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Feb 24, 2019

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Fluid Mechanics II

Review class

Important Note:

All topics from lecture 1 (Module 1 – Part 1 of 2) to the last

lecture (Module 4 – Part 4 of 4) will be covered in the final

examination.

Carleton University

Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering

Prof. Joana Rocha

Compressible Flow Classification and Pressure Waves

Mach Number and Flow Classification

Incompressible Flow Ma < 0.3 Subsonic incompressible flow:

𝜌 = 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑡 can be assumed

Compressible Flow Ma = 0.3 ~ 0.85 Subsonic compressible flow:

𝜌 ≠ 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑡 but there are no

shock waves yet

Ma = 0.85 ~ 1.10 Transonic flow: Mixture of

subsonic and supersonic flow

(first occurrence of shock waves)

Ma = 1.10 ~ 5 Supersonic flow: Dominated by

the presence of shock waves

Ma ≥ 5 Hypersonic flow: Dominated by

the presence of shock waves and

other phenomena (dissociation

of gas due to high temperatures,

chemical reactions, etc.)

Compressible Flow Classification and Pressure Waves

Pressure Waves – Moving Point Source (𝑉 > 𝑐)

When 𝑉/𝑐 > 1, the flow is supersonic and the pressure wave

pattern resembles the one shown here. A cone (Mach cone) that is

tangent to the pressure waves can be constructed to represent the

Mach wave that separates the zone of silence from the zone of

action.

The angle of this cone is,

Moving Point Source, 𝛼, is given by:

𝑉>𝑐

𝑐 1

sin 𝛼 = =

𝑉∞ Ma

This expression is valid for

𝑉/𝑐 > 1 only.

Compressible Flow Classification and Pressure Waves

Pressure Waves – Moving Point Source (𝑉 > 𝑐)

The concentration of pressure waves at the surface of the Mach

cone suggests a significant pressure variation, and thus density

variation, across the cone surface.

𝑉>𝑐

Compressible Flow Classification and Pressure Waves

EXAMPLE (Q11.23 Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics 7e, Munson et al.)

At a given instant of time, two pressure waves, each moving at the

speed of sound, are emitted by a point source moving with

constant velocity in a fluid at rest. Determine the Mach number

involved and indicate with a sketch the instantaneous location of

the point source.

Compressible Flow Classification and Pressure Waves

SOLUTION

The Mach number associated with the motion of the point source

can be obtained using the following equation:

𝑉∞ 1

Ma = =

𝑐 sin 𝛼

where 𝛼 is the angle

of the cone.

Compressible Flow Classification and Pressure Waves

SOLUTION

From the sketch, we note that:

0.01 m 0.1 m

sin 𝛼 = =

ℓ 0.15 m + ℓ

Cross multiplying gives:

0.01 m 0.15 m + ℓ =

(0.1 m)(ℓ)

Solving for ℓ gives:

0.01 m 0.15 m

ℓ=

0.09 m

ℓ = 0.0167 m

Compressible Flow Classification and Pressure Waves

SOLUTION

Therefore, since

0.01 m 0.01 m

sin 𝛼 = =

ℓ 0.0167 m

sin 𝛼 = 0.599

Thus,

1 1

Ma = =

sin 𝛼 0.599

Ma = 1.67

Mach Number Relations

EXAMPLE (E9.3 Fluid Mechanics 7e, F. White)

Air flows adiabatically through a duct. At point 1, the velocity is

𝑉1 = 240 m/s, with 𝑇1 = 320 K and 𝑝1 = 170 kPa.

Compute: (a) Ma1 , (b) 𝑇o1 , (c) 𝑝o1 , (d) 𝜌o1 , (e) 𝑉max , and (f) 𝑉1∗ .

At point 2 further downstream, 𝑉2 = 290 m/s and 𝑝2 = 135 kPa.

What is the (g) stagnation pressure 𝑝o2 ?

SOLUTION - Assumptions and Ideal Gas Parameters

adiabatic but not isentropic. Isentropic formulas are used to compute

local 𝑝o and 𝜌o which vary.

m2 m2

For air, 𝑅 = 287 2 , 𝑘 = 1.4 and 𝑐p = 1005 2

s K s K

Mach Number Relations

SOLUTION

a) Find the speed of sound and Mach number at point 1 first so we

can use the Mach number relations.

m2

𝑐1 = 𝑘𝑅𝑇1 = 1.4 287 2 (320 K) = 358.6 m/s

s K

𝑉1 240 m/s

Ma1 = = = 0.67

𝑐1 358.6 m/s

Mach Number Relations

SOLUTION

b) Find the stagnation temperature of the adiabatic gas flow at

point 1, 𝑇o1 .

𝑘−1 2

𝑇o1 = 𝑇1 1 + Ma

2

1.4 − 1

𝑇o1 = 320 K 1 + 0.672

2

𝑇o1 = 349 K

Mach Number Relations

SOLUTION

c) Find the local stagnation pressure of the adiabatic gas flow at

point 1, 𝑝o1 .

𝑘

𝑘−1 2 𝑘−1

𝑝o1 = 𝑝1 1 + Ma

2

1.4

1.4 − 1 0.4

𝑝o1 = 170 kPa 1 + 0.672

2

Mach Number Relations

SOLUTION

d) Find the local stagnation density of the adiabatic gas flow at

point 1, 𝜌o1 .

