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MAAE 3300

Fluid Mechanics II

Review class
Important Note:
All topics from lecture 1 (Module 1 – Part 1 of 2) to the last
lecture (Module 4 – Part 4 of 4) will be covered in the final
examination.

Carleton University
Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering
Prof. Joana Rocha
Compressible Flow Classification and Pressure Waves
Mach Number and Flow Classification
Incompressible Flow Ma < 0.3 Subsonic incompressible flow:
𝜌 = 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑡 can be assumed
Compressible Flow Ma = 0.3 ~ 0.85 Subsonic compressible flow:
𝜌 ≠ 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑡 but there are no
shock waves yet
Ma = 0.85 ~ 1.10 Transonic flow: Mixture of
subsonic and supersonic flow
(first occurrence of shock waves)
Ma = 1.10 ~ 5 Supersonic flow: Dominated by
the presence of shock waves
Ma ≥ 5 Hypersonic flow: Dominated by
the presence of shock waves and
other phenomena (dissociation
of gas due to high temperatures,
chemical reactions, etc.)
Compressible Flow Classification and Pressure Waves
Pressure Waves – Moving Point Source (𝑉 > 𝑐)
When 𝑉/𝑐 > 1, the flow is supersonic and the pressure wave
pattern resembles the one shown here. A cone (Mach cone) that is
tangent to the pressure waves can be constructed to represent the
Mach wave that separates the zone of silence from the zone of
action.
The angle of this cone is,
Moving Point Source, 𝛼, is given by:
𝑉>𝑐
𝑐 1
sin 𝛼 = =
𝑉∞ Ma
This expression is valid for
𝑉/𝑐 > 1 only.

© John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Compressible Flow Classification and Pressure Waves
Pressure Waves – Moving Point Source (𝑉 > 𝑐)
The concentration of pressure waves at the surface of the Mach
cone suggests a significant pressure variation, and thus density
variation, across the cone surface.

𝑉>𝑐

© John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Compressible Flow Classification and Pressure Waves
EXAMPLE (Q11.23 Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics 7e, Munson et al.)
At a given instant of time, two pressure waves, each moving at the
speed of sound, are emitted by a point source moving with
constant velocity in a fluid at rest. Determine the Mach number
involved and indicate with a sketch the instantaneous location of
the point source.

© John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Compressible Flow Classification and Pressure Waves
SOLUTION
The Mach number associated with the motion of the point source
can be obtained using the following equation:

𝑉∞ 1
Ma = =
𝑐 sin 𝛼
where 𝛼 is the angle
of the cone.

© John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Compressible Flow Classification and Pressure Waves
SOLUTION
From the sketch, we note that:
0.01 m 0.1 m
sin 𝛼 = =
ℓ 0.15 m + ℓ
Cross multiplying gives:
0.01 m 0.15 m + ℓ =
(0.1 m)(ℓ)
Solving for ℓ gives:
0.01 m 0.15 m
ℓ=
0.09 m
ℓ = 0.0167 m

© John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Compressible Flow Classification and Pressure Waves
SOLUTION
Therefore, since
0.01 m 0.01 m
sin 𝛼 = =
ℓ 0.0167 m
sin 𝛼 = 0.599

Thus,
1 1
Ma = =
sin 𝛼 0.599
Ma = 1.67

© John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Mach Number Relations
EXAMPLE (E9.3 Fluid Mechanics 7e, F. White)
Air flows adiabatically through a duct. At point 1, the velocity is
𝑉1 = 240 m/s, with 𝑇1 = 320 K and 𝑝1 = 170 kPa.
Compute: (a) Ma1 , (b) 𝑇o1 , (c) 𝑝o1 , (d) 𝜌o1 , (e) 𝑉max , and (f) 𝑉1∗ .
At point 2 further downstream, 𝑉2 = 290 m/s and 𝑝2 = 135 kPa.
What is the (g) stagnation pressure 𝑝o2 ?
SOLUTION - Assumptions and Ideal Gas Parameters

Let air be approximated as an ideal gas with constant 𝑘. The flow is

adiabatic but not isentropic. Isentropic formulas are used to compute
local 𝑝o and 𝜌o which vary.
m2 m2
For air, 𝑅 = 287 2 , 𝑘 = 1.4 and 𝑐p = 1005 2
s K s K

Mach Number Relations
SOLUTION
a) Find the speed of sound and Mach number at point 1 first so we
can use the Mach number relations.

m2
𝑐1 = 𝑘𝑅𝑇1 = 1.4 287 2 (320 K) = 358.6 m/s
s K

𝑉1 240 m/s
Ma1 = = = 0.67
𝑐1 358.6 m/s
Mach Number Relations
SOLUTION
b) Find the stagnation temperature of the adiabatic gas flow at
point 1, 𝑇o1 .

