^{2}^{6}^{8}^{6}
Decemb e r, 1969
E xp e rim e nt s ," Bul/ e tin 96, Iowa Engine e r i n g E xperiment S t a tion, February 19 , 1930 .
10. Mct ca lf , L. , a nd E ddy, H. P., Americ an S e we r age Pr acti c e , McGraw Hill C o mp a n y , New York
1
9 16, p p . 4 8 1  53 4 .
•
11 . R owe , R . R . , "Co n c re te
Pipe in Highw a y Co n st ru c tio n , "
T e c hnical Mem o ran d u m , A merican
C on c r e t e Pip e A s s o c i a tion , Januar y
1
2 . S p ang ler,
M . G . , " Th e Supp o rting
I , 19 62 .
Str e n g th o f R ig id Pip e C ulverts , "
Bul/et i n 1 1 2 . l o w a Engi.
n
ee rin g E xp e rim e n t S t a ti o n , Febru a ry 8, 1 933 .
13. Sp a n g l e r,
M . G ., " An a lysis
of Loads a nd S upp o rtin g
Strengths,
~
and Prin c ipies o f De s ign for , ~
High w a y C ulv e r t s, " Pr o c e edings, Highwa y R es e a r c h B o a rd , 1946, pp. 189  214 . , :
14
. Timrn e r s ,
J . H . , " L o a d
Study of Fl ex ible Pipe s Under High Fill , " Bul/e tin
Re s e a r c h B oa r d , 1 956 , pp . 1  11.
125 . Highw a y
"i':'
l
: ; ~
·1:'
. , ~ I
. ~ :
'i'
_{6}_{9}_{4}_{3}
Dec e mber, 1969
J ournal o f th e
STRUCTURAL
DIVISION
_{S}_{T} _{1}_{2}
Proceeding s o f the Americ a n So c iety of Civil Engin e er s
THEORY OF NONLINEARELASTIC STRUCTURES
By Graham H. Powell,l M. ASCE
INTRODUCTION
General theoretical formulations and computational techniques for the analysis of linear elastic structures have been very thoroughly studied in recent years. The theory can be elegantly and concisely expressed in standard matrix form. Efficient solution procedures for both the force and displace m e nt meth o ds are well established. No such standard í zat í on exists, however, for the analysis of nonl í near elastic structures, as evidenced by recent papers (1,2,3,4,5 , 6).2 Indeed, it is still not clear what constitutes a consistent theo retical formulation of the problem. In this paper , an attempt is made to separate, physically, the different types of nonlinearity which are associated with large displacements of elastic structures, to present a theoretical formulation in which these types of non linearity can be easily identified, and to examine a number of problems as sociated with solution techniques. The displac e ment method of analysis applied to discrete element systems is used throughout, and it í s assumed that stra í ns are small although displacements may be large. A member of a plane rigid frame í s selected to illustrate the theory. This member is selected because the results can be expressed compactly, and y et the features of more complex structural elem e nts are present. In particular, both flexural effects and axial straín effects are present, and therefore, the principIes developed can be extended to finite elements for plate bending, as well as for plane and three dimensional stress. As the theory is developed, two alternative formulations are presented in
No te. D i sc u ss l o n w ritt e n r e q u es t
o f th e c opy right ed
Society of C ivil E n gi n ee rs,
rnítted f o r r e vi e w f o r p o ssible publicati o n o n F e bru a r y 1 9, 1969.
o pen until m u s t be fil e d with th e Ex ec utiv e
J ou r n al
of the S tr uc t u r a l
M ay 1, 19 7 0 . To e x t e nd the closing da t e one m o nth, a
S ec re t a r y ,
ASC E. Thi s pa per is p ar t
Divis i o n, Pr oc eedings of the A me ri c a n
1969. Manus cr i p t w as s u b 
Vol. 95, N o . S T1 2 , De c em b e r,
1 A ssist .
2 N u m er a i s in p a ren thes es refer to co r respo n d in g i t em s in th e A ppen d ix. R e f ere n c es .
P r o L C iv. E ngrg.,
Univ. of Ca li f . , Be rk e l ey ,
C a lif.
2687
December, 1969
'6, Iow a En gi neering Exp e riment Station , Febru a r y 19 , 1930 .
1. P . , Am e ri c an S ewe ra ge Pra c t i ce, McGra w HiII Co mpan y , N ew
_{S}_{T} _{1}_{2}
Y o r k ,
: P i pe in Hi g hw ay Con s tru c ti o n ,"
m , Jan ua r y I , 1 96 2.
Supp o rt i ng Strength on , Febru a r y 8, 1 93 3 ,
y si s o f L oad s a nd Supp o rtin g
T ec hni c al Mem o ra n du m , A m e ri ca n
of Ri g i d P i pe Cul v e rts , " Bull e t i n 11 2 , l o w a E n g i 
Str e n g ths ,
a nd Pr i n c ipi es o f D e s i g n f o r
' ee din gs , H ig h way Re s e a r c h Bo a rd, 1946 , pp . 1 8 9  2 14 .
J,I Stud  II. y o f Fl exible Pip es U nder High Fill " "
B
ull e tin
12 5
H ' h
'
Ig w a y
6943
Dec e mber, 1969
ST 12
J o urnal of th e STR U CT U RAL DIVISIO Proceedings of th e Am e rican So c iet y of Civil Engineers
THEORY OF NO N LINEAR ELASTIC STRUCTURES
B y Graham H. Powe ll ;' M. ASCE
INTRODUCTION
General theoretical formulations
and computational
techniques for the
analysis of linear elastic structures have been very thoroughly studied ín recent years. The theory can be elegantly and concisely expressed in standard matrix formo Efficient solution pr o cedures for both th e force and displace ment methods are well established. No su c h standardization ex ists, how e ver,
for the analys í s of nonlinear elastic structures, as evidenced b y recent papers
( 1 , 2 , 3 , 4,5,6 ) .2
retical formulation of the problem . In this pap e r , an attempt is made to separate, ph y sicall y , th e different
types of nonlinearity which are associated with large displ ac ements
structures, to present a theoretical formul a tion in which these types of non
linearity can be easily identified, and to examine a number of problems as
sociated wíth solution techniques. The displacement
to discrete
are small although displacements may be larg e . A member of a plane rigid
fram e ís seI e cted to illustrat e th e theor y . This member is sel ected be c ause the results can be ex pressed c o mpactly, and y et the featur e s of m o re complex
Indeed,
í t is still n o t clear what constitut e s
a c on s istent theo
of elastic
method of analysis applied
element systems ís used throughout, and it is assumed that straíns
structural eIements
str ain effects are pr e sent, and therefor e , the p rincipI e s d e v e Ioped c an be ext e nded to finite e lements for plat e bending, a s well as for plane and three dimensional stress.
formulations are present e d in
are present. In particular, both flexur a l eff e cts and a xi al
As the theor y is developed, two alternative
I \ ' o t e .Dis c u ss i on
op en un t il
M ay 1 , 19 7 0. T o ext e nd t he cl osi n g da t e o ne m onth , a
w r itt e n request of th e copyrighte d J o urnal
Soc i e t y of Civil E ngin ee rs, Vol. 95 , No . ST12, Decembe r, 1969. M a n usc ript wa s sub  m itte d f o r revi ew f or pos sible pub li c a t i o n o n F ebr u a r y 1 9 , 196 9 ,
A SC E. Th is paper is p ar t
m u s t be filed with th e E xecuti ve Secreta ry,
of th e S t r uctural
Di v i sio n, Proceedin gs of the Am e r í ca n
1 A ss ist.
2 N ume rals in p a r e nth eses re f e r to c orres p o ndin g it ems in th e App e nd i x . R e f ere n c es .
Pr of . C i v. En grg . ,
U ni v . o f Ca lif. ,
B e r k e i ey , Ca lif .
2687
r
^{2}^{6}^{8}^{8} 