1

𝑘−1 2 𝑘−1

𝜌𝑜1 = 𝜌1 1 + Ma

2

1

kg 1.4 − 1 0.4

𝜌𝑜1 = 1.85 3 1 + 0.672

m 2

𝑝1 kg

𝜌1 = 𝜌𝑜1 = 2.29 3

𝑅 𝑇1 m

170000 Pa kg

𝜌1 = 2 = 1.85 3

m m

287 2 ∗ 320 K

s K

Mach Number Relations

SOLUTION

e) Find the maximum flow velocity that occurs when enthalpy and

temperature drop to absolute zero, 𝑉max :

m2

𝑉max = 2ℎo1 = 2𝑐p 𝑇o1 = 2 1005 2 (349 K)

s K

m

𝑉max = 837

s

Mach Number Relations

SOLUTION

f) Find the critical velocity, 𝑉1∗ (sonic flow, Ma = 1):

1

2𝑘 2

𝑉1∗ = 𝑐1∗ = 𝑘𝑅𝑇1∗ = 𝑅𝑇𝑜1

𝑘+1

1

2 2

2 1.4 m

𝑉1∗ = 287 2 349 K

1.4 + 1 s K

m

𝑉1∗ = 342

s

Mach Number Relations

SOLUTION

g) Find the stagnation pressure 𝑝o2 if at point 2 further downstream

𝑉2 = 290 m/s and 𝑝2 = 135 kPa.

Since the flow is non-isentropic, we cannot use 𝑝o1 = 𝑝o2 , but since

it is adiabatic, we can apply 𝑇o1 = 𝑇o2 (the stagnation temperature is

constant) and ℎo1 = ℎo2 .

1 𝑉22 1 𝑉22

𝑇2 + = 𝑇o2 𝑇2 = 𝑇o2 −

2 𝑐p 2 𝑐p

m 2

1 290 s

𝑇2 = 349 K − 2 = 307 K

2 m

1005 2

s K

Mach Number Relations

SOLUTION

g) Find the stagnation pressure 𝑝o2 if at point 2 further downstream

𝑉2 = 290 m/s and 𝑝2 = 135 kPa.

The isentropic stagnation pressure at point 2 can now be calculated:

𝑘 1.4

𝑇o2 𝑘−1 349 K 0.4

𝑝o2 = 𝑝2 = 135 kPa

𝑇2 307 K

The flow is non-isentropic. Entropy rises downstream, and stagnation

pressure and density drop, due in this case to frictional losses. The

pressure change induces density change.

Isentropic Flow of an Ideal Gas

Isentropic Flow with Area Changes

𝑉(𝑥)

𝜌(𝑥) varies along 𝑥

𝐴(𝑥)

When fluid flows steadily through a conduit that has a flow cross-

sectional area that varies with axial distance, the conservation of

mass (continuity) equation can be used to relate the flow rates at

difference sections. 𝑚ሶ = 𝜌𝐴𝑉 = 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑡

© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Isentropic Flow of an Ideal Gas

Isentropic Flow with Area Changes

Inspection of this expression reveals that for:

Subsonic flow (Ma < 1): when area increases, velocity decreases

and pressure increases

−ve

𝑑𝑉 𝑑𝐴 1 𝑑𝑝

= ∙ 2

=− 2

𝑉 𝐴 Ma − 1 𝜌𝑉

Supersonic flow (Ma > 1): when area increases, velocity increases,

pressure decreases

+ve

𝑑𝑉 𝑑𝐴 1 𝑑𝑝

= ∙ 2

=− 2

𝑉 𝐴 Ma − 1 𝜌𝑉

Isentropic Flow of an Ideal Gas

Effect of Ma on Property Changes with Area Change in Duct Flow

Isentropic Flow of an Ideal Gas

Converging – Diverging Nozzle

To accelerate flow from 𝑉 = 0 to Ma >> 1, one needs the

combination of two ducts, i.e., a converging – diverging nozzle.

Bell Shaped

Nozzle All supersonic vehicles

(rockets, supersonic

flow entering fighter jets) use a

the converging – converging – diverging

diverging duct is nozzle.

subsonic

Ma = 0 Ma = 1 Ma >> 1

Subsonic Supersonic

Flow Flow

Throat (minimum area) - ‘Choked Flow’, Ma∗ = 1

© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Isentropic Flow of an Ideal Gas

Converging – Diverging Nozzle

Alternatively, if the flow entering the converging – diverging duct is

supersonic, the fluid velocity would decrease in the converging

portion of the duct and the sonic condition at the minimum would be

possible.

flow entering

the converging –

diverging duct is

supersonic

Ma >> 1 Ma = 1 Ma = 0

Supersonic Subsonic

Flow Flow

Throat (minimum area) - ‘Choked Flow’, Ma∗ = 1

© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Isentropic Flow of an Ideal Gas

Choking

Using the continuity equation and the sonic flow relations,

𝑚ሶ max = 𝜌∗ 𝐴∗ 𝑉 ∗ = 𝜌∗ 𝐴∗ 𝑘𝑅𝑇 ∗

1

𝑘−1 Maximum Mass

2 2𝑘

𝑚ሶ max = 𝜌𝑜 𝐴∗ 𝑅 𝑇o Flow Through

𝑘+1 𝑘+1 Duct (Choking)

Maximum Mass Flow Through Duct for AIR

(Choking)

1 𝐴∗ 𝑝o

𝑚ሶ max = 0.6847 A∗ 𝜌o 𝑅 𝑇o 2 𝑚ሶ max = 0.6847 1

𝑅 𝑇o 2

For isentropic flow, max. mass flow rate is ∝ to 𝐴∗ and 𝑝𝑜 and inversely

proportional to 𝑇o .

