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Fundamental Principles of Management
5.2.1 Concept of management
5.2.2 Evolution of management thought
5.2.3 Managerial levels and skills
Importance of Plantation Management
5.3.1 Plantation management 0 unique profebsion
5.3.2 Role of management principles in plantations
5.3.3 Importance of plantation management principles
Functions of Management
5.4.1 Planning
5.4.2 Organising
5.4.3 Staffing
5.4.4 Leading
5.4.5 Controlling
Plantation Management in the Global Perspective
Let Us Sum Up
Check Your Progress: Possible Answers
Suggested Readings

After studyi~lgth is unit, you should be able to:
define the concepts in plantation management;
describe the qualities and skills required for managers at different levels;
identify the management principles and their importance in plantation
identify the functions of a manager; and
apply professionalism in managing plantation activities with suitable
principles of management.
In the previous block, comprising an overview of plantation sector, you have
,learned the fundamentals of plantation industry. Do you know what
management is? Why and how a separate discipline called Management did
evolve? And why does the present plantation industry require sound knowledge
on the concepts of management? This unit will introduce you with the concept
of management, the evolution of management thought, the levels of
management and skills required for managers at different levels. It also tells
you about the role and importance of plantation principles, the functions of a
manager and the challenges for managers in the plantation sector.

èefore reading this unit, please visit a nearby plantation office and
observe the activities of the plantation managers related to
management of estate or garden.
The word 'management' you would have heard and used very frequently;
haven't you? Then what does it mean? Different authors define management
in different ways. Some say it is nothing but decision making. Another author
defined it as the art of getting things done through others. Koontz defined
management as "the process of defining and maintaining an environment in
which individuals, working together in groups, efficiently accomplish selected
aims". F.W.Taylor defined management as knowing exactly what you want
rnen to do and then seeing that they do it in the best and cheapest )*+'"To
manage is to forecast, to plan, to organize, to command, to coordinate and
control" is the definition given by Henry Fayol.

In this section, you will study meaning and definition of management and
clualities a& skills required for managers and the evolution of management
We may define the meaning of management in a simple way. "Management is
a problem solving process of effectively achieving the organizational goal
through the efficient use of scarce resources in a changing environment". If
you look at the definition, you will find some key words and characteristics
that require further explanation and the concept of management will be clear
to you.^