parallel, 
one of a " traditional" 
December, 1969
engineering type and one in general matrix
form. The development proceeds as follows:
1. Basic definitions and equations are presented.
2. Geometric
compatibility
relationships
and joínt displacements
are examined.
between member deformations
3. Equilibrium equations for members and joints are developed.
4. The essential equations of the problem are identified.
5. The role
of the tangent stiffness
in analysis is described,
and expres ,
síons for tangent stiff ne ss are deriv e d .
In this developm e nt,
in order
member deformations
a theory
and joint displacements
which is applicable when rigid body
in which at the end
has commonly been used, but it ís as the less dir ec t formulation.
are
separated, rotat í ons
member deformations
of th e paper.
ar g ued herein that ít is not as satisfactor y
to present
of the members
are large.
A more direct formulation,
is considered
are not expl ' í cttly examined,
This type of formulation
DEFINITIONS AND BASIC RELATIONSHIPS
S tr uctu re .  The structure
consists of a number of rigid body [oínts linked
study the members are
together by deformabl e structural
members.
In thís
SI(
F I G . 1. ; \ 1EM BER A C TI O N S A N D DE FORM A TI O N S
initially straight, and their elastí c properties are assumed to be concentrated
along theír axes. External
loads are applied only at the joints.
Di f fe re ntial El eme nt . Each
member
The deformations
differential elements.
is made up of an infinite number of
of all differential
elements
are as
sumed to be are aSSumed of material
ment of a plane frame member
of beam , with stress and strain resultants
small, and the relationships between actions and deformations
to be linear. In general, differential
elements will be elements
wíth stress
and straín
related by Hooke's law. However, an ele
is more simply taken as an ele mental length
related by
^{a}^{n}^{d}
CJ 1 =EIE1
^{C}^{J} ^{2} ^{=} ^{E} _{2} ^{E} ^{2}
•••• • ••••••• • •••••••••••••••••••
_{.}
_{.}
_{.}
_{.}
_{.}
_{.}
_{.}
_{.}
_{.}
_{.}
(1)
(2)
r:
'::~;;
_{S}_{T} _{1}_{2}
NONLINEAR ELASTIC STRUCTURES
_{2}_{6}_{8}_{9}
in which CJ _{1} = bending moment; CJ _{2} = axial force; E _{1} = E I; E = Young's modu lus; I = second moment of area of cross section; E _{2} = E A; A = area of cross
section; E 1 = curvature of
Memb e r Actio n s and Deformatio ns .ln order to develop a theory which is applicabl e when member rigid body rotations are lar g e, the deformations and
rigid body displacements
member supported so that its chord undergoes no ri g id body displacement.
The member g eneralized deformations ,
sponding actions, 51, S2 and S3' are selected for the d e rivation
mem b e r axis; and E 2
= axial strain.
of the members are separat e d.
Fig. 1 shows a frame
v _{1} , v _{2} and v _{3} , as shown, and the corre
of the theory.
The m e mber deformations
a re a ssumed
to be small.
That is, v and v a re
1
2
in com
smalI ín compartson
with un í ty , and vi, v~, and v _{s} / L are negligible
parison with unity. Memb e rs which may undergo lar g e flexural deformations must be subdivided into shorter members. Lar g e axial deformations are not
permitted. In order for the behavior
of th e complete
structur e
to be defined uniquely
e le
ín terms of its joint displacements,
the deform a tions
of alI differ e ntial
FIG. 2 .DI S PLACEMENTS ELE ME NT
OF DI FF ERENTIAL