Isentropic Flow of an Ideal Gas

EXAMPLE (E9.4 Fluid Mechanics 7e, F. White)

Air flows isentropically through a duct. At section 1, the area is

0.05 m2 and 𝑉1 = 180 m/s, 𝑝1 = 500 kPa and 𝑇1 = 470 K.

Compute (a) 𝑇o1 , (b) Ma1 , (c) 𝑝o1 , (d) 𝐴1∗ and (e) 𝑚ሶ 1 .

If at section 2, the area is 0.036 m2 , compute Ma2 and 𝑝2 if the

flow is (f) subsonic or (g) supersonic. Assume 𝑘 = 1.4.

Isentropic Flow of an Ideal Gas

SOLUTION

Part (a): Find 𝑇𝑜1 . With 𝑉1 and 𝑇1 known, the energy equation gives:

Isentropic Flow of an Ideal Gas

SOLUTION

Part (d): Find 𝐴∗ . The critical sonic throat area is:

the duct if the flow is to become

supersonic.

Choked flow

(Fig. 9.7 in F. White)

Isentropic Flow of an Ideal Gas

SOLUTION

Part (e): Find 𝑚ሶ 1 .

We can calculated this value with our new ‘local mass flow’ formula,

using the pressure and area at section 1. Given 𝑝1 /𝑝o = 500/563 =

0.889, this equation yields:

2 𝑘−1

𝑚ሶ 𝑅𝑇o 2𝑘 𝑝 𝑘 𝑝 𝑘

= 1−

𝐴 𝑝o 𝑘 − 1 𝑝o 𝑝o

Isentropic Flow of an Ideal Gas

SOLUTION

Part (e): Find 𝑚ሶ 1 .

Alternatively, since we know that mass is conserved and that the flow at

the throat is choked (mass flow at its maximum value), the mass flow

rate at section 1 will be equal to the mass flow rate at the throat .

Remember, the velocity increases at the throat, not the mass flow rate.

Since, we know 𝐴∗ from part (d), we can use the maximum mass flow

rate equation:

𝑝o 𝐴∗

𝑚ሶ max = m1 = 0.6847 1

𝑅 𝑇o 2

Isentropic Flow of an Ideal Gas

SOLUTION

Part (f): Find Ma2 and 𝑝2 if the flow is subsonic.

Assume subsonic flow corresponds to section 2E.

Calculate 𝐴2 /𝐴∗ = 0.036/0.0323 = 1.115

𝐴

Using the subsonic isentropic flow curve fit for = 1.34 → 1.0

𝐴∗

0.45

𝐴2 0.45

Ma2E = 1 − 0.88 ln ∗ = 1 − 0.88 ln 1.115 = 0.676

𝐴

𝑝o 563

𝑝2E = 𝑘 = 1.4 = 415 kPa

𝑘−1 𝑘−1 1 + 0.2(0.676)2 0.4

1 + 2 Ma22E

Isentropic Flow of an Ideal Gas

SOLUTION

Part (g): Find Ma2 and 𝑝2 if the flow is supersonic.

Assume subsonic flow corresponds to section 2F.

Calculate 𝐴2 /𝐴∗ = 0.036/0.0323 = 1.115

𝐴

Using the supersonic isentropic flow curve fit for = 1.0 → 2.9

𝐴∗

0.5

𝐴2 0.5

Ma2F = 1 + 1.2 ∗ − 1 = 1 + 1.2 1.115 − 1 = 1.4

𝐴

𝑝o 563

𝑝2F = 𝑘 = 1.4 = 177 kPa

𝑘−1 2 𝑘−1 1 2

+ 0.2(1.4) 0.4

1+ 2 Ma2F

Other options for Parts (f) and (g) are Table B.1 or isentropic flow curves.

© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Non-Isentropic Flow of an Ideal Gas

Compressible Duct Flows with Friction (Fanno Flow)

For the effect of friction, the basic assumptions are:

- steady 1-D adiabatic flow

- perfect gas with 𝑐p and 𝑐v constant

- constant area straight duct

- shaft work and potential energy change negligible

- wall shear stress correlated by a Darcy friction factor 𝑓

large changes in kinetic energy, enthalpy and pressure in the flow.

This type of duct flow, i.e., constant area, constant stagnation

enthalpy, constant mass flow, but variable momentum (due to friction)

is often termed Fanno flow.