Firstly, management is a 'problem solving process' £ Problem here refers

to any issues that need to be sorted out with correct decisions. Every day
manager wili face many problems. The problems may be related to
labours, customers, suppliers, legal, andor social etc.
Secondly, 'achieving organizational goal effectivelly' £ Every organization
will have goals or targets both long term and short term. It could be on
profit, sales, customer satisfaction, recruitment, labour turnover, etc.
Achieving these goals effectively is not easy. Do you know why? If you
have 100 people working under you, all of them will also have their
goals and these goals differ from person to person. Therefore, it is the
managers' job to integrate the individual goals with the organization's
goal and ensure that tne ultimate goal of the organization is achieved.
j Thirdly, 'efficient use of scarce resources': The resources for manager
includes, people, money, equipment, material, time, etc. These resources
are very limited. Using these limited resources as inputs oae sl~ouldk now
how to achieve the maximum output.
Finally, an important point you need to remember is that for better management,
you should consider the environment under which your organization functions.
Environment includes labour, customers, technology, government, e conomical
and political. This environment keeps on changing. An approach you have
adopted to satisfy your customer today may not be accepted by the same
customer tomorrow. Therefore, manager needs to keep the same pace of speed
as that of the environment.
If you try to relate these concepts to plantation activities, you can understand
the meaning of plantation management. In a simple way, decision making on
activities related to plantation can be defined as plantation manag ement. You
may not have common views on what plantation management precisely is,
and what are managerial functions in plantation management. èut in general,
we can defjni. plantation managemeni as
unique continuous process (group
of inter-related and integrated activities) involving plant growth, pest, disease
and nutrient management, irrigation, weeding, pre and post harvest activities,
labour management, office administration, collection and marketing of
plantation produce etc., by utilizing the limited available resources through a
set of managerial functions in order to accomplish set plantation goals or
objectives, e.g. increasing the productivity of plantation employee; customer
satisfaction performed with and through people in an ever changing and distinct
plantation environment.
You can understand from the above definition that plantation management has
the following characteristics:
It has a set of activities,
It is a continuous process throughout the year,
It is unique process or activity and has specific goals,
Co-ordination of people and scarce resource is the central point of
plantation management,
It is an art of getting things done through people and plantation resources
i.e. it is a socio-economic process,
It follows planning-action-control-feedback system of operations,
Plantation management role is performed by the managers or executives
or supervisors, and
Plantation manageme~~ist a special field of study having a professional
Having understood the concept of management, now let us see how the
discipline management has emerged.
(( &!!!"%##$%-.!$.
The concept of management is originated as a result of World War I and World
War 11. The result of these wars was destruction of lot of resources in general
and military materials in particular. So resources were made very scarce. People
started thinking of making optimum use of available resources. This led to the
need for professional thinking in resource allocation and utilization. The
scientific and technological developments, industrial revolutions, competitions
 !"##! etc., has added the need for management discipline and made it more
Plantation sector is not an exception to the application of management
discipline. Therefore, you need to know the early contribution to the field of
management in the form of principles and theories by different authors.
The management thought in the current economic situation can best be
understood in the light of its historical growth particularly since 1900. There
were different phases for the evolution of management thought. These can be
classified into three: as Classical Theory, Neo-Classical Theory and Modern
Theory. For understanding of these theories and principles it is more appropriate 
to divide it as per the different schools of thought. They are a) scientific
approach, b) administrative approach, and c) behavioural approach.
#/" !#.
F.W.Taylor, Frank Gilbreth, Lillian Gilbreth, Gantt and others launched what
they called scientific management. According to these experts it was not proper
to just find a way of doing something. A manager had to find the one right
way. They used time and motion study for developing a right way. Among all,
F.W.Taylor (1856 0 1915) eventually acclaimed as the 'Father of Scientific
Management'. Some of the basic features of Taylor's contribution to scientific
management are:
Separation of planning function from doing function. He said planning
function to be given to managers and doing to the workers,
Scientific selection and training of workers,
Time and motion studies to determine standard of work,
Differential piece wage rate system. That is wage based on output by a
Functional foremanship. That is labours should be allotted to the
supervisor based on his specialization, and
Standardization of methods, procedures, tools and equipment.
The five basic principles contributed by F.W.Taylor are:
Replacing the rule of thumb with science. For instance, if you want to
put fertilizer to your crops, the scientific method should be soil testing,
and deciding about the type of fertilizer, quantity and time. It is not based
on trial and error method.
Harmony in group action rather than discord.
Cooperation rather than chaotic individualism.
Working for maximum output rather than restricted output.
The development of each individual to his greatest efficiency and
á/ ,% #& !#.
Henri Fayol, a French industrialist is considered as the father of modern theory
of general and industrial management. He divided the industrial management
activities into six groups and contributed fourteen principles to management.
Following are the six activities:
Technical activities 0 method of doing work.
Commercial activities 0 buying and selling.
Financial activities 0 use of capital.
Security 0 protection for property and persons.
Accounting activities 0 statistics and records.
Managerial activities -planning, organizing, command, coordination and
These six functions had to be performed to operate successfully any kind of
organization. There is no doubt that Fayol established the pattern upon which
our modern concepts of management are built.
In 19 16, Henri Fayol in his book described 14 management principles. These
principles constitute the theory of management or administration of business
enterprises. They are enumerated below briefly.
i) Division of work: Specialization alone can give maximum productivity
and efficiency.
ii) Authority and responsibility: Authority is the power in the position and
the right to give orders, responsibility is the obligation to perfom. He
said there should be parity between authority and responsibility.
iii) Discipline: The objectives, rules and regulations, the policies and
procedures must be honoured by each member of the organization.
iv) Unity of command: In order to avoid any possible confusion and conflict,
each member of an organization must receive orders and instruction only
from one superior or boss.
v) Unity of direction: All members of an organization must work together
to accomplish common goals.
vi) Subordination of individual interest to general interest: Common interest
of the organization is given priority and not the individual interest.
vii) Remuneration: Fair pay to the labours is the best motivator.
viii) Centralization: Power to take decision must be decentralized. Extreme
decentralization or centralization must be avoided.
ix) Scalar chain: Hierarchy of command linking all members from top to
å Order: Proper system alone can create a sound organization. Disorder
leads to chaos and confusion.
xi) Equity: Justice and kindness must be given to everyone.
xii) Stability of tenure: Employees must be given job security and sufficient
time to adjust with new work.
xiii) Initiative: Creative thinking and capacity to take initiative can give as
sound managerial planning.
xiv) Esprit de corps: It means unity is strength.
/.#&!# !#.
èehavioural or human relations approach is built on the base of classical theory.
It pointed out the role of psychology and sociology in the understanding of
individual as well as group behaviour. It advocates the importance of human
values in business. Among those who contributed to behavioural approach,
the contribution made by Elton Mayo and his associates found to be more
appropriate and interesting. Mayo and his associates conducted a famous study
in General Electric Company at Hawthorne between 1927 and 1932. èased on
their study to find out the reasons for low productivity, they formulated
following principles.
To meet the socio-psychological need workers form informal groups.
This influence their group conduct and behaviour.
Mental attitudes and emotions influence considerably employees'
Freedom at work to take decision will develop sense of belongingness.
Human and social motivation can play even a greater role than monitory
(0##$#& #, 1 
The management of a large organization may have different levels. The
functions, skills and qualities required by the managers vary with the levels of
management. First let us discuss about the levels of management.
÷  j  