RI,rl
YLx
F IG. 3 .JOINT L O AD S AND DI S PLACEMENT S
ments in a member must be defin e d uniquely in terms of the member g ener
alized deformations.
to vary cubically with the distance along the member chord, and lon g itudinal displacements, u , to vary linearly (Fig. 2). The followin g linear transformation is then consistent wíth the small deformations assumption:
Transvers e
displacements,
w , ar e therefore constrained
tl = [LU?  :P' .p)
L(P3 _ p2)
o
:J l::\
(3)
in which the deformed length, L, is not significantly different from the ori g inal length, Lo. The differ e ntial element deformations are given by
^{2}
d
w E 1 = dx2
1
= L
(6p  4) v _{1}
1
+ L (6p 
2) v _{2}
••
•• ••.•
(4)
" i ~
"t1
2690
December, 1969
ST 12
which is a linear function of the displacements, and
du
E 2 = d x +"2
1 (dW)2
dx
E3 + .! {(3p2 _ L
2
4p + l)v, + (3p'  2p) v ,)' (
(5)
in which the quadratic term introduces the effects of large displacements.
More
generally, if {v} = < v _{1} v _{2} v _{s} > T, then
Ei = < ai(p»{ v }
+ {{ v } T
<bi(P»T
< bi(P»
{v}
(6a)
in which the first and second terms on the righthand side are, respectively,
the linear and quadratic
components of deformation, and in which for E 1
<
a _{1} > =
<
1
L (6p  4)
1
L (6p  2)
O>
(6b)
and < b _{1} > = and for E 2
<
a _{2} >
<O
_{<}_{O}
O O>
O
1
L>
(6c)
(6d)
and < b _{2} > = « 3p2
 4p + 1) (3p2  2p) O>
(6 e )
. The displacements of any joint consist of
translations, r _{1} and r2' along the fixed coordinate directions, X and Y, and a rotation rs, as in Fig. 3. The joint loads are the corresponding forces Rl1 R and R3.
2
a vanishingly small change of geometry of
the structure about any deformed or undeformed configuration, a linear d í s placement transformation can be written as
Joint Loads a n d Displac e ments
Geometric
Compatibility.For
{dv} = [c] {dr}
in which {dv} = matrix of deformation increments
(7)
for a single member or any
g roup of members; {dr} = matrix of displacement increments at one or more joints; and [c] = displacement transformation matrix which is instantaneously
correct in the
particular configuration of the structure. For the single mem ber
in Fig. 4, the transformation is well known, as follows:
dv [_l
{dvli
dv
_{s}
c
c
L
_{1}
c
L ^{O}
_{}_{5}
_{O}
s
L
5
L
_{C}
c
_{L}
c
T
^{5}
;j
âr;
âr;
drs
dr
4
drs
âr,
_{!}
• ••
(8)
in which 5 = sín ê ; and c = cos«. For large displacements, the transformation is not, of course, linear. For purposes of computation, the nonlinear transformation for a frame member
^{2}^{6}^{9}^{1}
_{S}_{T} _{1}_{2}
displacing from an initial state, O, to a new state, A, can be formulated as follows (Fig. 5):
NONLINEAR ELASTIC STRUCTURES
_{X}_{A}
A
Y
= Xo + r _{4}
= Yo + rs

r _{1}
 r _{2}
•••••••••••••••• • •••• • •••••••
^{(}^{9} ^{a} ^{)}
(9b)
v
_{3}
=
(x3t + y3t)1/2
 Lo
.
(9c)
e _{o} = tan ^{1} (~)
(9d)
More
OA = tan ^{1} (~)
v
_{1}
v
_{2}
= 0 _{0} + r
_{3}
= e _{o}
+ r
_{6}


(ge) 

eA 
••• 
• 
•.• 
• 
•.• 
(9f) 

e _{A} 
.• 
•••••• 
• 
• 
•• 
•.•• 
(9 g ) 
g enerall y, as a structure
deforms from state O to state A, it moves
y
~/
\.:
~rl
Cx
's t '{6
r _{4}
FIG. 4.ME MB ER ARBITRARIL Y ORIENTED IN SPACE
r 5
Yo
rl •. l.
^{~}^{n}
XA
~r4
_I
FIG. 5 .INITIAL AND F INAL STAT E S OF MEMBER
through an infinite number of intermediate states, and the transformation can be written as
{ V A} = J
o
{ r A}
[c
_{r} ]
{dr}
•
(10)
in which {VA} = matr í x of member deformations in state A; {r A} = matrix of joint displacements in state A; and [c _{r} ] = instantaneously correct displace ment transformation matrix at any intermediate state. Eqs. 9a9 g are s í mple to use in computation for a frame member, and it should generally be possible to establish similar direct relationships for other
structural elements. However, it may be convenient to evaluate member de íormations by numerical integration of Eq. 10 . For example, the form
N 

_{{} 
_{V} _{A}_{}} _{=} _{~} 
_{~} 
_{[}_{c} _{n} _{]} 
_{{}_{r}_{A} _{}} 
n=l
.•
•
(11)
can be used, in which {r A} is divided into N equal parts and [cn ] is the instan
., 