Non-Isentropic Flow of an Ideal Gas

Compressible Duct Flows with Friction (Fanno Flow)

We obtain the following working relations:

2

𝑑𝑝 2

1 + 𝑘 − 1 Ma 𝑑𝑥

= −𝑘Ma 2

𝑓

𝑝 2 1 − Ma 𝐷

𝑑𝜌 𝑘 Ma2 𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑉

=− 2

𝑓 =−

𝜌 2 1 − Ma 𝐷 𝑉

All these relations,

𝑑𝑝o 𝑑𝜌𝑜 1 2

𝑑𝑥

except 𝑑𝑝𝑜 /𝑝𝑜 , have = = − 𝑘Ma 𝑓

the factor 1 − Ma2 in 𝑝o 𝜌𝑜 2 𝐷

the denominator.

𝑑𝑇 𝑘 𝑘 − 1 Ma4 𝑑𝑥

=− 2

𝑓

𝑇 2 1 − Ma 𝐷

1

𝑑Ma 2 1 + 𝑘 − 1 Ma2 𝑑𝑥

= 𝑘Ma 2 2 𝑓

Ma 2 1 − Ma 2 𝐷

Non-Isentropic Flow of an Ideal Gas

Compressible Duct Flows with Friction (Fanno Flow)

In a similar way to the area change formulas, subsonic and

supersonic flows have opposite effects, i.e., all properties except 𝑝o

and 𝜌o will vary inversely in subsonic and supersonic flows.

𝑝 Decreases Increases

𝜌 Decreases Increases

𝑉 Increases Decreases

𝑝o , 𝜌o Decreases Decreases same

𝑇 Decreases Increases

Ma Increases Decreases

Non-Isentropic Flow of an Ideal Gas

Compressible Duct Flows with Friction (Fanno Flow)

Since 𝑝o and 𝜌o continually decrease along the duct due to frictional

(non-isentropic) losses, they are not useful as reference properties.

Instead, the sonic properties, 𝑝∗ , 𝜌∗ , 𝑇 ∗ , 𝑝o∗ and 𝜌o∗ are the

appropriate constant reference quantities in adiabatic duct flow.

Recall, the working relation of the local Mach number to friction.

Separate the variables and integrate:

1 2

𝑑Ma 2 1 + 𝑘 − 1 Ma 𝑑𝑥

= 𝑘Ma 2 2 𝑓

Ma 2 1 − Ma 2 𝐷

𝐿∗ 1.0

𝑑𝑥 1 − Ma2

න 𝑓 =න 𝑑Ma2

𝐷 Ma2 𝑘 Ma4 [1 +

1

0 𝑘 − 1 Ma2 ]

2

𝐿∗ is the length of duct required to develop a duct flow from Mach

number Ma to the sonic point.

Non-Isentropic Flow of an Ideal Gas

Compressible Duct Flows with Friction (Fanno Flow)

The upper limit is the sonic point, whether or not it is actually

reached in the duct flow. The lower limit is placed at position 𝑥 = 0,

where the Mach number is Ma.

The result of the integration is:

ҧ ∗ 1 − Ma2

𝑓𝐿 𝑘+1 k + 1 Ma2

= 2

+ ln

𝐷 𝑘 Ma 2𝑘 2 + k − 1 Ma2

an average 𝑓 is always assumed. For non-circular ducts, 𝐷 is replaced

by the hydraulic diameter 𝐷h = (4 ∗ area)/perimeter.

This equation is tabulated versus Mach number in Table B.3 (White)

and also represented as a graph in Fig. D.2 (Munson et al.).

Non-Isentropic Flow of an Ideal Gas

Compressible Duct Flows with Friction (Fanno Flow)

= 2

+ ln

𝐷 𝑘 Ma 2𝑘 2 + k − 1 Ma2

Recall that 𝐿∗ in this expression is the length of duct required to

develop a duct flow from Mach number Ma to the sonic point.

Many problems involve short ducts that never become sonic, for

which the solution uses the differences in the tabulated ‘maximum’

or sonic, length.

For example, the length ∆𝐿 required to develop a duct flow from

Ma1 to Ma2 is given by:

∆𝐿 𝐿1−2 𝑓 ҧ 𝐿∗ 𝑓 ҧ 𝐿∗

𝑓ҧ = 𝑓ҧ = −

𝐷 𝐷 𝐷 1 𝐷 2

This avoids the need for separate tabulations for short ducts.

Non-Isentropic Flow of an Ideal Gas

Compressible Duct Flows with Friction (Fanno Flow)

𝐿∗1

Ma1 Ma2 Ma = 1

Imaginary Extension

𝐿1−2 𝐿∗2

1 𝐿1−2 = 𝐿∗1 − 𝐿∗2 2 *

Ma1 to Ma2 is given by:

∆𝐿 𝐿1−2 𝑓 ҧ 𝐿∗ 𝑓 ҧ 𝐿∗

𝑓ҧ = 𝑓ҧ = −

𝐷 𝐷 𝐷 1 𝐷 2

This avoids the need for separate tabulations for short ducts.

Non-Isentropic Flow of an Ideal Gas

EXAMPLE

Air flows in a 5 cm diameter pipe. The air enters at Ma1 = 2.5 and

leaves at Ma2 = 1.5. Assume 𝑓 ҧ = 0.002 and adiabatic flow.

(a) What is the length of pipe required?

(b) What length of pipe would give Ma = 1?