The levels of management can be broadly divided into three. They are toplevel
management, middle-level management and low-level management such
as supervisors.
0 Require an extensive knowledge of management roles and skills.
0 They have to be very aware of external factors such as markets.
0 Their decisions are generally of a long-term nature.
0 Their decisions are made using analytic, directive, conceptual and,
or behavioraYparticipative processes.
0 They are responsible for strategic decisions.
0 They have to chalk out the plan and see that plan may be effective in
the future.
0 They are executive in nature.
0 Mid-level managers have a specialized understanding of certain
managerial tasks.
0 They are responsible for carrying out the decisions made by toplevel
/ !)2&%##$% %!##,
0 This level of management ensures that the decisions and plans taken
by the other two are carried out.
0 Lower-level managers' decisions are generally short-term ones.
To be an effective manager, it is necessary to possess many skills. Different
levels of management in the organizational structure also require different
types of management skills. Generally, managers need to have communication
skills, human skills, computer skills, time-management skills, and technical
   Communication skills fall into the broad categories of
oral and written skills, both of which managers use in many different ways. It
is necessary for a manager to orally explain processes and give direction to
workers. It is also necessary for managers to give verbal praise to workers.
Managers are also expected to conduct meetings and give talks to groups of
people. They should be good listeners also. Managers are expected to listen to
their supervisors and to their workers. manager who doesn't listen is not a
good communicator. Managers are also expected to write reports, letters,
memos, and policy statements. Managers must write clearly and concisely.
Good writing requires good grammar and composition skills.
ü    Relating to other people is vital in order to be a good manager.
Workers come in about every temperament that can be imagined. It takes a
manager with the right human skills to manage this variety of workers
effectively. Diversity in the workplace is commonplace. The manager must
understand different personality types and cultures to be able to supervise these
   It is necessary for managers to have computer skills in order
to keep up with the rapid changes. Many of the processes that occur in offices,
manufacturing plants, warehouses, and other work environments depend on
computers and thus necessitate managers and workers who can skillfully use
the technology.
  èecause the typical manager is a very busy person,
it is important that time be managed effectively. This requires an understanding
of how to allocate time to different projects and activities. Good timemanagement
skills can be learned, but managers must be willing to prioritize
activities, delegate, deal with interruptions, organize work, and perform other
acts that will make them better managers.
    Different from computer skills, technical skills are more
closely related to the tasks that are performed by workers. manager must
know, what the workers who are being supervised are doing on their jobs or
assistance cannot be provided to them. For example, a manager who is
supervising accountant's needs to know the accounting process es; a manager
who is supervising a marketing of agricultural commodities must know the
marketing practices and a manager who supervises the estate must be familiar
with the activities related to plantation.