𝑘−1 2
𝑇o1 = 𝑇1 1 + Ma
2

1.4 − 1
𝑇o1 = 320 K 1 + 0.672
2

𝑇o1 = 349 K
Mach Number Relations
SOLUTION
c) Find the local stagnation pressure of the adiabatic gas flow at
point 1, 𝑝o1 .
𝑘
𝑘−1 2 𝑘−1
𝑝o1 = 𝑝1 1 + Ma
2
1.4
1.4 − 1 0.4
𝑝o1 = 170 kPa 1 + 0.672
2

𝑝o1 = 230 kPa

Mach Number Relations
SOLUTION
d) Find the local stagnation density of the adiabatic gas flow at
point 1, 𝜌o1 .
1
𝑘−1 2 𝑘−1
𝜌𝑜1 = 𝜌1 1 + Ma
2
1
kg 1.4 − 1 0.4
𝜌𝑜1 = 1.85 3 1 + 0.672
m 2

𝑝1 kg
𝜌1 = 𝜌𝑜1 = 2.29 3
𝑅 𝑇1 m

170000 Pa kg
𝜌1 = 2 = 1.85 3
m m
287 2 ∗ 320 K
s K
Mach Number Relations
SOLUTION
e) Find the maximum flow velocity that occurs when enthalpy and
temperature drop to absolute zero, 𝑉max :

m2
𝑉max = 2ℎo1 = 2𝑐p 𝑇o1 = 2 1005 2 (349 K)
s K

m
𝑉max = 837
s
Mach Number Relations
SOLUTION
f) Find the critical velocity, 𝑉1∗ (sonic flow, Ma = 1):
1
2𝑘 2
𝑉1∗ = 𝑐1∗ = 𝑘𝑅𝑇1∗ = 𝑅𝑇𝑜1
𝑘+1

1
2 2
2 1.4 m
𝑉1∗ = 287 2 349 K
1.4 + 1 s K

m
𝑉1∗ = 342
s
Mach Number Relations
SOLUTION
g) Find the stagnation pressure 𝑝o2 if at point 2 further downstream
𝑉2 = 290 m/s and 𝑝2 = 135 kPa.
Since the flow is non-isentropic, we cannot use 𝑝o1 = 𝑝o2 , but since
it is adiabatic, we can apply 𝑇o1 = 𝑇o2 (the stagnation temperature is
constant) and ℎo1 = ℎo2 .

𝑐p 𝑇2 + ½ 𝑉22 = 𝑐p 𝑇o2 where 𝑇o2 = 𝑇o1 (known)

1 𝑉22 1 𝑉22
𝑇2 + = 𝑇o2 𝑇2 = 𝑇o2 −
2 𝑐p 2 𝑐p

m 2
1 290 s
𝑇2 = 349 K − 2 = 307 K
2 m
1005 2
s K
Mach Number Relations
SOLUTION
g) Find the stagnation pressure 𝑝o2 if at point 2 further downstream
𝑉2 = 290 m/s and 𝑝2 = 135 kPa.
The isentropic stagnation pressure at point 2 can now be calculated:
𝑘 1.4
𝑇o2 𝑘−1 349 K 0.4
𝑝o2 = 𝑝2 = 135 kPa
𝑇2 307 K

That is, 𝑝o2 < 𝑝o1 .

The flow is non-isentropic. Entropy rises downstream, and stagnation
pressure and density drop, due in this case to frictional losses. The
pressure change induces density change.
Isentropic Flow of an Ideal Gas
Isentropic Flow with Area Changes

𝑉(𝑦) = 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑡 : main assumption

𝑉(𝑥)
𝜌(𝑥) varies along 𝑥
𝐴(𝑥)

When fluid flows steadily through a conduit that has a flow cross-
sectional area that varies with axial distance, the conservation of
mass (continuity) equation can be used to relate the flow rates at
difference sections. 𝑚ሶ = 𝜌𝐴𝑉 = 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑡
Isentropic Flow of an Ideal Gas
Isentropic Flow with Area Changes
Inspection of this expression reveals that for:
Subsonic flow (Ma < 1): when area increases, velocity decreases
and pressure increases
−ve
𝑑𝑉 𝑑𝐴 1 𝑑𝑝
= ∙ 2
=− 2
𝑉 𝐴 Ma − 1 𝜌𝑉

Supersonic flow (Ma > 1): when area increases, velocity increases,
pressure decreases
+ve
𝑑𝑉 𝑑𝐴 1 𝑑𝑝
= ∙ 2
=− 2
𝑉 𝐴 Ma − 1 𝜌𝑉
Isentropic Flow of an Ideal Gas
Effect of Ma on Property Changes with Area Change in Duct Flow

Isentropic Flow of an Ideal Gas
Converging – Diverging Nozzle
To accelerate flow from 𝑉 = 0 to Ma >> 1, one needs the
combination of two ducts, i.e., a converging – diverging nozzle.

Bell Shaped
Nozzle All supersonic vehicles
(rockets, supersonic
flow entering fighter jets) use a
the converging – converging – diverging
diverging duct is nozzle.
subsonic
Ma = 0 Ma = 1 Ma >> 1

Subsonic Supersonic
Flow Flow
Throat (minimum area) - ‘Choked Flow’, Ma∗ = 1
Isentropic Flow of an Ideal Gas
Converging – Diverging Nozzle
Alternatively, if the flow entering the converging – diverging duct is
supersonic, the fluid velocity would decrease in the converging
portion of the duct and the sonic condition at the minimum would be
possible.

flow entering
the converging –
diverging duct is
supersonic
Ma >> 1 Ma = 1 Ma = 0

Supersonic Subsonic
Flow Flow
Throat (minimum area) - ‘Choked Flow’, Ma∗ = 1
Isentropic Flow of an Ideal Gas
Choking
Using the continuity equation and the sonic flow relations,
𝑚ሶ max = 𝜌∗ 𝐴∗ 𝑉 ∗ = 𝜌∗ 𝐴∗ 𝑘𝑅𝑇 ∗

1
𝑘−1 Maximum Mass
2 2𝑘
𝑚ሶ max = 𝜌𝑜 𝐴∗ 𝑅 𝑇o Flow Through
𝑘+1 𝑘+1 Duct (Choking)