𝐿∗1

Imaginary Extension

𝐿1−2 𝐿∗2

1 2 *

Non-Isentropic Flow of an Ideal Gas

SOLUTION

∆𝐿 = 𝐿1−2 is the length required to develop a duct flow from Ma1 to

Ma2 is:

∆𝐿 𝐿1−2 𝑓 ҧ 𝐿∗ 𝑓 ҧ 𝐿∗

𝑓ҧ = 𝑓ҧ = −

𝐷 𝐷 𝐷 1 𝐷 2

where 𝐿∗1 and 𝐿∗2 are the lengths required to develop a duct flow

from Ma1 and Ma2 to the sonic point, respectively.

𝐿∗1

Imaginary Extension

𝐿1−2 𝐿∗2

1 2 *

Non-Isentropic Flow of an Ideal Gas

SOLUTION

Part (a): ∆𝐿 = 𝐿1−2 is the length required to develop a duct flow

from Ma1 to Ma2 is:

∆𝐿 𝐿1−2 𝑓 ҧ 𝐿∗ 𝑓 ҧ 𝐿∗

𝑓ҧ = 𝑓ҧ = −

𝐷 𝐷 𝐷 1

𝐷 2

Constant-Area Duct for 𝑘 = 1.4, we observe the following:

𝐿1−2 𝑓 ҧ 𝐿∗ 𝑓 ҧ 𝐿∗

𝑓ҧ = − = 0.432 − 0.136 = 0.296

𝐷 𝐷 1

𝐷 2

Non-Isentropic Flow of an Ideal Gas

SOLUTION

Therefore, solving for 𝐿1−2 gives:

𝐿1−2

𝑓ҧ = 0.296

𝐷

0.296 D 0.296 (0.05 m)

𝐿1−2 = = = 7.4 m

𝑓 ҧ 0.002

Part (b): To get Ma = 1:

𝐿1−∗ 𝑓 ҧ 𝐿∗ 0.432 (0.05 m)

𝑓ҧ = = 0.432 or 𝐿1−∗ = = 10.8 m

𝐷 𝐷 1

0.002

Table B.3

Non-Isentropic Flow of an Ideal Gas

Compressible Duct Flows with Friction (Fanno Flow)

Summary Notes:

- 𝑓 ҧ is obtained from the Moody chart for Re based on 𝐿∗

- 𝐿∗ is the ‘sonic length’, i.e., the duct length at which Ma = 1 is

achieved

- 𝑓 ҧ is a good correlation for subsonic flow, up to 2x overprediction

for supersonic flows

Non-Isentropic Flow of an Ideal Gas

Compressible Duct Flows with Heat Transfer

For examining the effect of heat transfer (only), the basic

assumptions are:

- steady 1-D flow

- no friction

- perfect gas with 𝑐p and 𝑐v constant

- constant area straight duct

- shaft work and potential energy change negligible

This type of duct flow, i.e., constant area, constant mass flow,

constant momentum but variable stagnation enthalpy (due to heat

transfer) is often termed Rayleigh flow.

A plot of enthalpy versus entropy for all possible flow states,

subsonic or supersonic, forms a Rayleigh line.

Non-Isentropic Flow of an Ideal Gas

Compressible Duct Flows with Heat Transfer (Rayleigh Flow)

For this model, the duct area remains constant and no mass is added

within the duct. Therefore, unlike Fanno Flow, the stagnation

temperature is a variable. The heat addition causes a decrease in

stagnation pressure, which is known as the Rayleigh effect.

Heat addition will cause

both supersonic and

subsonic Mach numbers to

approach Mach 1, resulting

in choked flow.

decreases a subsonic Mach

number and increases a

supersonic Mach number

along the duct.

© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Non-Isentropic Flow of an Ideal Gas

Compressible Duct Flows with Heat Transfer (Rayleigh Flow)

The complete list of effects of 𝑇o change on the duct flow properties are:

Heating Cooling

Subsonic Supersonic Subsonic Supersonic

𝑇o Increases Increases Decreases Decreases same

Ma Increases Decreases Decreases Increases

𝑝 Decreases Increases Increases Decreases

𝜌 Decreases Increases Increases Decreases

𝑉 Increases Decreases Decreases Increases

𝑝o Decreases Decreases Increases Increases same

𝑠 Increases Increases Decreases Decreases same

𝑇 Increases up Increases Decreases up Decreases

to Ma = 1/ 𝑘 to Ma = 1/ 𝑘

and decreases and increases

thereafter thereafter

Non-Isentropic Flow of an Ideal Gas

Compressible Duct Flows with Heat Transfer (Rayleigh Flow)

The complete list of effects of 𝑇o change on the duct flow properties are:

Heating Cooling

Subsonic Supersonic Subsonic Supersonic

𝑇o Increases Increases Decreases Decreases same

Ma Increases Decreases Decreases Increases

𝑝 Decreases Increases Increases Decreases

𝜌 Decreases Increases Increases Decreases

𝑉 Increases Decreases Decreases Increases

Effect of Heat Transfer on Flow Velocity

Using the differential form of the 𝑑𝑉 𝛿𝑞 1

=

energy equation, we can show that the 𝑉 𝑐p 𝑇 (1 − Ma2 )

flow velocity increases with heat

addition in subsonic Rayleigh flow, but

decreases in supersonic Rayleigh flow.