~ 
" 
. 
.• ; 
. 
, " : , 
, 'tt t
~
2692
Decemb e r, 1969
_{S}_{T} _{1}_{2}
ST 12
NONL1NEAR ELAST1C STRUCTURES
_{2}_{6}_{9}_{3}
taneously correct displacement each parto
transformation
at the be g inning or middle of
+ L: t {dv } T
o
< bi>T <bi> { V A } e, <ae { V A} . Ldp
EQUILIBRIUM
+ L: "2
1 J1
o
{dV}T
<bi>T < b _{i} > {V A} e, { v AF
< bi>T < b i> { V A} . Ldp
(19)
Joint Equil i brium.All joínts and m e mbers must b e in equilibrium in the
deformed configuration of the structure.
veniently established by application of the Virtual Displacements
The equilibrium
equations are con
PrincipIe.
For an infinitesimal imaginary displacement, {dr}, about the deformed
state, A, the member deformations,
{dV}, are given by
The imaginarydeformation,
{dv}, can be cancelled, and the integraIs of Eqs.
18 or 19 can be evaluated analytically for a frame member
to give the result:
2
1
O
{d v}
= [ C A]
{dr}
(12)
l::(. 'fI
_{1}
O
2
O
O
A
21
in which [c A]
matrix
is the instantaneously
correct
displacement
transformation
1::\
in state A. The virtual work equation is then
{dj:} T {RA} 
= {d v } T {SA} 
• 
• 
(13) 
in which {RA } isthe 
matrix of [oínt loads in state A; and { SA} isthe 
matrix of 
member 
actions in state 
A. 
Therefore, 
Irom 
Eq. 12, and because 
{ dr } 
is 

arbitrary 
+ EA I 

{RA} = [cAl T {SA } 
(14) 
1~0 ( 4 v i  v _{1} V Z + V Z ) 2
280 L
( 2
^{2}^{)}
V i + v 2
280 L
( z
2)
v 1 + v 2
1~0 (vi  V _{1} V 2 + 4 v ~)
^{4} ^{V} i

30
2
v
I
I v 1
^{4} ^{V} ^{2}^{3}^{~} ^{V} ^{1} ^{I} ^{\}
^{V} 2 ^{)} ^{(}^{2}^{0}^{)}
The force transformation matrtx, [c A] T, is dependent on the displacements of the structure. Memb er Equilibrium . The chain of equations linking joint displacements { r A} and loads {R A} in state A is completed byestablishing a re lationship be tween member actions {SA} and deformations { V A}' For a single frame member, an infinitesimal imaginary displacement {dv} about its deformed position leads, by differentiation of Eqs. 4 and 5, to imag inary differential element deformations dE _{1} and dEz g iven by
 dE _{1} = L (6p  4)d v _{1} + L (6p  2)d v _{z}


1
1
•.
(15)
4
V 1~
60
^{4}^{v} 1 ^{} ^{v} ^{2}
60
O
I
I v g
This equation can be written symbolically as
{sAl 
= [[k _{1} ] 
+ [k _{z} ( V A)]J {V A} = [ks] 
{ V A } 
(21) 

Matrix 
[k _{1} ] is the ordinary linear stiffness 
of the member. 
Matrix [k 5] is the 
secant stiffness of the memb e r, and is obviously deformation dependent.
If pseudostrains
Yi are defined by
and dEz = T

d v
+
{
(3p2  4p + l) v _{1}
+ (3pZ  2p)v _{z}
}
x {(3pZ  4p + 1)d v _{1} + (3pZ  2P)dv _{2} }
More generally, the following equation is obtained by differentiation
dEi = < ai>
{ãv} + { v }T
<lu» T < b _{i} > {d v }
The virtual work equation ís
{dvF
{sAl
= L: t a , ai
o
lilp
= L: t a, s,
o
or, from substitution
of Eqs. 17 and 6 into Eq. 18
{dv}T
{SA} = L: t {dvF
o
< ai>T z,
< ai> {VA} . Ldp
E i Ldp
(16)
of Eq. 6:
(17)
(18)
Yi = < b _{i} > {liA}
then Eq. 19 can be rearranged
,
to give
{SA} = L: t <ai>T z, < ai> Ldp {VA }
+ "2 L:
+ L: J
o
+ '2 L:
1
1
J1
o
1
o
<ai>T s, Yi < bi > Ldp { V A}
<bi>T s, Yi < ae lilp {VA}
f1
o
<bi>TYi
EiYi « b ,» lilP { V A}
. ^{(}^{2}^{2}^{)} 