For air (𝑘 = 1.4),

Maximum Mass Flow Through Duct for AIR
(Choking)
1 𝐴∗ 𝑝o
𝑚ሶ max = 0.6847 A∗ 𝜌o 𝑅 𝑇o 2 𝑚ሶ max = 0.6847 1
𝑅 𝑇o 2
For isentropic flow, max. mass flow rate is ∝ to 𝐴∗ and 𝑝𝑜 and inversely
proportional to 𝑇o .
Isentropic Flow of an Ideal Gas
EXAMPLE (E9.4 Fluid Mechanics 7e, F. White)
Air flows isentropically through a duct. At section 1, the area is
0.05 m2 and 𝑉1 = 180 m/s, 𝑝1 = 500 kPa and 𝑇1 = 470 K.
Compute (a) 𝑇o1 , (b) Ma1 , (c) 𝑝o1 , (d) 𝐴1∗ and (e) 𝑚ሶ 1 .
If at section 2, the area is 0.036 m2 , compute Ma2 and 𝑝2 if the
flow is (f) subsonic or (g) supersonic. Assume 𝑘 = 1.4.

Isentropic Flow of an Ideal Gas
SOLUTION
Part (a): Find 𝑇𝑜1 . With 𝑉1 and 𝑇1 known, the energy equation gives:

Part (c): Find 𝑝o1 :

Isentropic Flow of an Ideal Gas
SOLUTION
Part (d): Find 𝐴∗ . The critical sonic throat area is:

This throat must actually be present in

the duct if the flow is to become
supersonic.

Choked flow
(Fig. 9.7 in F. White)

Isentropic Flow of an Ideal Gas
SOLUTION
Part (e): Find 𝑚ሶ 1 .
We can calculated this value with our new ‘local mass flow’ formula,
using the pressure and area at section 1. Given 𝑝1 /𝑝o = 500/563 =
0.889, this equation yields:
2 𝑘−1
𝑚ሶ 𝑅𝑇o 2𝑘 𝑝 𝑘 𝑝 𝑘
= 1−
𝐴 𝑝o 𝑘 − 1 𝑝o 𝑝o

Isentropic Flow of an Ideal Gas
SOLUTION
Part (e): Find 𝑚ሶ 1 .
Alternatively, since we know that mass is conserved and that the flow at
the throat is choked (mass flow at its maximum value), the mass flow
rate at section 1 will be equal to the mass flow rate at the throat .
Remember, the velocity increases at the throat, not the mass flow rate.
Since, we know 𝐴∗ from part (d), we can use the maximum mass flow
rate equation:
𝑝o 𝐴∗
𝑚ሶ max = m1 = 0.6847 1
𝑅 𝑇o 2

Isentropic Flow of an Ideal Gas
SOLUTION
Part (f): Find Ma2 and 𝑝2 if the flow is subsonic.
Assume subsonic flow corresponds to section 2E.
Calculate 𝐴2 /𝐴∗ = 0.036/0.0323 = 1.115
𝐴
Using the subsonic isentropic flow curve fit for = 1.34 → 1.0
𝐴∗
0.45
𝐴2 0.45
Ma2E = 1 − 0.88 ln ∗ = 1 − 0.88 ln 1.115 = 0.676
𝐴
𝑝o 563
𝑝2E = 𝑘 = 1.4 = 415 kPa
𝑘−1 𝑘−1 1 + 0.2(0.676)2 0.4
1 + 2 Ma22E

Isentropic Flow of an Ideal Gas
SOLUTION
Part (g): Find Ma2 and 𝑝2 if the flow is supersonic.
Assume subsonic flow corresponds to section 2F.
Calculate 𝐴2 /𝐴∗ = 0.036/0.0323 = 1.115
𝐴
Using the supersonic isentropic flow curve fit for = 1.0 → 2.9
𝐴∗
0.5
𝐴2 0.5
Ma2F = 1 + 1.2 ∗ − 1 = 1 + 1.2 1.115 − 1 = 1.4
𝐴
𝑝o 563
𝑝2F = 𝑘 = 1.4 = 177 kPa
𝑘−1 2 𝑘−1 1 2
+ 0.2(1.4) 0.4
1+ 2 Ma2F
Other options for Parts (f) and (g) are Table B.1 or isentropic flow curves.
Non-Isentropic Flow of an Ideal Gas
Compressible Duct Flows with Friction (Fanno Flow)
For the effect of friction, the basic assumptions are:
- perfect gas with 𝑐p and 𝑐v constant
- constant area straight duct
- shaft work and potential energy change negligible
- wall shear stress correlated by a Darcy friction factor 𝑓

In effect, we are studying a Moody-type pipe friction problem but with

large changes in kinetic energy, enthalpy and pressure in the flow.
This type of duct flow, i.e., constant area, constant stagnation
enthalpy, constant mass flow, but variable momentum (due to friction)
is often termed Fanno flow.
Non-Isentropic Flow of an Ideal Gas
Compressible Duct Flows with Friction (Fanno Flow)
We obtain the following working relations:
2
𝑑𝑝 2
1 + 𝑘 − 1 Ma 𝑑𝑥
= −𝑘Ma 2
𝑓
𝑝 2 1 − Ma 𝐷
𝑑𝜌 𝑘 Ma2 𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑉
=− 2
𝑓 =−
𝜌 2 1 − Ma 𝐷 𝑉
All these relations,
𝑑𝑝o 𝑑𝜌𝑜 1 2
𝑑𝑥
except 𝑑𝑝𝑜 /𝑝𝑜 , have = = − 𝑘Ma 𝑓
the factor 1 − Ma2 in 𝑝o 𝜌𝑜 2 𝐷
the denominator.
𝑑𝑇 𝑘 𝑘 − 1 Ma4 𝑑𝑥
=− 2
𝑓
𝑇 2 1 − Ma 𝐷
1
𝑑Ma 2 1 + 𝑘 − 1 Ma2 𝑑𝑥
= 𝑘Ma 2 2 𝑓
Ma 2 1 − Ma 2 𝐷
Non-Isentropic Flow of an Ideal Gas
Compressible Duct Flows with Friction (Fanno Flow)
In a similar way to the area change formulas, subsonic and
supersonic flows have opposite effects, i.e., all properties except 𝑝o
and 𝜌o will vary inversely in subsonic and supersonic flows.