Non-Isentropic Flow of an Ideal Gas

Compressible Duct Flows with Heat Transfer (Rayleigh Flow)

The continuity, energy, momentum, and perfect gas law can be

rearranged in terms of Mach number. For convenience, we specific

that the outlet section is sonic, Ma = 1, with reference properties

𝑇o∗ , 𝑇 ∗ , 𝑝∗ , 𝜌∗ , 𝑉 ∗ , 𝑝o∗ . The inlet is assumed to be at Mach number Ma.

∗ = for Compressible

𝑇𝑜 1 + 𝑘 Ma2 2

Duct Flow With

𝑇 𝑘 + 1 2 Ma2 𝑝 𝑘+1 Heat Transfer

∗ = =

𝑇 1 + 𝑘 Ma2 2 𝑝 ∗ 1 + 𝑘 Ma2

𝑉 𝜌∗ 𝑘 + 1 Ma2

∗ = =

𝑉 𝜌 1 + 𝑘 Ma2

2 𝑘/(𝑘−1)

𝑝𝑜 𝑘+1 2 + 𝑘 − 1 Ma

∗ =

𝑝𝑜 1 + 𝑘 Ma2 𝑘+1

Normal and Oblique Shock Waves

Normal Shock Waves

In this section, the goal is to develop Mach number based relations

for the special case of normal shock waves.

Normal shock waves occur when supersonic flow (Ma1 > 1) is

decelerated to subsonic flow (Ma2 < Ma1 ). Consider a 1-D flow

through a duct: Control Volume

𝑠1 𝑠2 > 𝑠1

1 2

Normal and Oblique Shock Waves

Normal Shock Waves

Further manipulation of the relations lead to the convenient Mach

number relations for normal shock waves:

2

𝑝2 1 𝑘 − 1 Ma 1 +2

= 2𝑘 Ma12 − k − 1 2

Ma2 =

𝑝1 𝑘 + 1 2𝑘 Ma12 − (𝑘 − 1)

𝜌2 𝑘 + 1 Ma12 𝑉1

= 2 = 𝑇o2 = 𝑇o1

𝜌1 𝑘 − 1 Ma1 + 2 𝑉2

Working Relations

2

𝑇2 2

2𝑘 Ma 1 − (𝑘 − 1) for Normal

= [2 + 𝑘 − 1 Ma1 ] Shock Wave

𝑇1 𝑘 + 1 2 Ma12

1

𝑘/(𝑘−1)

𝑝o2 𝜌o2 𝑘 + 1 Ma12 𝑘+1 𝑘−1

= =

𝑝o1 𝜌o1 2 + 𝑘 − 1 Ma12 2𝑘 Ma12 − 𝑘 − 1

Normal and Oblique Shock Waves

Table B.2. Normal Shock Relations for a Perfect Gas, 𝑘 = 1.4 ( White)

columns (Ma1 : supersonic,

and Ma2 : subsonic).

normal shock wave are given in

Table B.2.

Normal and Oblique Shock Waves

Normal Shock Waves

In summary, for normal shock waves:

- are paper-thin lines through which discrete jump of properties occur

- upstream flow is supersonic, downstream flow is subsonic

- for perfect gases, ‘rarefaction’ shocks are impossible, only

compression shocks can exist (‘rarefaction’ = pressure decrease)

- entropy increases across shock wave

- 𝑇o is constant across shock wave

- 𝜌o and 𝑝o decrease across shock wave

- 𝑝, 𝜌, 𝑇 increase across shock wave

- Ma decreases across shock wave

Normal and Oblique Shock Waves

EXAMPLE (E12-8 Fundamentals & Applications 3e, Cengel/Cimbala.)

© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Normal and Oblique Shock Waves

EXAMPLE (E12-8 Fundamentals & Applications 3e, Cengel/Cimbala.)

B.2

Table B.2 (F. White) Normal Shock Relations for a Perfect Gas (𝑘=1.4)

Alternatively, you could use Figure D.4 from Munson et al. or the Working

Relations for a Normal Shock Wave introduced earlier, e.g.,

2 2

2

𝑘 − 1 Ma 1 + 2 1.4 − 1 2 +2

Ma2 = = = 0.333 ∴ Ma2 = 0.5773

2𝑘 Ma12 − (𝑘 − 1) 2(1.4) 2 2 − (1.4 − 1)

Normal and Oblique Shock Waves

EXAMPLE (E12-8 Fundamentals & Applications 3e, Cengel/Cimbala.)

© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Normal and Oblique Shock Waves

EXAMPLE (E12-8 Fundamentals & Applications 3e, Cengel/Cimbala.)

Normal and Oblique Shock Waves

EXAMPLE (E12-8 Fundamentals & Applications 3e, Cengel/Cimbala.)

© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Normal and Oblique Shocks

Oblique Shock Waves

There are two main differences between normal and oblique shock

waves:

1) The flow behind an oblique shock wave is not necessarily subsonic

(it is always subsonic for normal shock waves). The flow behind an

oblique shock wave can be either subsonic, sonic or supersonic.

2) The flow is deflected (uniformly) at an angle θ behind an oblique

shock wave (the deflection angle θ is always zero for a normal shock

wave).

normal shock wave

θ

deflection

angle θ=0

oblique shock wave

Normal and Oblique Shocks

Oblique Shock Waves

It is convenient to analyze the flow by breaking it up into normal (𝑉𝑛 )

and tangential components (𝑉𝑡 ) with respect to the wave. The shock

wave angle has an arbitrary value 𝛽 and the downstream flow 𝑉2

turns at an angle θ which is a function of 𝛽 and state 1 conditions.