• 
(23) 
+ L: ~ t {dvF
o
<ai>T Ei {vAF
<be ^{T}
< b t > {VA} . Ldp
These integraIs can be evaluated exactly or approximately by numerical inte
gration. The procedure
over surfaces and volumes as wellas in one dimension. A substantial simpli
í s general because the integration
can be carried
out
. , . _{'} _{i}
2694
December, 1969
ST 12
fication, possibly w í th no g reat loss in accuracy, can be achieved by assigning constant values to Yi'
ESSENTIAL EQUATIONS
The essential equations which must be satisfied can be summarized as follows:
{r _{A} }
{VA} = J
o
{SAl
[a _{n} ]{dr}
{VA}
= [ks]
{RA} = [aAF {SAl
.
.
(10)
(21)
(14)
Nonlinearity is present because the displacement transformation is nonlinear (Eq . 10), the members behave nonlinearly (Eq. 21), and the equilibrium equa t í ons must be formulated in the d e formed confi g uration (Eq. 14). In computational algorithms, one or more of these nonlinearites may be ignored , and approxírnate results obta í ned. For example, for finite element analyses in which the elements are smal l , a common assumption mi g ht be that the member nonlinearity, represented by Eq. 21, can be i g nored. The influence of this particular assumption on the solution technique is noted subsequently.
TANGENT STIFFNESS
Ge ne ral.In "exact" computational algorithms for large nonlinear struc tures, the nonlinear problem is most commonly solved by a Newton type of
_{{}_{R}_{}}
TANGENT
AT O
O
FIRST DISPLACEMENT
ESTIMATE
SECOND DISPLACEMENT
ESTIMATE
EXACT SOLUTION
B
SECOND UNBALANCED
FORCE
FIRST UNBALANCED
FORCE
{r}
FIG. 6. D I A G RA M M A TI C
IL LUS TRATI O N O F NEWTO N PROCEDURE
method in a series of linear steps. The procedure is well known andphysically reasonable, being one in which a solutíon which satisfies compatibility is sue cessively corrected until it also satisfies equilibrium . The basie method is illustrated diagramatically in Fig. 6. For this method to be applied, tangent stiffnesses for the structure are required. In this sectíon , expressions for the tangent stiffness matrix of a single member are developed . The tangent stiffness of the complete structure is then considered in the following section.
investigations, the tangent
It should be emphasized that, except for stability
ST 12
NONLINEAR ELA$TIC STRUCTURES
2695
5tiffness í s largely just a tool which is a part of some solut í on techniques. The fundamental equations are Eqs. 10, 21 and 14, and if a solution can be Iound which satisfies these equations, by any technique whatsoever, this is a valid solution.
any state , A, an
equation of the íorrn
Member Tangent Stiffness in Memb e r Coo r dinates . In
{dS} = [tA] {dv}
(24)
ís sought, in whieh [IA] is the mem ber tangent stiffness in state A. This ma trix is obtained most directly for a frame member by differentiating Eq. 20
with respect to {v}. The result is
1 O j r'l
^{2} ^{o}
^{d}^{V}
_{2}
as, \
dS _{2} ) = 22
2
1
_{d}_{S} _{s} _{'}
L _{O}
o
~
dvs
+ EA
[( L(12 , :  3 v , u + vj)
140
.
+
~)
15
(  L(3 ' :  ''', "
280
+ 3,:)
_ " )
30
More generally, the tangent stiffness is obtained by differentiating Eq . 19. This differentiation is conveniently, and instruetively, carried out as follows. Two states are eonsidered, namely {VA}, {SA} and {VA + tov}, {SA + toS}. ln each of these states a virtual displacement is imposed and an equilibrium equa tion in the form of Eq. 19 is developed. The first equation is then subtracted
from the seeond to give
an equation for {toS}. Both {toS} and {to v} ar e then made
to tend to zero, 50 that high order terms in {tov} can be i g nored. The result
ean then be arranged as
{dS} = I r < ai>T e, < ai> Ldp . {dv}
o
+ I f <ai>T e, Yi <b _{i} > Ldp . {dv}
o
"
.
. "; ; ' 1~ · 4
,.
;;:' , ' ,
.
f r ;
; ' ~I
I
::
i'"
^{2}^{6}^{9}^{6}
+ L t <bi>TEiYi<ai>Ldp·
o
December, 1969
{dv}
+ L f
1
<bi>T r, z, r, <b _{i} > Ldp . {dv}
+ L t <bi>T ai <b _{i} > Ldp . {dv}
o
The first term on the ríghthand side of this equation is the ordinary linear stiffness of the member. The remaining terms depend on the deformations or the member, and may be collectively termed the " inítíal straín= stiffness
of the member. The t a ngent stiffness numerical evaluation of the integraIs
matrix will always be symmetrical, and is possible. 25, the flexural deformations, v _{l} and v
,
2
in Eq.
are made equal to zero, the result is
Initial Stress Stiffness.If,
[t _{2} (vA»)
or [12(VA»)
~
15
EA I _!a.
2
15
1
SsL I 30
O
30
O
1
30
2
_{T}_{I}
O
~
30
_{~}
15
O
ol
:J
:1
.
.
.
. 
(28) 

. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
(29) 
This matrix now corresponds to the last term on the righthand side of Eq . 27. It is appropriately termed the "initial stress" stiffness matrix of the member, following the terminology used by Turner, Martin and others (6,5). A further contribution to the structure tangent stiffness, more appropriately identified as a "geometric" stiffness, fol lowing the terminology of Argyris (1), is considcred in the next sectíon, It can be seen that the true member tangent stiffness is not í n general ob tained by adding the ordinary linear stiffness to the "ín í tíal stress= stiffness. Nevertheless, because convergence can be obtaíned by a Newton type of method without the use of an exact tangent, it may be satisfactory ín practice to use thís approximation to the true tangent stiffness. For stability investigations of such structures as axially loaded, geometrically perfect columns, the as sumption that the flexural deformations are initially zero is, however, correct. It may also be noted that the derivations of Eqs. 23 and 27 are identical in principIe to the use of the strain energy expressions
l
Si = .E!.
_{ô}_{V}_{i}
_{.}
_{.}
_{.}
_{.}
_{.}
_{.}
_{.}
_{.}
_{.}
_{.}
_{"}
_{(}_{3}_{0}_{)}
_{S}_{T} _{1}_{2}
1l ^{2} U
and tij = ",",
uV i uV j
ín which U = strain
NONLINEARELASTIC STRUCTURES 
_{2}_{6}_{9}_{7} 