Property Subsonic Supersonic

𝑝 Decreases Increases
𝜌 Decreases Increases
𝑉 Increases Decreases
𝑝o , 𝜌o Decreases Decreases same
𝑇 Decreases Increases
Ma Increases Decreases
Non-Isentropic Flow of an Ideal Gas
Compressible Duct Flows with Friction (Fanno Flow)
Since 𝑝o and 𝜌o continually decrease along the duct due to frictional
(non-isentropic) losses, they are not useful as reference properties.
Instead, the sonic properties, 𝑝∗ , 𝜌∗ , 𝑇 ∗ , 𝑝o∗ and 𝜌o∗ are the
appropriate constant reference quantities in adiabatic duct flow.
Recall, the working relation of the local Mach number to friction.
Separate the variables and integrate:
1 2
𝑑Ma 2 1 + 𝑘 − 1 Ma 𝑑𝑥
= 𝑘Ma 2 2 𝑓
Ma 2 1 − Ma 2 𝐷
𝐿∗ 1.0
𝑑𝑥 1 − Ma2
න 𝑓 =න 𝑑Ma2
𝐷 Ma2 𝑘 Ma4 [1 +
1
0 𝑘 − 1 Ma2 ]
2
𝐿∗ is the length of duct required to develop a duct flow from Mach
number Ma to the sonic point.
Non-Isentropic Flow of an Ideal Gas
Compressible Duct Flows with Friction (Fanno Flow)
The upper limit is the sonic point, whether or not it is actually
reached in the duct flow. The lower limit is placed at position 𝑥 = 0,
where the Mach number is Ma.
The result of the integration is:

ҧ ∗ 1 − Ma2
𝑓𝐿 𝑘+1 k + 1 Ma2
= 2
+ ln
𝐷 𝑘 Ma 2𝑘 2 + k − 1 Ma2

where 𝑓 ҧ is the average friction factor between 0 and 𝐿∗ . In practice,

an average 𝑓 is always assumed. For non-circular ducts, 𝐷 is replaced
by the hydraulic diameter 𝐷h = (4 ∗ area)/perimeter.
This equation is tabulated versus Mach number in Table B.3 (White)
and also represented as a graph in Fig. D.2 (Munson et al.).
Non-Isentropic Flow of an Ideal Gas
Compressible Duct Flows with Friction (Fanno Flow)

𝑓 ҧ 𝐿∗ 1 − Ma2 𝑘+1 k + 1 Ma2

= 2
+ ln
𝐷 𝑘 Ma 2𝑘 2 + k − 1 Ma2
Recall that 𝐿∗ in this expression is the length of duct required to
develop a duct flow from Mach number Ma to the sonic point.
Many problems involve short ducts that never become sonic, for
which the solution uses the differences in the tabulated ‘maximum’
or sonic, length.
For example, the length ∆𝐿 required to develop a duct flow from
Ma1 to Ma2 is given by:
∆𝐿 𝐿1−2 𝑓 ҧ 𝐿∗ 𝑓 ҧ 𝐿∗
𝑓ҧ = 𝑓ҧ = −
𝐷 𝐷 𝐷 1 𝐷 2
This avoids the need for separate tabulations for short ducts.
Non-Isentropic Flow of an Ideal Gas
Compressible Duct Flows with Friction (Fanno Flow)
𝐿∗1

Ma1 Ma2 Ma = 1

Imaginary Extension
𝐿1−2 𝐿∗2
1 𝐿1−2 = 𝐿∗1 − 𝐿∗2 2 *

For example, the length ∆𝐿 required to develop a duct flow from

Ma1 to Ma2 is given by:
∆𝐿 𝐿1−2 𝑓 ҧ 𝐿∗ 𝑓 ҧ 𝐿∗
𝑓ҧ = 𝑓ҧ = −
𝐷 𝐷 𝐷 1 𝐷 2
This avoids the need for separate tabulations for short ducts.
Non-Isentropic Flow of an Ideal Gas
EXAMPLE
Air flows in a 5 cm diameter pipe. The air enters at Ma1 = 2.5 and
leaves at Ma2 = 1.5. Assume 𝑓 ҧ = 0.002 and adiabatic flow.
(a) What is the length of pipe required?
(b) What length of pipe would give Ma = 1?