!*a) Use the space below for writing your answers.
b) Compare your answers with those given at the end of the unit.
1) Define plantation management.

2) Give at least two principles of F.W. Taylor and Henry Fayol.


Plantation management principles are the vital part of plantation management.
Success of plantation organization depends on effective management of
plantation workers and other plantation resources. Gradual increase in overall
productivity in plantation operations is the key to the development and
prosperity of plantation business in the competitive commodity trade. Only
effective application of plantation management principles can provide gradual
growth in productivity of all pl antation resources. The quality of plantation
management will depend on the utilization of its principles in practice.
Plantation industry is a unique profession which requires application of
management principles. The role of management principles and their
importance in~lantationm anagement are discussed in this section.
0##!%##$%0 4!" !
Plantation manage&ent mostly has the character of social science, which reflects
the main charactedstics of a body of knowledge on pla ntation management.
Plantation manager is a creative personality in-charge of preparing the blend
of resources, processing plantation activities and achieving the plantation goals
and objectives which was set by top management. It also requires a professional
character demanding specialized knowledge, experience and competence in
Modem plantation management proposes system based contingency approach %!##,
to plantation organizations due to fundamental changes in the plantation !!"##$%
business environment. This business environment can be classified into two
separate entities which are called as Internal èusiness Environment and External
èusiness Environment. Organization structure, plantation processes and
technology adopted in the estate or garden are considered in the internal
environmental forces. Social, economic, technological, legal and political
factors are considered in the external environment. Principles, theories and
concepts of plantation management are highly influenced by internal and
external environment of the plantation organisation. Situation circumstances
and environmental factors determine appropriate techniques of plantation
management. Hence, there are no universal principles for plantation
management. You must be open and adaptive to the managerial requirement
of plantation sector.
0( !!"%##$% ##! 
If you are a manager of a plantation field, your role and key responsibility will
be to prepare and implement the plantation organisation's plan to achieve the
set objectives and goals. èefore and during the managerial process, you will
need to ensure that there is a supportive environment for completing the required
work. To create this kind of supportive environment, you need a scientific,
systematic and professional plantation skills. The professional managerial skill
is acquired while you learn the fundamentals, principles and theories of
plantation management. It requires the following qualities in you:
a firm commitment to the work assigned,
a concern for the human element of subordinates,
a focus on problem solving to improve the works in the plantation field,
respect for staff and their abilities, and
a willingness to improve plantation processes.