, 
, 
(31) 
energy; and t _{i}_{j} = term of tangent stiffness matrix.
STRUCTURE TANGENT STIFFNESS
Member Tangent Stiffn e ss form
{dR} = [TA)
{dr}
in Structure
Coordinates .An equation of the
(32)
ís sought, in which [TA 1 is the tangent stiffness of a singIe member or a group of members in the fixed coordinates, X, Y . The following equations can be written:
{dS} 
= [tA 1 {dv} 
(26) 
{dv} = [cAl {dr} 
(33) 

and {dR} = [CA]T{dS} + [dcF{SA} 
(34) 
Eq. 34 is obtained by differentiation of Eq. 14, in which the force transforma
tion matrix, [CA]T, is a functí on
33 can be substituted into Eq. 34 to g ive
of the joint dispIacements, {r}. Eqs. 26 and
[tA) [cAl {dr} + [dcl ^{T} {SAI t
(
{dR} = [cAF
= [Tl) {dr} + [dcF
{SA}
(35)
Matrix [Tl] is the memb e r tangent stiffness transformed into structure co ordinates, and accounts for the chan g es in ma g nitude of the memb e r end forces as th e structur e deforms. Term [dc F {SA} accounts , essentially, for the chang e s in direction of th e member e nd forces as the structure deforms. This se c ond term must be rearranged as
[dc]T {SAI = [T _{2} )
{dr}
(36)
in which matrix [T _{2} ) can be termed the "geometric" stiffness. Two methods of makin g this rearrangement are considered herein. The first method, which is essentially that used by Argyris (1), involves differen tíation of the force transformation matrix, [ c A) T, and í s "exact" but does not appear to guarantee that a symmetric stiffness matrix will resulto The second method follows more cIosely the derivations of the prevíous sectíons, but re quires that some terms be ignored a prior i. Method 1, Differentialion of Force Transformation.The matrtx, (cAF, for a frame member í s a function of the in í tial geometry of the structure and the joint displacements, r _{l} through re (Fig. 4). Therefore
(dc)
 /.J
T _
\ '
t = 1
and [dcJT {SA} =
[ SC JT
Ilri
,'[SCJT J
. ú
z.= 1
Ilri
dri'
lSA} drj
, (37) 

. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
(38) 
,
o''::
"v
'
. '1/'.':"
^{2}^{6}^{9}^{8}
December, 1969
ST 1.
Eq. 38 c a n now be arran ge d in the form of Eq. 36, in which column i of [T 
l 
i 

[8 e/ er il T {S A}' If the multiplication be expressed in the mor e convenient form: sequence is reordered, matrix [T _{2} 
2 l C 

[T 2 l = SI [T 2 ] + S2 [T _{2}_{2} ] + S3[T _{2} _{3} l 
. 

in which column i of [ T _{2} j 1 is column j of [ôe/ õr i J T. 

For a planeframe 8, usin g memb e r, matrices [é l e / 8ri]T _{[} ~JT 8 ri = _{[} 8eJT 88 ~ 8 r i + [~JT si . u: can be evaluated 
from Eq. 
. 

The result is 

[T21l = [T 22 ] = i2 I S2  se _{e} 2 (e 2 _ S2) 2se symmetri c _{O} _{O} _S2 _{s}_{e} 
_{O} 
8 r i _{2}_{s}_{e} ( S 2  c2) ^{O} _{}_{2}_{s}_{e} ( S 2 _ e 2 ) _{}_{2} _{s} _{e} ^{O} _{(} _{e} 2 _{_} _{S}_{2}_{)} 
_{O} 

_{O} 
_{O} 

^{O} 
^{O} _{O} 
(41) 

2 
se 
_{O} 

O 

_{s}_{e} 
_{O} 

_ e 2 
_{O} 

and [T _{2} _{3} ] = b I O symmetric O S2 
_{O} 
_{O} 

_{} _{s}_{e} 
_{O} 
^{I} 
(42) 

c 2 
_{O} 

O 

in which s = s í ns, and e = cos e . For more complex structural elements, it should generally 
be possible 
to 

carry out the corresponding manipulations. 
The member 
tangent sttifness 
in 

structure coordinates is then given by 

[TA) = [TIl + [T2 l 
(43) 

However, by this method there appears ways be symmetric. 
to be no guarantee 
that [ T _{2} 1 will al 
If the manipulations 
required to develop Eqs. 41 and 42 are examined, 
it is 

found that for [T21 ] 
and (T _{2} _{2} ] there are contributions 
of similar 
orders 
of 
magnitude from the differentiations 
with respect 
to both 
e and L. That 
is, the 
influence of the change in mangitude of the end shears, 
(SI + S2)/ L, 
as the 
member changes length is of the
same order of magnitude
as the influence
of
the changes in direction
has already b e en assumed
therefore, for consistency
of those shears
as the member
rotates.
However, it
and,
On the other
that change of member length is negligible,
[ T _{2}_{1} ) and [ T 221 should both be ignored.
hand, the terms in [T23 ] result solely from differentiation 
with respect 
to e, 

and are not negligible. 

