footings. 2. OBJECTIVE The objective of this paper is to develop a design calculator, which designs an isolated footing. 3. BASIS FOR DESIGN The program for the calculator is written in a popular coding language Visual Basic 6. The calculator designs an isolated footing based on IS 456:2000. Limit state of design is implemented in the program 3.1 Depth of Footings For normal buildings the minimum depth of footings below ground level is calculated by the Rankine’s formula: h= phy [(1-sino)/(1+sino)? where, h = minimum depth of footing, m P = gross bearing capacity, kN/m? y= Density of soil, KN/m* 9 = Angle of repose of soil Development of a Design Calculator for An Is 42 Pressure Distribution Under Footings The pressure distribution under mmetrically loaded footings is not form. The actual stress distribution vvads on the nature of subsoil strata and the rigidity of the footings. A footing is assumed to act as rigid body, which is equilibrium under the action of applied forces from the structure and the Stress on the soil. When rigid footing is placed on loose cohesion less soil, due to the load transmitted by the footing the soil grains at the edges having no lateral restraint displaced laterally and in the enter the soil remain relatively confined. On the other hand in case of rigid footing ‘on cohesive soils, the load transmitted by the footing causes very large pressure at the edges and the parabola pressure distribution under the footing. In practice, the pressure distribution beneath the footings is assumed to be linear to simplify the analysis. The designs based on this assumption comply fairly with actual pressure under existing footings and hence linear pressure distribution is considered to be acceptable and used in the program. aed q Figure 1: uniform pressure distribution 3.3 Analysis and Design of Footings The analysis and design of footing is divided in the following steps. * Determination of the area of footing; Determination of bending moments and shears at critical section and fixing the depth of footing; Determination of Teinforcement; and Check for development length at the Critical section. the area of 'd Square Footin, Square Footing 189 The area of the footing is work based on the load in the member including self-weight of footing and the bearing capacity of the soil. The calculations for bending moment and shear force are made based on provision in the code. 3.3.1 Bending Moment The bending moment at the section is determined by passing through the section a vertical plane which extends completely across the footing and computing the Moments of the forces acting over the entire area of the footing on one side of the said plane as shown in Figure 2. BM = q(B -by/8 B = width of footing; b = width of column; 447 pressure of the footing Figure 2: Critical section for bending The tensile reinforcement at any section is provided so that the moment of resistance is greater than the bending moment of the section due to factored forces. The reinforcement is distributed uniformly across the full width of the footing in each direction. 3.3.2 Shear Force ‘The shear strength of footings is checked in one-way bending action and in two-way bending action in accordance with the Code. 190 Journ + One-way shear — the footing is checked in vertical shear. + Two-way shears — the footing is checked in punching shear The critical sections for checking shear are the vertical shear across the full width of the base on a vertical section located from the face of column, pedestal or wall at a distance equal to the effective depth of the footing as shown in Figure 3 and punching shear around the column on a perimeter 0.5 times the effective depth away from the face of column as shown in Figure 4, For one-way shear action, the nominal shear stress is calculated as: tv =Vu/ (b*d) where, Vy = factored vertical shear force b = breadth of the critical section d =effective depth When shear reinforcement is not provided, the nominal shear stress at the critical section will not exceed k t,. For two- way shear action, t= Vu (bo*d) where, by = perimeter of the critical section of the Institute of Engineering Where shear reinforcement is nop provided, the nominal shear stress at the critical section will not exceed ks tc, where, k, = 0.5 + Be SI Be = (short dimension of column or pedestal / long dimension of column o pedestal) and t, = 0.25 ¥ (fy) MPa In practice the base is deep enough so that shear reinforcement is not required. The thickness of footing is normally governed by shear. 3.4 Transfer of Load at Base of Column All forces acting at the base of column or pedestal should be transferred into the footing. Tensile forces are transferred through development reinforcements, Compressive forces area transferred through direct bearing, The permissible bearing stress on full area of concrete is given by, foe = 0.45 fax The stress is the allowable stress in column concrete. The permissible bearing sa Figure 3: Critical section for one-way shear Figure 4: Critical section for two-way shear