You will also need to develop strategies for the organization, continually 
motivate people to support managerial process and market change.
The plantation management principles play a vital role in accomplishing the
above set goals, acquiring the required managerial skills and qualities for
plantation field. The management principles also help you to manage your
authority which enables you to specify and allow you to access the resources
that are required to accomplish your assigned tasks.
00 %!#!"##!%##$% 
At all levels of plantation organization teamwork is required for the sustainable
growth of the estate or garden.
Following characteristics tell you the importance of management principles in
Plantation management principles are the essential input for creating and
sustaining such good teams.
Plantation Management principles will help you to raise standards of
living to the plantation community. ¢
 !"##!It can offer value added life style to plantation labours and executives.
It helps the plantation managers for the smooth running of estate.
It is a source of powerful innovative thoughts.
It is the guide for our effective governance of plantation administration.
It can strengthen our viability of our plantation operations.
Experts of plantation development have pointed out that even the most modern
plantation technology, best input materials, plantation resources and plantation
facilities, liberal and cheap finance may not be able to achieve stated plantation
objectives (plantation productivity and quality of plantation working life)
without effective and efficient application of plantation management principles.
The greatest hurdle and the limiting factor for the plantation sector is the quality
of plantation management. Professional and Competent managerial personnel,
who are really required for the development and recovery of plantation sector,
are molded with these fundamental plantation management principles.
It may be argued that plantation management represents a relatively small
segment of specialized study in management education. èut India's plantation
sector plays a key role in the national economy. It employs nearly two million
people. India is the largest producer of tea in the world. We are the fourth
largest producer of natural rubber, and the sixth largest in coffee.
Notwithstanding to the above unpleasant fact that the average cost of production
of a kilogram of tea is the highest in India compared to those in other countries
has to be addressed. The case of faulty, improper or inadequate soil management
leading to poor productivity in coconut plantations is perhaps similar. Such
issues can be resolved with these plantation management principles also.
Widening of the global market and the simultaneous enhancement of production
and cost efficiency have to be systematically planned and implemented in view
of the potential for generating high income. Plantation operations have to be
linked to marketing possibilities. It needs modernization of the plantation sector
through professional plantation management education. The plantation
management principles will provide new techniques for effective handling of
managerial and operational issues in the plantation sector. It also optimizes
the full range of environmental, economic and social benefits to the plantation
community. The plantation sector in our region has experienced substantial
growth in the recent times. èut it requires professional plantation managers
with substantial knowledge and skill in plantation management principles.

.13!!$ (
!*a) Use the space below for writing your answers.
b) Compare your answers with those given at the end of the unit.
1) Mention at least two important roles of plantation management.

Write two factors which make plantation management important to

managers. 1
The functions of management provide a useful structure for organizing
plantation management activities. The functions of management can be
classified as planning, organizing, staffing, leading, and controlling. Each
fundamental function of management is influenced by innovation, decisionmaking
and co-ordination.
! !"%##$%

#$$#6$#""+$ #,$
Let us discuss briefly all the functions of management in detail.
| ^ ¢ #$
Planning involves selecting goals and objectives of your activity and setting
the action plans to achieve them which require decision making. The planning
bridges the gap from where you are to where you want to reac h. èefore the
commencement of the work, you should have a proper plan as to, What is to be
done?, where, when and how it has to be done. Following are some of the
specific characteristics of planning:
Planning function acts as the foundation for all other functions. For
instance when you want to recruit labours, you should first plan as to
how many and what kind of labours you require.
Planning exists in all levels of management. It is not only the function of
top-level management, but also people at the bottom level.
The type of planning may vary according to the time span. It may be long
term, medium term or short term planning. Top-level managers normally
do long term planning.
Planning and controlling functions are inseparable. If you want to control
your plantation activities, you should first plan the activities.
The different types of plans are, purpose, objectives, strategies, policies,
procedures, rules, budgets, etc.
Failing to plan is as good as planning to fail.
 !"##!Planning process undergoes various steps. The step by step process of
##$%is listed below:

 èeing aware of opportunities: in light of technology, market, labour etc.

 Setting objectives or goals: where we want to be and when.