Note there is no change

Note ‘𝑎’ here represents the

in tangential velocity

speed of sound.

across an oblique shock

DOWNSTREAM (State 2)

UPSTREAM (State 1) Supersonic or sonic or

Supersonic flow subsonic flow

© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Normal and Oblique Shocks

Oblique Shock Waves

That is, we can use the Normal Shock Wave relations derived earlier

but replace Ma1 and Ma2 with Man1 and Man2 :

𝑉n1 V1 sin 𝛽

Man1 = = = Ma1 sin 𝛽

𝑐1 c1

𝑉n2 V2 sin(𝛽 − θ)

Man2 = = = Ma2 sin(𝛽 − θ)

𝑐2 c2

UPSTREAM (State 1)

Supersonic flow 𝛽

𝑉n1 V1 sin 𝛽 𝛽 𝑉1

= 𝛽

𝑐1 c1

𝑉n1 𝑉n1 𝑉t

or sin 𝛽 =

V1

Normal and Oblique Shocks

Oblique Shock Waves

That is, we can use the Normal Shock Wave relations derived earlier

but replace Ma1 and Ma2 with Man1 and Man2 :

𝑉n1 V1 sin 𝛽

Man1 = = = Ma1 sin 𝛽

𝑐1 c1

𝑉n2 V2 sin(𝛽 − θ)

Man2 = = = Ma2 sin(𝛽 − θ)

𝑐2 c2

DOWNSTREAM (State 2)

Supersonic or sonic or

𝛽

subsonic flow

𝛽 𝑉1 θ

𝛽 𝑉n2 𝛽

𝑉n1 𝑉t 𝑉t

𝑉n2 θ

sin(𝛽 − θ) = 𝑉2

V2

Normal and Oblique Shocks

Oblique Shock Waves

For a perfect gas with constant specific heats, the property ratios

across the oblique shock waves are analogs to the Normal Shock

Wave relations with Ma1 replaced by Man1 .

𝑝2 1

= 2𝑘Ma12 sin2 𝛽 − 𝑘 − 1 Working Relations for

𝑝1 𝑘 + 1 Oblique Shock Wave

(1 of 2)

𝜌2 tan 𝛽 𝑘 + 1 Ma12 sin2 𝛽 𝑉n1

= = 2 2

=

𝜌1 tan(𝛽 − 𝜃) 𝑘 − 1 Ma1 sin 𝛽 + 2 𝑉n2

2 2

𝑇2 2 2

2𝑘Ma 1 sin 𝛽− 𝑘−1

= (2 + 𝑘 − 1 Ma1 sin 𝛽)

𝑇1 𝑘 + 1 2 Ma12 sin2 𝛽

Normal and Oblique Shocks

Oblique Shock Waves

For a perfect gas with constant specific heats, the property ratios

across the oblique shock waves are analogs to the Normal Shock

Wave relations with Ma1 replaced by Man1 .

Oblique Shock Wave

𝑘 − 1 Ma2n1 + 2 (2 of 2)

Ma2n2 =

2𝑘 Ma2n1 − (𝑘 − 1)

𝑘 1

𝑝02 𝑘 + 1 Ma12 sin2 𝛽 𝑘−1 𝑘+1 k−1

=

𝑝01 𝑘 − 1 Ma12 sin2 𝛽 + 2 2𝑘 Ma12 sin2 𝛽 − 𝑘 − 1

All these are tabulated in the Normal Shock Relations Table B.2

(F. White). The table is also valid for the oblique shock wave (hence

why Mach numbers are listed as Man1 and Man2 ).

Normal and Oblique Shocks

Oblique Shock Waves

The complete family of oblique shock solutions can be plotted

(next slide) or computed using the working relations for oblique

shock waves.

For a given 𝑘, the wave angle 𝛽 varies with Ma1 and θ. By using a

trigonometric identity for tan(𝛽 − θ), this can be rewritten in a

more convenient form:

tan θ = Oblique Shock Wave

(Ma12 𝑘 + cos 2𝛽) + 2

Normal and Oblique Shocks

Oblique Shock Waves

Plotting this function (all possible solutions) for 𝑘 = 1.4 (air) gives:

Deflection Angle

© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Normal and Oblique Shocks

Oblique Shock Waves

Plotting this function (all possible solutions) for 𝑘 = 1.4 (air) gives:

Deflection Angle

For a given deflection angle θ,

there are two possible solu-

tions at the same freestream

Mach number (Ma1 )

(Normal Shock Wave)

© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Normal and Oblique Shocks

Oblique Shock Waves

Plotting this function (all possible solutions) for 𝑘 = 1.4 (air) gives:

Deflection Angle

(red line) represents the largest

deflection that can occur for a given Maximum Deflection Angle for air

Ma1 (oblique shock attached). θmax ≅ 46.5o (even if Ma1 = ∞)

© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Normal and Oblique Shocks

Oblique Shock Waves

Subsonic flow

Supersonic flow behind shock

behind shock

θ

deflection angle θ

θ Deflection Angle

© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Normal and Oblique Shock Waves

EXAMPLE (E12-10 Fundamentals & Applications 3e, Cengel/Cimbala.)