𝐿∗1

Ma1 = 2.5 Ma2 = 1.5 Ma = 1

Imaginary Extension
𝐿1−2 𝐿∗2
1 2 *
Non-Isentropic Flow of an Ideal Gas
SOLUTION
∆𝐿 = 𝐿1−2 is the length required to develop a duct flow from Ma1 to
Ma2 is:
∆𝐿 𝐿1−2 𝑓 ҧ 𝐿∗ 𝑓 ҧ 𝐿∗
𝑓ҧ = 𝑓ҧ = −
𝐷 𝐷 𝐷 1 𝐷 2
where 𝐿∗1 and 𝐿∗2 are the lengths required to develop a duct flow
from Ma1 and Ma2 to the sonic point, respectively.
𝐿∗1

Ma1 = 2.5 Ma2 = 1.5 Ma = 1

Imaginary Extension
𝐿1−2 𝐿∗2
1 2 *
Non-Isentropic Flow of an Ideal Gas
SOLUTION
Part (a): ∆𝐿 = 𝐿1−2 is the length required to develop a duct flow
from Ma1 to Ma2 is:
∆𝐿 𝐿1−2 𝑓 ҧ 𝐿∗ 𝑓 ҧ 𝐿∗
𝑓ҧ = 𝑓ҧ = −
𝐷 𝐷 𝐷 1
𝐷 2

Using Table B.3 (F. White) for Adiabatic Frictional Flow in a

Constant-Area Duct for 𝑘 = 1.4, we observe the following:

𝐿1−2 𝑓 ҧ 𝐿∗ 𝑓 ҧ 𝐿∗
𝑓ҧ = − = 0.432 − 0.136 = 0.296
𝐷 𝐷 1
𝐷 2
Non-Isentropic Flow of an Ideal Gas
SOLUTION
Therefore, solving for 𝐿1−2 gives:
𝐿1−2
𝑓ҧ = 0.296
𝐷
0.296 D 0.296 (0.05 m)
𝐿1−2 = = = 7.4 m
𝑓 ҧ 0.002
Part (b): To get Ma = 1:
𝐿1−∗ 𝑓 ҧ 𝐿∗ 0.432 (0.05 m)
𝑓ҧ = = 0.432 or 𝐿1−∗ = = 10.8 m
𝐷 𝐷 1
0.002
Table B.3
Non-Isentropic Flow of an Ideal Gas
Compressible Duct Flows with Friction (Fanno Flow)
Summary Notes:

- 𝑓 ҧ is the average friction factor between 0 and 𝐿∗

- 𝑓 ҧ is obtained from the Moody chart for Re based on 𝐿∗
- 𝐿∗ is the ‘sonic length’, i.e., the duct length at which Ma = 1 is
achieved
- 𝑓 ҧ is a good correlation for subsonic flow, up to 2x overprediction
for supersonic flows
Non-Isentropic Flow of an Ideal Gas
Compressible Duct Flows with Heat Transfer
For examining the effect of heat transfer (only), the basic
assumptions are:
- no friction
- perfect gas with 𝑐p and 𝑐v constant
- constant area straight duct
- shaft work and potential energy change negligible
This type of duct flow, i.e., constant area, constant mass flow,
constant momentum but variable stagnation enthalpy (due to heat
transfer) is often termed Rayleigh flow.
A plot of enthalpy versus entropy for all possible flow states,
subsonic or supersonic, forms a Rayleigh line.
Non-Isentropic Flow of an Ideal Gas
Compressible Duct Flows with Heat Transfer (Rayleigh Flow)
For this model, the duct area remains constant and no mass is added
within the duct. Therefore, unlike Fanno Flow, the stagnation
temperature is a variable. The heat addition causes a decrease in
stagnation pressure, which is known as the Rayleigh effect.
both supersonic and
subsonic Mach numbers to
approach Mach 1, resulting
in choked flow.

Conversely, heat rejection

decreases a subsonic Mach
number and increases a
supersonic Mach number
along the duct.
Non-Isentropic Flow of an Ideal Gas
Compressible Duct Flows with Heat Transfer (Rayleigh Flow)
The complete list of effects of 𝑇o change on the duct flow properties are:
Heating Cooling
Subsonic Supersonic Subsonic Supersonic
𝑇o Increases Increases Decreases Decreases same
Ma Increases Decreases Decreases Increases
𝑝 Decreases Increases Increases Decreases
𝜌 Decreases Increases Increases Decreases
𝑉 Increases Decreases Decreases Increases
𝑝o Decreases Decreases Increases Increases same
𝑠 Increases Increases Decreases Decreases same
𝑇 Increases up Increases Decreases up Decreases
to Ma = 1/ 𝑘 to Ma = 1/ 𝑘
and decreases and increases
thereafter thereafter
Non-Isentropic Flow of an Ideal Gas
Compressible Duct Flows with Heat Transfer (Rayleigh Flow)
The complete list of effects of 𝑇o change on the duct flow properties are:
Heating Cooling
Subsonic Supersonic Subsonic Supersonic
𝑇o Increases Increases Decreases Decreases same
Ma Increases Decreases Decreases Increases
𝑝 Decreases Increases Increases Decreases
𝜌 Decreases Increases Increases Decreases
𝑉 Increases Decreases Decreases Increases
Effect of Heat Transfer on Flow Velocity
Using the differential form of the 𝑑𝑉 𝛿𝑞 1
=
energy equation, we can show that the 𝑉 𝑐p 𝑇 (1 − Ma2 )
flow velocity increases with heat
addition in subsonic Rayleigh flow, but
decreases in supersonic Rayleigh flow.
Non-Isentropic Flow of an Ideal Gas
Compressible Duct Flows with Heat Transfer (Rayleigh Flow)
The continuity, energy, momentum, and perfect gas law can be
rearranged in terms of Mach number. For convenience, we specific
that the outlet section is sonic, Ma = 1, with reference properties
𝑇o∗ , 𝑇 ∗ , 𝑝∗ , 𝜌∗ , 𝑉 ∗ , 𝑝o∗ . The inlet is assumed to be at Mach number Ma.