Considering planning premises: the environment in which our plans

Identifying alternatives to accomplish our objectives.
Comparing alternatives in light of goals sought.
Choosing of best alternative.
Formulating supporting plans.
Numberizing plans by making budgets.
The planning function is performed by the manager in the plantation field
also. He has to plan about number and kind of labour required, wage plan,
harvesting methods and post harvesting methods, etc. It also deals with se tting
of goals or objectives for commodity profit realization, prescribing action plan
for it; on the basis of your past and present knowledge, policies, programmes,
schedules, procedures, budgets etc., of all planned work. Modify your plans in
the light of results and changes in the plantation business environment.
| ^  $# $
Organising is identifying the various activities required for the attainment of
goals, and grouping of these activities, delegation of power to various positions
to carry out the work and making provision for coordination and control. The
main features of the organising function are:
It helps in bringing out clear organisation structure
The reporting relationship among the members of organisation is made
The duties and responsibilities of every individual in the organisation are
clarified, and
The grouping of activities results in to departmentation.
Plantation is the sector which has high number of human employment. That is
most of the plantation activities are accomplished by human resource. Hence,
the harmony of human efforts towards the achievement of plantation activity
is the key for successful plantation management. This functional part of the
management is called as Organising. This function defines the roles of people
in the plantation organisation and connects them in a systematic way to produce
maximum results. This organising process channelises and structures human
efforts to make sure that people contribute in a specific way to group effort.
The concept of a "role" implies what people do in the plantation.
This can be understood in a simple example of rubber sheet making. Everyone
could do anything one wanted to do but it would be more effective if people
divide the work among them as one person for collecting the milk, another for
mixing formic acid, another to look after coagulation, another for rolling of
sheets, another for washing and so on.
So, organising in plantation involves structuring of roles for people for making %!##,
sure that all the tasks necessary to accomplish goals are assigned to people !!"##$%
who can do those best. The purpose of an organisation structure is to help in
creating an environment for human performance and motivations of the people
in the plantation activity. It is a management tool in plantation functions. In
other words, it answers the questions like who is to do what? What is the
authority and under what conditions?
Staffing involves identifying the right people in order to fill the positio ns in
the organization structure which was created in the process of organising
function as discussed above. This is done by identifying the places from where
we can hire people, selecting them, deciding wage structure, giving proper
training, promoting, and appraising. Today identifying the right people for
rubber, tea or coffee plantations has become a major challenge.
55 #,$
Leading is the ability of the leaderlmanager to influence work force so that
they will contribute willingly and enthusiastically for the achievement of the
organizational goal. So, effective plantation managers also need to be effective
leaders. Always people tend to follow those who are satisfying their own needs,
wishes, and desires.
The Process of motivation of plantation work force depends on workers morale,
willingness to co-operative and the level of team spirit to achieve goals. Work
force participation in plantation management, proper communication to work
force, suitable plantation managerial style, financial and non-financial incentive
offered to the work force are some of the tools for best leadership and
motivation. It has to be seen in the light of control results.
As you are aware, plantation sector is highly people oriented. The success of
plantation management depends mainly on the ability of utilization of the human
resource. Hence, you need high level of leadership quality in order to attain
your plantation goal. Let us understand the concepts in leadership pertaining
to plantation. It is the ability to influence the people in connection with
plantation work relationship in which one person (the leader) influences others
(the led) in a given situation to work together on related plantation tasks to
achieve plantation goals as the leader desires.
In controlling, you have to follow-up the assigned work to the worker and
measure the performance of the work force. You also have to check that the
planned work is being properly carried out.'If not you have to apply proper
control measures in order to bring the desired results. For the effective
controlling function, you have to set performance standards against the plans
and measure the actual work performed in the planning period. Then, you
compare the performance standard and work performed. If you find any
deviation in it, then you take corrective actions in order to ensure that the work
is performed as per the plan. Effective controlling makes the realization of
your plans and maximum efficiency.

.13!!$ 0
!*a) Use the space below for writing your answers.
b) Compare your answers with those given at the end of the unit.

1) Name any three functions of plantation management.

 Discuss the steps in controlling process.