Method 2, Use of Nonlin e ar 
Deformati o nDisPlaeement 
Relationship . As 
l
2699
_{S}_{T} _{1}_{2}
surne that for moderately small changes of [oint displacernent {~r} about some
d e for _{r}_{n}_{e}_{d} postt í on of the structure , nonlinear relationships between change of rnember d e forrnation and change of joint displacement can be written, and that these relationships can be approximated by the linear and quadratic terms
onl y as
NONLINEAR ELASTIC STRUCTURES
t.Vi
= < di> {t.r}
+ ~ {~ r F
[eil
{t.r }
(44)
For an infinitesimal
increas e ,
a pplying the virtual displacements
b y differentiating Eq. 44:
d~ Vi
= < di > {d~r}
+ {~rF
{d~r} ,
in {~r},
such as will be ímposed in
principIe, the following equation is obtained
[ ei l
{dt. r }
(45)
Consider, now, the equilibrium between the [oint loads and the member actions
in two adjac e nt
r e mains constant. In the first state, the virtual work equation is
states
{r}, {R} , {S} and {r + t. r} , {R + t.R } ,
{S}, in which{S }
{d~'tF 
{R} = ~ dt. Vi 
Sil,6 r= o = {dt.'t } T 
L: S i < d i >T 
(46) 

In the second state, the virtual 
work equation is 

_{{}_{d}_{t}_{.}_{r}_{F} 
_{{}_{R} 
_{+} t.R } = ~ dt.Vi 
Si l,6r 
= M 
~ 

(47) 

= { d t.rF 
L: S i [ < d i >T 
+ [ ei V 
{~r } l) 

Therefore , 
if Eq . 46 is subtracted from Eq. 47 the result 
í s 

{t.R } 
= [~ 
Si [e _{i} _{1}_{T} ] 
{~r} 
, (48) 
mem ber, it is found that 
there is no simple and direct way to 

For a frarne determine [eil for the flexural 
effects, 
if ttís 
as 

sumed, a priori, 
that the "geometric" 
i = 1 and i = 2. However, stiffness effects associated with the 

flexural actions 
SI and S2 ar e 
zero, then this problem 
can be ignored. 
The 

quadratic term inthe equation 
for ~ v _{3} ís then L(~e)2, and 
therefore matrix [ e 3 1 
is readi1y written as
_{[}_{e} _{3} _{1} _{=} _{<}_{f} _{3} _{>}_{T} _{<}_{f}_{3}_{>}
(49)
in which 
<f 3> = L 1/2 
< sin O 
Therefore, 
matrix (T _{2} 1 becomes 
cose
O
sine
cos e
O>
(50)
S3[ e _{3} ], in which [ e _{3} 1 is found to be identical
to matrix [T _{2}_{3} 1 in Eq. 42. "Correct" Tangent Sliffn e s s fo r Us e in Large tnepia ce ments Analys i s.
For any rnathernatically
vergence can be expected
As noted previously,
which is used is exact
idealized structure,
the most reliable
and rapid con
by a Newton type of method if the tangent stiffness
for the idealized structure.
a
common assumptíon in the analysís of finite element systems is that the mem
ber actíon deformation relationship of Eqs. 21 and 23 can be linearized as
,
.
. ' \
" : ' \ ~. : \! ' . :
"

11
_{2}_{7}_{0}_{0}
{SA}
\' J1
[k1l {VA } = i.J
o
D e c e mber, 1969
< a i > T
s , < a i > JJlp . { V A }
_{S}_{T} _{1}_{2}
.
(51)
If this as s um p tion
id e a li za tion .
Eq s . 26 and 27 is
is m a d e , it b e c o m e s
an int e g r a l
It follows imm e diat e l y
that th e m em ber
part of th e math e m a tical
tan ge nt s tiffn e s s ,
from
_{{}_{d}_{S}_{}} _{=} _{[}_{t} _{1} _{1} _{{}_{d}_{i}_{'}_{}}
~t' < ai> T
t t , < a i> Ld p . {d d
_{(}
_{5}_{2}_{)}
T h a t is, th e "i nitial
tion a l contr i bution to th e s tructur e
s t i f f n e ss. If a more e l a b o r a te f o rm of the t a n ge n t stiff n e ss i s us e d , it w iU
a c tu a lly
s t rain "
s tiffn ess
i s impli c itl y ta n g e nt stiff n e s s
i g nor e d ,
a nd the onl y a dd í 
must b e t he " g e om e tric"
b e l e s s e xact , an d m ay b e e x p e cted
to l e a d to less rapid conv e r g e nce.
DIRECT FORMULATION
In the p r e c e ding
th e o r y ,
mem be r d e f ormations
a r e
in o rd e r
w e re d e l i b e rately s e p a rated
to dev e l o p a g e ne r al
f r o m m e m b e r ri g id bod y di s pla c em e nt s , p e r m itti n g l a r g e rigid b o d y rotations.
th e memb e r ri g id bod y r o t a t í ons
line a r r e l a ti o nships
di s placement s c an b e writt e n as
th e ory
n
If the [ oint displa ce m e n ts known no t t o be lar g e,
are su ch that th e n dir ec t
and joint
o n
b e t w e en th e dif fe rential
e l e ment d e formations
Ei = < f[ i > {r} + ~ {r} T <h _{i} > T « l t ;» {r}
(
53)
for w hich appropriate
for the s ec ant and tan g ent stiffness e s
be d e riv e d , b y the sam e m e thods a nd with simil a r form as Eqs . 23 and 27 .
m a tr ic es
<f[ i? a nd « h ;» c an b e det e rmin e d .
E x pr es
sions c an now
dir e ctly in structur e coordinat e s
If the jo i nt displa ce m e nt s
are n o t m oderat e ly
s mall, how e v e r,
s hip repr es e nt e d
b y Eq . 5 3 ma y n o t be suffi c i e ntl y
ac c ur a t e .
th e r e l a tion
In th í s c ase,
e ith e r hi g h e r order t e r ms must b e i nc lud e d in E q . 5 3 or th e th e or y o f the
previous
dir e ct formul a tion do e s not requir e s ubstantiall y
the
s e ctions
must b e applied.
Ev e n if Eq. 5 3 is suffi c i e ntl y
accur a t e,
l e ss co mputational
o r c om
puter codin g e ffort to appl y than th e indirect formulation. 