𝑇𝑜 𝑘 + 1 Ma2 [2 + 𝑘 − 1 Ma2 ] Working Relations

∗ = for Compressible
𝑇𝑜 1 + 𝑘 Ma2 2
Duct Flow With
𝑇 𝑘 + 1 2 Ma2 𝑝 𝑘+1 Heat Transfer
∗ = =
𝑇 1 + 𝑘 Ma2 2 𝑝 ∗ 1 + 𝑘 Ma2
𝑉 𝜌∗ 𝑘 + 1 Ma2
∗ = =
𝑉 𝜌 1 + 𝑘 Ma2
2 𝑘/(𝑘−1)
𝑝𝑜 𝑘+1 2 + 𝑘 − 1 Ma
∗ =
𝑝𝑜 1 + 𝑘 Ma2 𝑘+1
Normal and Oblique Shock Waves
Normal Shock Waves
In this section, the goal is to develop Mach number based relations
for the special case of normal shock waves.
Normal shock waves occur when supersonic flow (Ma1 > 1) is
decelerated to subsonic flow (Ma2 < Ma1 ). Consider a 1-D flow
through a duct: Control Volume

𝑠1 𝑠2 > 𝑠1

1 2

Entropy ‘jump’ at shock wave (non-isentropic)

Normal and Oblique Shock Waves
Normal Shock Waves
Further manipulation of the relations lead to the convenient Mach
number relations for normal shock waves:
2
𝑝2 1 𝑘 − 1 Ma 1 +2
= 2𝑘 Ma12 − k − 1 2
Ma2 =
𝑝1 𝑘 + 1 2𝑘 Ma12 − (𝑘 − 1)

𝜌2 𝑘 + 1 Ma12 𝑉1
= 2 = 𝑇o2 = 𝑇o1
𝜌1 𝑘 − 1 Ma1 + 2 𝑉2
Working Relations
2
𝑇2 2
2𝑘 Ma 1 − (𝑘 − 1) for Normal
= [2 + 𝑘 − 1 Ma1 ] Shock Wave
𝑇1 𝑘 + 1 2 Ma12
1
𝑘/(𝑘−1)
𝑝o2 𝜌o2 𝑘 + 1 Ma12 𝑘+1 𝑘−1
= =
𝑝o1 𝜌o1 2 + 𝑘 − 1 Ma12 2𝑘 Ma12 − 𝑘 − 1
Normal and Oblique Shock Waves
Table B.2. Normal Shock Relations for a Perfect Gas, 𝑘 = 1.4 ( White)

Note two Mach number

columns (Ma1 : supersonic,
and Ma2 : subsonic).

All the working relations for a

normal shock wave are given in
Table B.2.

Normal and Oblique Shock Waves
Normal Shock Waves
In summary, for normal shock waves:
- are paper-thin lines through which discrete jump of properties occur
- upstream flow is supersonic, downstream flow is subsonic
- for perfect gases, ‘rarefaction’ shocks are impossible, only
compression shocks can exist (‘rarefaction’ = pressure decrease)
- entropy increases across shock wave
- 𝑇o is constant across shock wave
- 𝜌o and 𝑝o decrease across shock wave
- 𝑝, 𝜌, 𝑇 increase across shock wave
- Ma decreases across shock wave

Normal and Oblique Shock Waves
EXAMPLE (E12-8 Fundamentals & Applications 3e, Cengel/Cimbala.)

Assume choked flow (upstream) at throat.

Normal and Oblique Shock Waves
EXAMPLE (E12-8 Fundamentals & Applications 3e, Cengel/Cimbala.)

B.2

Table B.2 (F. White) Normal Shock Relations for a Perfect Gas (𝑘=1.4)

Alternatively, you could use Figure D.4 from Munson et al. or the Working
Relations for a Normal Shock Wave introduced earlier, e.g.,
2 2
2
𝑘 − 1 Ma 1 + 2 1.4 − 1 2 +2
Ma2 = = = 0.333 ∴ Ma2 = 0.5773
2𝑘 Ma12 − (𝑘 − 1) 2(1.4) 2 2 − (1.4 − 1)

Normal and Oblique Shock Waves
EXAMPLE (E12-8 Fundamentals & Applications 3e, Cengel/Cimbala.)

Assume choked flow (upstream) at throat.

Normal and Oblique Shock Waves
EXAMPLE (E12-8 Fundamentals & Applications 3e, Cengel/Cimbala.)

From Table B.2 (F. White)

Normal and Oblique Shock Waves
EXAMPLE (E12-8 Fundamentals & Applications 3e, Cengel/Cimbala.)

Assume choked flow (upstream) at throat.

