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ABDURRAHMAN WAHID (GUSDUR)

Abdurrahman Wahid, Born Abdurrahman Ad-Dakhil 7 September 1940 – 30 December


2009), Colloquially Known As About This Sound Gus Dur (Help•info), Was An Indonesian
Muslim Religious And Political Leader Who Served As The President Of Indonesia From 1999
To 2001. The Long-Time President Of The Nahdlatul Ulama And The Founder Of The National
Awakening Party (PKB), Wahid Was The First Elected President Of Indonesia After The
Resignation Of Suharto In 1998.
His Popular Nickname Katak Gus Dur, Is Derived From Katak Meaning Frog,Gus, A
Common Honorific For A Son Of Kyai, From Short-Form Of Bagus (‘Handsome Frog’ In
Javanese Language And Dur, Short-Form Of His Name, Abdurrahman.
Abdurrahman Ad-Dakhil Wahid Was Born On The Fourth Day Of The Eighth Month Of
The Islamic Calendar In 1940 In Jombang, East Java To Abdul Wahid Hasyim And Siti
Solichah. This Led To A Belief That He Was Born On 4 August; Instead, Using The Islamic
Calendar To Mark His Birth Date Meant That He Was Actually Born On 4 Sha’aban, Equivalent
To 7 September 1940.
He Was Named After Abd Ar-Rahman I Of The Umayyad Caliphate Who Brought Islam
To Spain And Was Thus Nicknamed “Ad-Dakhil” (“The Conqueror”). His Name Is Stylized In
The Traditional Arabic Naming System As “Abdurrahman, Son Of Wahid”. His Family Is
Javanese Of Mixed Chinese-Arabic Origins With Some Native Blood. From His Paternal Line,
He Is Descended From A Well-Known Moslem Missionary From China Known As Syekh
Abdul Qadir Tan Kiem Han Who Was A Disciple Of Sunan Ngampel-Denta (Raden Rahmat
Bong Swie Hoo) – One Of The Nine Wali (Holy Islamic Saints) Who Became One Of The First
Islamic Kings On Java Who Islamicized Java In The 15-16th Centuries
He Was The Oldest Of His Five Siblings, And Was Born Into A Very Prestigious Family
In The East Java Muslim Community. His Paternal Grandfather, Hasyim Asy’ari Was The
Founder Of Nahdlatul Ulama (NU) While His Maternal Grandfather, Bisri Syansuri Was The
First Muslim Educator To Introduce Classes For Women. Wahid’s Father, Wahid Hasyim, Was
Involved In The Nationalist Movement And Would Go On To Be Indonesia’s First Minister Of
Religious Affairs.
In 1944, Wahid Moved From Jombang To Jakarta Where His Father Was Involved With
The Consultative Council Of Indonesian Muslims (Masyumi), An Organization Established By
The Imperial Japanese Army Which Occupied Indonesia At The Time. After The Indonesian
Declaration Of Independence On 17 August 1945, Wahid Moved Back To Jombang And
Remained There During The Fight For Independence From The Netherlands During The
Indonesian National Revolution. At The End Of The War In 1949, Wahid Moved To Jakarta As
His Father Had Been Appointed Minister Of Religious Affairs. He Was Educated In Jakarta,
Going To KRIS Primary School Before Moving To Matraman Perwari Primary School. Wahid
Was Also Encouraged To Read Non-Muslim Books, Magazines, And Newspapers By His Father
To Further Broaden His Horizons.He Stayed In Jakarta With His Family Even After His Father’s
Removal As Minister Of Religious Affairs In 1952. In April 1953, Wahid’s Father Died After
Being Involved In A Car Crash.
In 1954, Wahid Began Junior High School. That Year, He Failed To Graduate To The
Next Year And Was Forced To Repeat. His Mother Then Made The Decision To Send Him To
Yogyakarta To Continue His Education. In 1957, After Graduating From Junior High School, He
Moved To Magelang To Begin Muslim Education At Tegalrejo Pesantren (Muslim School). He
Completed The Pesantren Course In Two Years Instead Of The Usual Four. In 1959, He Moved
Back To Jombang To Pesantren Tambakberas. There, While Continuing His Own Education,
Wahid Also Received His First Job As A Teacher And Later On As Headmaster Of A Madrasah
Affiliated With The Pesantren. Wahid Also Found Employment As A Journalist For Magazines
Such As Horizon And Majalah Budaya Jaya.