formulation 
th at th e "initial 
s train" Fu rth e r , th e indi r ect an d th e " ge om e tric" 

nonlinear 
ha s the advanta g e e ff ec ts ar e distinctl y s e p a rat e d, so th a t the "i niti a l 
strain " 
e ff e ct 

ca n b e ignor e d if the initial a ssum p tions th e indir e ct formulation should be pref e rabl e requir e 
it. It appe a r s , 
therefor e, 
that 

in a ll cases . 
CONC LUS10NS
In this p a p e r the thr ee
major sourc e s of nonlin e arity hav e b e en d i sti n guish e d ,
undergoin g l a r g e displa ce ments
in e lastic structures a nd the esse ntial
e quations of the probl e m have b ee n stated. It has been shown that th e non
linearity of th e s tructure
r e lating m e mber deform a tions to joint displ ace ments, from th e ne ce ssity of
results from the nonlin e arity of th e transform a tions
.
f!!,
~ _{1}_{.}_{'}
{ .
~.
~
, .
?r
:
'
\
formulatin g 
th e joint e quilibrium e quations in the displac e d confi g uration 
of 

the structure, 
and from th e nonlin e ar actiond e formation 
r e l a tionship s of the 
structural m e mbers . Th e nonlineariti es
orginatin g within th e structural m e rn
^{2}^{7}^{0}^{1}
re latin g diff e rential
ha s
ST 12
bers r e s ult
e l e m e nt d e formati o n s to m e m b e r defor ma tions, and f r o m th e n e c e s s ity o f
f ormul a tin g th e me mb e r e quilibrium e qu a ti o n s in th e d e f o r m ed co n f i g ur a tion s
o f th e me mbers. Th e nonlin e arit y
b ee n t e rm e d the m em b e rs
t h e " geom e tri c "
NONLINEAR ELAST'IC STRUCTURE S
th e n o nlin e ar
t r ans form a ti o n s
in turn f r om
whi c h o ri g inates wi thi n the mem b e rs
th e " ini t i a l
s train "
e f f ec t h e r e in, an d th a t w h ic h ori g i nates
e ff ec t .
outsid e
ha s b ee n t e rm e d
E x pr e ss ions
f or th e secant a nd tan ge nt s t iff ne ss es o f m e mb e r s
a nd stru c 
tnr e s h a v e b ee n pr e s e nt e d
e lem e nt sys tems o f a v a riel y
t an ge nt s tiffn ess e s
in a corn pa c t I o r m , whi c h c a n be ex t e nd e d to finit e
o f ty p e s. Th e i m porta n ce
oí se lectin g co nsist e nt
b y m e t ho d s
o f N e wt on t y pe ha s b ee n e mph a 
f o r s oluti o n s
siz e d, an d it h a s b ee n shown t h a t th e "i ni ti a l
str a in"
er f c ct
ma y h a v e to b e
a s oluti o n . Consid e r
abl e w ork r e mai ns t o b e carri e d o ut to s e l e c t e f f i cien t comp utation a l a l g o rithm s a nd to d e t e rmin e th e r e lati v e imp o rtan c e of th e diff e r e nt t y pes o f non linearit y .
i g nor Of e d co . ur se , a sta t e men t
o í th e o r y do e s n o t co n s titut e
AP PEND N.R E FERENCE S
I. Ar gy ri s , J . H., K e l s ey , S . , an d K a me l , H
"
M a t r ix
Me th o d s i n S tru c tural
A n a l y s i s . " Agard o 
g
r a ph 72 , P e rga m o n Pr es s , New Y o rk, 1 96 4, pp . 1  1 64 .
2. Co nn o r , J . J ., L og c h e r . R . D . , a nd C h a n. S . c., "No nlinea r
A n a l y si s o f El astic Fr a m e d Stru c 
urr es. " .I o urnal o/ l h e S tructura l
pp . 1 52 5  1 5 48.
õi v i s i o n , ASCE. Vo l . 9 4, No. ST6, Pr oc. P a p er 60 11 , June 1 968 ,
No nlin e ar T wo Di m en sio n a l
3 . F e lipp a, C . A ., "R e fin e d
Fin i t e E l e m e nl A n a l ys i s o f Lin ea r a nd
Stru r. tur es, " SES M R e p o r/66 22. U ni ve rsity o f C a l i f o rnia, B e r keley, 1966.
4 _ M a lle u , R . H . , a n d M a r ca l, P . V ., " Fi n i te El em e n t Ana l y sis o f N o nl i n ea r Stru c tur e s . " .Iourn a l 01 ih e S tr u c t u ra ! Di vis i o n , A SCE , V o l. 94 , No. ST 9, Pr o c . P a p e r 6 11 5, S e pL. 1 968 , pp . 2 0 8 1  210 5 .
5 . M a rtin , H _ c. , "O n lhe Derivat io n o f S tiffnes s M a tri c e s for th e A n a l ys i s of L a r g e D e flection a n d
S t a bility Probl e rn s , " Pr ucee d i n gs . Co nf e ren ce
Wright P a tters o n A ir Fo rce Ba se, O h i o , Oct ober , 1 9 6 5, pp . 6 97  7 1 6 .
o
n M a trix
M et h o d s
in St r u c tur a l Mech a ni cs ,
6. T urn e r , M . J ., M a rt in , 11 .c. , a n d W ei k e l, R . C
"Further
D e v e l o pm e nt an d A ppl i c a tion o f th e
S t i ffn e s s Meth od. " Aga rd o gr a ph 7 2 . P c r ga m o n Pr e ss. New Y o r k , 1 96 4 , pp. 203  26 6.
^{~}
. ~~
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