Normal and Oblique Shocks
Oblique Shock Waves
There are two main differences between normal and oblique shock
waves:
1) The flow behind an oblique shock wave is not necessarily subsonic
(it is always subsonic for normal shock waves). The flow behind an
oblique shock wave can be either subsonic, sonic or supersonic.
2) The flow is deflected (uniformly) at an angle θ behind an oblique
shock wave (the deflection angle θ is always zero for a normal shock
wave).
normal shock wave

θ
deflection
angle θ=0
oblique shock wave
Normal and Oblique Shocks
Oblique Shock Waves
It is convenient to analyze the flow by breaking it up into normal (𝑉𝑛 )
and tangential components (𝑉𝑡 ) with respect to the wave. The shock
wave angle has an arbitrary value 𝛽 and the downstream flow 𝑉2
turns at an angle θ which is a function of 𝛽 and state 1 conditions.
Note there is no change
Note ‘𝑎’ here represents the
in tangential velocity
speed of sound.
across an oblique shock

DOWNSTREAM (State 2)
UPSTREAM (State 1) Supersonic or sonic or
Supersonic flow subsonic flow
Normal and Oblique Shocks
Oblique Shock Waves
That is, we can use the Normal Shock Wave relations derived earlier
but replace Ma1 and Ma2 with Man1 and Man2 :

𝑉n1 V1 sin 𝛽
Man1 = = = Ma1 sin 𝛽
𝑐1 c1
𝑉n2 V2 sin(𝛽 − θ)
Man2 = = = Ma2 sin(𝛽 − θ)
𝑐2 c2
UPSTREAM (State 1)
Supersonic flow 𝛽
𝑉n1 V1 sin 𝛽 𝛽 𝑉1
= 𝛽
𝑐1 c1
𝑉n1 𝑉n1 𝑉t
or sin 𝛽 =
V1
Normal and Oblique Shocks
Oblique Shock Waves
That is, we can use the Normal Shock Wave relations derived earlier
but replace Ma1 and Ma2 with Man1 and Man2 :

𝑉n1 V1 sin 𝛽
Man1 = = = Ma1 sin 𝛽
𝑐1 c1
𝑉n2 V2 sin(𝛽 − θ)
Man2 = = = Ma2 sin(𝛽 − θ)
𝑐2 c2
DOWNSTREAM (State 2)
Supersonic or sonic or
𝛽
subsonic flow
𝛽 𝑉1 θ
𝛽 𝑉n2 𝛽
𝑉n1 𝑉t 𝑉t
𝑉n2 θ
sin(𝛽 − θ) = 𝑉2
V2
Normal and Oblique Shocks
Oblique Shock Waves
For a perfect gas with constant specific heats, the property ratios
across the oblique shock waves are analogs to the Normal Shock
Wave relations with Ma1 replaced by Man1 .

𝑝2 1
= 2𝑘Ma12 sin2 𝛽 − 𝑘 − 1 Working Relations for
𝑝1 𝑘 + 1 Oblique Shock Wave
(1 of 2)
𝜌2 tan 𝛽 𝑘 + 1 Ma12 sin2 𝛽 𝑉n1
= = 2 2
=
𝜌1 tan(𝛽 − 𝜃) 𝑘 − 1 Ma1 sin 𝛽 + 2 𝑉n2

2 2
𝑇2 2 2
2𝑘Ma 1 sin 𝛽− 𝑘−1
= (2 + 𝑘 − 1 Ma1 sin 𝛽)
𝑇1 𝑘 + 1 2 Ma12 sin2 𝛽
Normal and Oblique Shocks
Oblique Shock Waves
For a perfect gas with constant specific heats, the property ratios
across the oblique shock waves are analogs to the Normal Shock
Wave relations with Ma1 replaced by Man1 .

𝑇o2 = 𝑇o1 Working Relations for

Oblique Shock Wave
𝑘 − 1 Ma2n1 + 2 (2 of 2)
Ma2n2 =
2𝑘 Ma2n1 − (𝑘 − 1)
𝑘 1
𝑝02 𝑘 + 1 Ma12 sin2 𝛽 𝑘−1 𝑘+1 k−1
=
𝑝01 𝑘 − 1 Ma12 sin2 𝛽 + 2 2𝑘 Ma12 sin2 𝛽 − 𝑘 − 1

All these are tabulated in the Normal Shock Relations Table B.2
(F. White). The table is also valid for the oblique shock wave (hence
why Mach numbers are listed as Man1 and Man2 ).
Normal and Oblique Shocks
Oblique Shock Waves
The complete family of oblique shock solutions can be plotted
(next slide) or computed using the working relations for oblique
shock waves.
For a given 𝑘, the wave angle 𝛽 varies with Ma1 and θ. By using a
trigonometric identity for tan(𝛽 − θ), this can be rewritten in a
more convenient form:

2 cot 𝛽 Ma1 sin 𝛽 2 − 1 Deflection Angle for an

tan θ = Oblique Shock Wave
(Ma12 𝑘 + cos 2𝛽) + 2
Normal and Oblique Shocks
Oblique Shock Waves
Plotting this function (all possible solutions) for 𝑘 = 1.4 (air) gives:
Deflection Angle

Shock Wave Angle

Normal and Oblique Shocks
Oblique Shock Waves
Plotting this function (all possible solutions) for 𝑘 = 1.4 (air) gives:
Deflection Angle

Sonic Points (green line)

For a given deflection angle θ,
there are two possible solu-
tions at the same freestream
Mach number (Ma1 )

At this point, 𝛽 = 90o

(Normal Shock Wave)

Shock Wave Angle

Normal and Oblique Shocks
Oblique Shock Waves
Plotting this function (all possible solutions) for 𝑘 = 1.4 (air) gives:
Deflection Angle

Maximum Deflection Angle θmax

(red line) represents the largest
deflection that can occur for a given Maximum Deflection Angle for air
Ma1 (oblique shock attached). θmax ≅ 46.5o (even if Ma1 = ∞)

Shock Wave Angle

Normal and Oblique Shocks
Oblique Shock Waves
Subsonic flow
Supersonic flow behind shock
behind shock

θ
deflection angle θ
θ Deflection Angle

Shock Wave Angle

Normal and Oblique Shock Waves
EXAMPLE (E12-10 Fundamentals & Applications 3e, Cengel/Cimbala.)