Subsonic flow

Supersonic flow behind shock

behind shock

Two possible oblique shock angles, (a) 𝛽weak and (b) 𝛽strong , formed by

a two-dimensional wedge of half-angle 𝛿 = 10o (= θ).

© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Normal and Oblique Shock Waves

EXAMPLE (E12-10 Fundamentals & Applications 3e, Cengel/Cimbala.)

Assumptions: 1) the flow is steady, 2) the boundary layer is very thin.

the plot, the shock tan θ =

(Ma12 𝑘 + cos 2𝛽) + 2

wave angle 𝛽 can

be found using the Deflection Angle for an

tan θ function Oblique Shock Wave

shown here (the

solution process

would be iterative).

Normal and Oblique Shock Waves

EXAMPLE (E12-10 Fundamentals & Applications 3e, Cengel/Cimbala.)

We can now calculate the upstream normal Mach number Ma1n for

each case:

Weak Shock:

𝑉n1 V1 sin 𝛽

Man1 = = = Ma1 sin 𝛽 = 2.0 sin 39.3o = 1.267

𝑐1 c1

Strong Shock:

𝑉n1 V1 sin 𝛽

Man1 = = = Ma1 sin 𝛽 = 2.0 sin 83.7o = 1.988

𝑐1 c1

Normal and Oblique Shock Waves

EXAMPLE (E12-10 Fundamentals & Applications 3e, Cengel/Cimbala.)

Using the values of Ma1n , we can now to find the downstream normal

Mach number Ma2n for each case:

Weak Shock:

𝑘 − 1 Ma2n1 + 2 1.4 − 1 1.267 2 + 2

Ma2n2 = 2 = 2

= 0.645

2𝑘 Man1 − (𝑘 − 1) 2 1.4 1.267 − (1.4 − 1)

Therefore, Man2 = 0.803

Strong Shock:

𝑘 − 1 Ma2n1 + 2 1.4 − 1 1.988 2 + 2

Ma2n2 = 2 = 2

= 0.336

2𝑘 Man1 − (𝑘 − 1) 2 1.4 1.988 − (1.4 − 1)

Therefore, Man2 = 0.579

Normal and Oblique Shock Waves

EXAMPLE (E12-10 Fundamentals & Applications 3e, Cengel/Cimbala.)

We can also calculate the downstream pressure for each case:

Weak Shock:

𝑝2 1

= 2𝑘Ma12 sin2 𝛽 − 𝑘 − 1

𝑝1 𝑘 + 1

𝑝2 1 2

= 2 1.4 2 sin2 (39.3o ) − 0.4 = 1.705

𝑝1 2.4

Normal and Oblique Shock Waves

EXAMPLE (E12-10 Fundamentals & Applications 3e, Cengel/Cimbala.)

We can also calculate the downstream pressure for each case:

Strong Shock:

𝑝2 1

= 2𝑘Ma12 sin2 𝛽 − 𝑘 − 1

𝑝1 𝑘 + 1

𝑝2 1 2

= 2 1.4 2 sin2 (83.7o ) − 0.4 = 4.44

𝑝1 2.4

Normal and Oblique Shock Waves

EXAMPLE (E12-10 Fundamentals & Applications 3e, Cengel/Cimbala.)

We can now find the downstream Mach number (Ma2 ) for each case.

Weak Shock:

Man2 0.803

Ma2 = = o o

= 1.64

sin(𝛽 − θ) sin(39.3 − 10 )

Strong Shock:

Man2 0.579

Ma2 = = o o

= 0.603

sin(𝛽 − θ) sin(83.7 − 10 )

Note that Ma2 is supersonic behind the weak oblique shock, but

subsonic behind the strong oblique shock.

Alternative to the equations, we can use the Normal Shock Relations

Table B.2 to solve this question (next slide).

Normal and Oblique Shock Waves

EXAMPLE (E12-10 Fundamentals & Applications 3e, Cengel/Cimbala.)

Recall, the question states that supersonic air at Ma1 = 2.0 and

75 kPa impinges on a two-dimensional wedge with 𝛿 = θ = 10o .

We can solve this question using the

Normal Shock Wave Tables. To illustrate Subsonic flow

this procedure, we will focus on the behind shock

strong shock only.

Step 1: Determine the Mach number for

the inlet flow in the normal direction.

Man1 = Ma1 sin 𝛽 = 2.0 sin 83.7o

Man1 = 1.988

If 𝛽 is not given, you can use the tan θ

function (iterative process) or the

function plot (shown earlier).

© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Normal and Oblique Shock Waves

EXAMPLE (E12-10 Fundamentals & Applications 3e, Cengel/Cimbala.)

Step 2: Once you have solved for Man1 (= 1.988), you can now use

the Normal Shock Relations Table B.2 (F. White) to solve for Man2

and 𝑝2 /𝑝1 .

Table B.2

At Man1 = 1.988:

Man2 = 0.579 (by interpolation)

𝑝2 /𝑝1 = 4.445 (by interpolation)

Man2 0.579

Ma2 = = o o

= 0.603

sin(𝛽 − θ) sin(83.7 − 10 )

Good Luck!

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