Wahid Returned To Jakarta Expecting That In A Year’s Time, He Would Be Abroad
Again To Study At McGill University In Canada. He Kept Himself Busy By Joining The
Institute For Economic And Social Research, Education And Information (LP3ES),An
Organization Which Consisted Of Intellectuals With Progressive Muslims And Social-
Democratic Views. LP3ES Established The Magazine Prisma And Wahid Became One Of The
Main Contributors To The Magazine. Whilst Working As A Contributor For LP3ES, He Also
Conducted Tours To Pesantren And Madrasah Across Java. It Was A Time When Pesantren
Were Desperate To Gain State Funding By Adopting State-Endorsed Curricula And Wahid Was
Concerned That The Traditional Values Of The Pesantren Were Being Damaged Because Of
This Change. He Was Also Concerned With The Poverty Of The PesantrenWhich He Saw
During His Tours. At The Same Time As It Was Encouraging Pesantren To Adopt State-
Endorsed Curricula, The Government Was Also Encouraging Pesantren As Agents For Change
And To Help Assist The Government In The Economic Development Of Indonesia. It Was At
This Time That Wahid Finally Decided To Drop Plans For Overseas Studies In Favor Of
Promoting The Development Of The Pesantren.
Wahid Continued His Career As A Journalist, Writing For The Magazine Tempo And
Kompas, A Leading Indonesian Newspaper. His Articles Were Well Received, And He Began
To Develop A Reputation As A Social Commentator. Wahid’s Popularity Was Such That At
This Time He Was Invited To Give Lectures And Seminars, Obliging Him To Travel Back And
Forth Between Jakarta And Jombang, Where He Now Lived With His Family.
Despite Having A Successful Career Up To That Point, Wahid Still Found It Hard To
Make Ends Meet, And He Worked To Earn Extra Income By Selling Peanuts And Delivering Ice
To Be Used For His Wife’s Es Lilin(Popsicle) Business. In 1974, He Found Extra Employment
In Jombang As A Muslim Legal Studies Teacher At Pesantren Tambakberas And Soon
Developed A Good Reputation. A Year Later, Wahid Added To His Workload As A Teacher Of
Kitab Al-Hikam, A Classical Text Of Sufism.
In 1977, Wahid Joined The Hasyim Asyari University As Dean Of The Faculty Of
Islamic Beliefs And Practices. Again He Excelled In His Job And The University Wanted To
Him To Teach Extra Subjects Such As Pedagogy, Sharia, And Missiology. However, His
Excellence Caused Some Resentment From Within The Ranks Of University And He Was
Blocked From Teaching The Subjects. Whilst Undertaking All These Ventures He Also
Regularly Delivered Speeches During Ramadan To The Muslim Community In Jombang.
ABDURRAHMAN WAHID (GUSDUR)
Abdurrahman Wahid Lahir Abdurrahman Iklan-Dakhil 7 September 1940 – 30 Desember
2009), Bahasa Sehari-Hari Dikenal Sebagai Tentang Ini Suara Gus Dur (Help•info), Adalah
Indonesia Muslim Agama Dan Politik Pemimpin Yang Menjabat Sebagai Presiden Republik
Indonesia Dari Tahun 1999 Hingga 2001. Presiden Nahdlatul Ulama Dan Pendiri
NasionalKebangkitan Partai (PKB), Wahid Adalah Sebagai Presiden PertamaIndonesia Setelah
Pengunduran Diri Soeharto Pada Tahun 1998.
Nya Populer Julukan Kopaska Gus Dur, Berasal Dari Kopaska Makna Katak, Gus,
Predikat Umum Untuk Anak Kyai, Dari Pendek-Bentuk Bagus(‘Tampan Kodok’ Dalam Bahasa
Jawa Dan Dur, Bentuk Pendek DariNamanya, Abdurrahman.