Subsonic flow
Supersonic flow behind shock
behind shock

Two possible oblique shock angles, (a) 𝛽weak and (b) 𝛽strong , formed by
a two-dimensional wedge of half-angle 𝛿 = 10o (= θ).
Normal and Oblique Shock Waves
EXAMPLE (E12-10 Fundamentals & Applications 3e, Cengel/Cimbala.)
Assumptions: 1) the flow is steady, 2) the boundary layer is very thin.

Note: Alternative to 2 cot 𝛽 Ma1 sin 𝛽 2 − 1

the plot, the shock tan θ =
(Ma12 𝑘 + cos 2𝛽) + 2
wave angle 𝛽 can
be found using the Deflection Angle for an
tan θ function Oblique Shock Wave
shown here (the
solution process
would be iterative).

Normal and Oblique Shock Waves
EXAMPLE (E12-10 Fundamentals & Applications 3e, Cengel/Cimbala.)
We can now calculate the upstream normal Mach number Ma1n for
each case:
Weak Shock:
𝑉n1 V1 sin 𝛽
Man1 = = = Ma1 sin 𝛽 = 2.0 sin 39.3o = 1.267
𝑐1 c1

Strong Shock:
𝑉n1 V1 sin 𝛽
Man1 = = = Ma1 sin 𝛽 = 2.0 sin 83.7o = 1.988
𝑐1 c1
Normal and Oblique Shock Waves
EXAMPLE (E12-10 Fundamentals & Applications 3e, Cengel/Cimbala.)
Using the values of Ma1n , we can now to find the downstream normal
Mach number Ma2n for each case:
Weak Shock:
𝑘 − 1 Ma2n1 + 2 1.4 − 1 1.267 2 + 2
Ma2n2 = 2 = 2
= 0.645
2𝑘 Man1 − (𝑘 − 1) 2 1.4 1.267 − (1.4 − 1)
Therefore, Man2 = 0.803

Strong Shock:
𝑘 − 1 Ma2n1 + 2 1.4 − 1 1.988 2 + 2
Ma2n2 = 2 = 2
= 0.336
2𝑘 Man1 − (𝑘 − 1) 2 1.4 1.988 − (1.4 − 1)
Therefore, Man2 = 0.579
Normal and Oblique Shock Waves
EXAMPLE (E12-10 Fundamentals & Applications 3e, Cengel/Cimbala.)
We can also calculate the downstream pressure for each case:
Weak Shock:
𝑝2 1
= 2𝑘Ma12 sin2 𝛽 − 𝑘 − 1
𝑝1 𝑘 + 1
𝑝2 1 2
= 2 1.4 2 sin2 (39.3o ) − 0.4 = 1.705
𝑝1 2.4

Therefore, 𝑝2 = 𝑝2 /𝑝1 𝑝1 = 1.705 75 kPa = 128 kPa

Normal and Oblique Shock Waves
EXAMPLE (E12-10 Fundamentals & Applications 3e, Cengel/Cimbala.)
We can also calculate the downstream pressure for each case:
Strong Shock:
𝑝2 1
= 2𝑘Ma12 sin2 𝛽 − 𝑘 − 1
𝑝1 𝑘 + 1
𝑝2 1 2
= 2 1.4 2 sin2 (83.7o ) − 0.4 = 4.44
𝑝1 2.4

Therefore, 𝑝2 = 𝑝2 /𝑝1 𝑝1 = 4.44 75 kPa = 333 kPa

Normal and Oblique Shock Waves
EXAMPLE (E12-10 Fundamentals & Applications 3e, Cengel/Cimbala.)
We can now find the downstream Mach number (Ma2 ) for each case.
Weak Shock:
Man2 0.803
Ma2 = = o o
= 1.64
sin(𝛽 − θ) sin(39.3 − 10 )

Strong Shock:
Man2 0.579
Ma2 = = o o
= 0.603
sin(𝛽 − θ) sin(83.7 − 10 )
Note that Ma2 is supersonic behind the weak oblique shock, but
subsonic behind the strong oblique shock.
Alternative to the equations, we can use the Normal Shock Relations
Table B.2 to solve this question (next slide).
Normal and Oblique Shock Waves
EXAMPLE (E12-10 Fundamentals & Applications 3e, Cengel/Cimbala.)
Recall, the question states that supersonic air at Ma1 = 2.0 and
75 kPa impinges on a two-dimensional wedge with 𝛿 = θ = 10o .
We can solve this question using the
Normal Shock Wave Tables. To illustrate Subsonic flow
this procedure, we will focus on the behind shock
strong shock only.
Step 1: Determine the Mach number for
the inlet flow in the normal direction.
Man1 = Ma1 sin 𝛽 = 2.0 sin 83.7o
Man1 = 1.988
If 𝛽 is not given, you can use the tan θ
function (iterative process) or the
function plot (shown earlier).
Normal and Oblique Shock Waves
EXAMPLE (E12-10 Fundamentals & Applications 3e, Cengel/Cimbala.)
Step 2: Once you have solved for Man1 (= 1.988), you can now use
the Normal Shock Relations Table B.2 (F. White) to solve for Man2
and 𝑝2 /𝑝1 .
Table B.2
At Man1 = 1.988:
Man2 = 0.579 (by interpolation)
𝑝2 /𝑝1 = 4.445 (by interpolation)

Step 3: Solve for Ma2 and 𝑝2 (same procedure as earlier):

Man2 0.579
Ma2 = = o o
= 0.603
sin(𝛽 − θ) sin(83.7 − 10 )