Please visit near by plantation office and collect what are the methods
used for effective management of plantation operations.
Inflation is stressing and straining the operation of plantation activity,
Investment in Research and Development will be necessary for the
survival of plantation sector,

¢ Growth of service economy and knowledge society, and  Greater concern for human
and social values.
 !"##! ""'
$# $
£ Achievement of the ends with the least amount
of resources or accomplishment of objectives
at the least cost or other unsought consequences.
£ A system of moral principles or values dealing
with moral judgment duty, and obligation; the
discipline concerned with what is good or bad,
right or wrong.
£ An informational input in a system transmitting
messages of system operation to indicate whether
the system is operating as planned; information
concerning any type of planned operation relayed
to the responsible person for evaluation.
##$%£ The process of designing and maintaining an
environment in which individuals work together
in groups to accomplish efficiently selected aims.
á & !!# £ The ends toward which activity is aimed- the
end points of planning.
#!  #.£ The application of scientific method in a
problem situation with a view to providing a
quantitative basis for arriving at an optimum
solution in terms of the goals sought.
$# #! £ A concept used in a way such as system of any
set of relationships in any kind of undertaking,
cooperation of two or more persons, or a group,
and the intentional structure of roles in a
formally organised enterprise.
£ Establishing an intentional structure of roles for
people to fill in an organisation.
£ Selecting missi'ons and objectives and the
strategies, policies, programmes and procedures
for achieving them; decision making; the selection
of a course of action from among alternatives.
£ Fundainental truths, or what are believed to be
truths at given time, explaining relationships
between two or more sets of variables, usually
an independent variable and a dependent variable;
may be descriptive, expl&ning what will happen,
or prescriptive (or normative), indicating what a
person should do: in the latter case, principles
reflect some scale of values, such as efficiency,
and therefor<, imply value judgments.
!,&'£ The output-input ratio within a time period with
due consideration for quality.
!# ! & £  The ability of an enterprise to relate policies and
operations to the environment that is beneficial
to both the organisation and the society.
#$'£ The determination of the purpose (or mission) and
the basic long-term objectives of an enterprise, and 
the adoption of courses of action and allocation of
ë resources necessary to achieve these aims.

83c *  9 
! !"##$%
¢ Definition: Plantation Management is a unique continuous process (group
of inter-related and integrated activities) involving plant growth, pest, ¢
disease and nutrient maintenance, irrigation, weeding, pre and post harvest
activities, labour management, office administration, assembling and
marketing of plantation produce etc., by utilizing the available resources
through a set of managerial functions in order to accomplish set plantation
goals or objectives.
2) F.W.Taylor's Principles of Scientific Management:
Dividing the planning function and doing function
Scientific selection and training of workers
Henry Fayol's Principles of Management
Esprit de corps

.13!!$ (
1) The Plantation management principles play a vital role in accomplishing
the set goals of the organisation, acquiring the required managerial skills
and qualities for plantation field.
The Plantation management principles also help you to manage the
authorization of work, which enables you to specify and allow you to
access the resources that are required to accomplish your assigned tasks.
2) Plantation Management will raise standards of living to the plantation
community and can offer value added life style to plantation labours and
It helps the plantation managers for the smooth running of estate or garden.
It is a source of powerful innovative thoughts.

.13!!$ 0
I) Planning, Organising, Staffing, etc.
2) Set performance standards, plans and measures the actual work performed
and compare the performance standard and work performed.
èurton, Gene and Manab .#1- (2007) "Mamgement Today 0 Principles
and Practice  1" Edition, Tata McGraw Hill.
Govindarajan, M. and S. Natarajan, (2007) "Principles of Management",lst
Edition, Prentice-Hall of India.
Tripathy, P.C. and P.N. Reddy, (2006) "Principles of Management", 0,
Edition, Tata Mc Graw Hill.
Koontz, Harold and èeizz Weihrich, (2007) "Essentials of Management, ù
Edition, Tata Mc Graw Hill.
Weihrich, Heinz and Harold Koontz, (2004) "Management 0 mGlobal
Perspective  1 1 .Edition, McGraw- hill.