Iklan-Dakhil Abdurrahman Wahid Lahir Pada Hari Keempat Belas BulanKedelapan Dari
Kalender Islam Tahun 1940 Di Jombang, Jawa TimurAbdul Wahid Hasyim Dan Solichah. Hal
Ini Menyebabkan KeyakinanBahwa Ia Lahir Pada 4 Agustus; Sebaliknya, Menggunakan
Kalender IslamUntuk Menandai Tanggal Lahir Berarti Bahwa Ia Benar-Benar DilahirkanPada
Syakban 4, Setara Dengan 7 September 1940.
Ia Dinamai Abd Ar-Rahman I Dari Khilafah Bani Umayyah Yang MembawaIslam Ke
Spanyol Dan Dengan Demikian Dijuluki “Iklan-Dakhil” (“SangPenakluk”). Namanya Adalah
Bergaya Dalam Arab Tradisional SistemPenamaan “Abdurrahman, Putra Wahid”. Keluarganya
Adalah Jawa Cina-Arab Campuran Dengan Beberapa Darah Asli. Dari Garis Ayah, Ia
AdalahKeturunan Dari Misionaris Muslim Terkenal Dari Cina Yang DikenalSebagai Syekh
Abdul Qadir Tan Kiem Han Yang Adalah Seorang MuridDari Sunan Ngampel-Denta (Raden
Rahmat Bong Swie Hoo) – Salah SatuDari Sembilan Wali (Suci Umat Kudus Islam) Yang
Menjadi Salah Satu RajaIslam Pertama Di Jawa Yang Islamicized Jawa Di Abad 15-16
Dia Adalah Anak Tertua Dari Saudaranya Lima, Dan Dilahirkan DalamSebuah Keluarga
Yang Sangat Bergengsi Di Komunitas Muslim JawaTimur. Kakeknya, Hasyim Asyari Adalah
Pendiri Nahdlatul Ulama (NU), Sementara Kakek Dari Pihak Ibu, Bisri Syansuri, Adalah
Pendidik MuslimPertama Untuk Memperkenalkan Kelas Untuk Wanita. Ayah Wahid,
WahidHasyim, Terlibat Dalam Gerakan Nasionalis Dan Akan Terus MenjadiIndonesia Pertama
Menteri Agama.
Pada Tahun 1944, Wahid Pindah Dari Jombang Ke Jakarta Mana AyahnyaTerlibat
Dengan Penasehat Dewan Dari Muslim Indonesia (Masyumi),Sebuah Organisasi Yang Didirikan
Oleh Tentara Kekaisaran Jepang YangMenduduki Indonesia Saat Itu. Setelah Deklarasi
Kemerdekaan IndonesiaTanggal 17 Agustus 1945, Gus Dur Kembali Ke Jombang Dan Tetap Di
Sana Selama Perjuangan Untuk Kemerdekaan Dari Belanda SelamaRevolusi Nasional Indonesia.
Pada Akhir Perang Tahun 1949, WahidPindah Ke Jakarta Dan Ayahnya Pernah Ditunjuk
Sebagai Menteri Agama.Ia Dididik Di Jakarta, Pergi Ke SD KRIS Sebelum Pindah Ke SD
MatramanPerwari. Wahid Juga Diajarkan Membaca Buku Non-Muslim, Majalah, DanKoran
Oleh Ayahnya Untuk Memperluas Pengetahuannya. Ia Tinggal DiJakarta Dengan Keluarganya
Bahkan Setelah Penghapusan AyahnyaSebagai Menteri Agama Pada Tahun 1952. Pada April
1953, Ayah WahidMeninggal Setelah Terlibat Dalam Kecelakaan Mobil.
Pada Tahun 1954, Gus Dur Memulai SMP. Tahun Itu, Ia Tidak Naik TahunDepan Dan
Dipaksa Untuk Mengulangi. Ibunya Kemudian MembuatKeputusan Untuk Mengirimnya Ke
Yogyakarta Untuk MeneruskanPendidikannya. Pada Tahun 1957, Setelah Lulus Dari SMP, Ia
Pindah KeMagelang Untuk Memulai Muslim Pendidikan Di Tegalrejo Pesantren(Muslim
Sekolah). Ia Menyelesaikan Kursus Pesantren Dalam Dua TahunEmpat Biasa. Pada Tahun 1959,
Ia Pindah Kembali Ke Jombang KePesantren Tambakberas. Di Sana, Sementara Melanjutkan
PendidikannyaSendiri, Abdurrahman Wahid Juga Menerima Pekerjaan PertamanyaSebagai Guru
Dan Nantinya Sebagai Kepala Sekolah Madrasah BerafiliasiDengan Pesantren. Wahid Juga
Dipekerjakan Sebagai Wartawati UntukMajalah Seperti Horizon Dan Majalah Budaya Jaya.
Gus Dur Kembali Ke Jakarta Mengharapkan Bahwa Ia Akan Ke Luar NegeriLagi Untuk
Belajar Di Universitas McGill Di Kanada. Ia Membuat DirinyaSibuk Dengan Bergabung Ke
Lembaga Ekonomi Dan Penelitian Sosial,Pendidikan Dan Informasi (LP3ES) Organisasi Yg
Terdiri Dari Kaum Intelektual Muslim Progresif Dan Sosial Demokrat. LP3ES
MendirikanMajalah Prisma Dan Wahid Menjadi Salah Satu Kontributor UtamaMajalah
Tersebut. Selain Bekerja Sebagai Kontributor LP3ES, Ia JugaMelakukan Wisata Ke Pesantren
Dan Madrasah Di Seluruh Jawa. IniAdalah Waktu Ketika Pesantren Putus Asa Untuk
Mendapatkan DanaNegara Oleh Mengadopsi Kurikulum Pemerintah Dan Wahid PrihatinBahwa
Nilai-Nilai Tradisional Pesantren Yang Rusak Karena Perubahan Ini.Dia Adalah Juga Prihatin
Dengan Kemiskinan Pesantren Yang Ia Lihat.Pada Saat Yang Sama Ketika Mereka Membujuk
Pesantren MengadopsiKurikulum Pemerintah, Pemerintah Tidak Juga Membujuk
PesantrenSebagai Agen Perubahan Dan Membantu Pemerintah DalamPerkembangan Ekonomi
Indonesia. Itu Adalah Saat Ini Bahwa WahidAkhirnya Memutuskan Untuk Menjatuhkan
Rencana Untuk Belajar Di Luar Negeri Mendukung Mempromosikan Perkembangan Pesantren.
Abdurrahman Wahid Meneruskan Kariernya Sebagai Jurnalis, MenulisUntuk Majalah
Tempo Dan Kompas, Sebuah Koran Indonesia Yang Terkemuka. Artikel–Artikelnya Diterima
Dengan Baik, Dan Ia MulaiMengembangkan Reputasi Sebagai Komentator Sosial. Dengan
Popularitas Itu Pada Saat Ini Dia Diundang Untuk Memberikan Kuliah DanSeminar,
Mewajibkannya Untuk Perjalanan Bolak–Balik Antara Jakarta DanJombang, Tempat Ia
Sekarang Tinggal Bersama Keluarganya.
Meskipun Memiliki Karier Yang Sukses Sampai Saat Itu, Gusdur MasihMerasa Sulit
Untuk Membuat Memenuhi, Dan Ia Bekerja UntukMendapatkan Pendapatan Tambahan Dengan
Menjual Kacang DanMengantarkan Es Yang Digunakan Untuk Istrinya Es Lilin (Es Loli)
Bisnis.Pada Tahun 1974, Dia Mendapat Pekerjaan Tambahan Di JombangSebagai Guru Di
Pesantren Tambakberas Dan Segera MengembangkanReputasi Baik. Satu Tahun Kemudian
Wahid Menambah PekerjaannyaMenjadi Guru Kitab Al-Hikam, Teks Klasik Tasawuf.
Pada Tahun 1977, Gus Dur Bergabung Hasyim Asyari Universitas SebagaiDekan
Fakultas Keyakinan Islam Dan Praktek. Sekali Lagi Ia MengungguliPekerjaannya Dan
Universitas Ingin Agar Dia Mengajar Subyek TambahanSeperti Pedagogi, Syariat Islam Dan
Misiologi. Namun, KelebihannyaMenyebabkan Beberapa Ketidaksenangan Dari Sebagian
KalanganUniversitas Dan Ia Diblokir Dari Mengajar Mata Pelajaran. SementaraMenanggung
Semua Beban Tersebut, Ia Juga Berpidato SelamaRamadhan Komunitas Muslim Di Jombang.