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In this section, existing related literature regarding issues about gender in Federalism will

be discussed. The first part will give the definition of Federalism from different types of gender.

Second part is the gender issues in Federalism internationally with some examples. Third part

will also talk about gender issues in Federalism but in local level.


Angela Dorothea Merkel, a German politician who serves as a Chancellor of Germany

since 2005 considers federalism as “one of the major strengths of our country”. By this, she

means that this strength has contributed in fostering their cultural diversity, capacity for

innovation of their country and gives a perception that all German politics has roots in regional

and local civil cultures. In Germany, it was not primarily about size and their cultural diversity

that made way in having Federalism as their kind of government but it was the need to have and

create a governance that functions well in the Western Allied zones with a complete checks and

balances as well as to let the Germans to govern their own selves again into smaller units that

drove primarily the US initiatives to have again the Lander governments. However, just like

other forms of government, Federalism still has bad effects on Germans such as avoiding the

same problems that Germans experienced during the Nazi regime.

Also, Rene V. Sarmiento, professor of law at San Beda University and lecturer at the

University of the Philippines Law Center, and a former COMELEC commissioner wrote about

Q&A Primer on Federalis. In that writings, she first said that in the Philippines, there are already

many people who both opposed and accepts the changes on our type of government and most of

these people are eminent personalities. However, in her writings, Sarmiento made sure that after

the reading it, citizens will have a more understanding regarding Federalism wherein citizens

could know about its origin and history of Federalism in the Philippines and including its
models. Finally, Sarmiento wrote that in shifting to Federalism, it has to be two level of

government that controls the same territory. She considers Federalism as a mixed type of

government that has regional government composed of provinces, state, cantonal, territorial and

other sub-unit government in a single political system. It is a form of government in which

division of powers between the two levels of government has equal status. She also stated some

advantages and disadvantages of federalism in our country and one of the advantage is that the

sharing of forces in a government framework will guarantee that the administrative states will

have sufficient forces to build up their very own social, financial, and political possibilities. With

sufficient forces the government states will have the capacity to modernize themselves. As they

modernize, the political steadiness of the entire nation will be reinforced. However, the

disadvantage of this type of government in our country is that Federalism will give strength to

the political dynasties in the regional governments, perpetrate themselves in power and amass

vast wealth through corruption and the people living there will be affected and there is a big

possibility that those people who are already poor will be poorer.

Gender Issues in Federalism in International Level

Gender scholars argue that a federal type of governance limits the opportunities for the

advancement of gender equality. First issue here is that, if the subnational bodies are

independently in charge of the execution of widespread (human rights) standards it might be all

the more difficult to accomplish consistency. Rather, some gender scholars contend a solid focal

government is fundamental for the consistency of laws, projects and administrations. For

instance, family law that accommodates square with rights in the family is vital for the headway

of sexual orientation balance. Family law has verifiably allowed men colossal power in the

family and oppression ladies and young ladies in family law frameworks places them in a
subordinate position to men inside the family. This irregularity is duplicated in financial issues

and in every aspect of basic leadership in general society circle. In New Zealand – a unitary state

– the ability to institute family law lives with the national government and there is national

family law enactment which is to a great extent consistent with CEDAW and great practice in

family law. In India – paradoxically, an alliance – family law is controlled by the distinctive

religious gatherings and contains numerous laws and practices that victimize ladies. For instance,

spousal upkeep isn't consistently accessible, legacy laws support guys, and separate is blame

based and in a few networks not accessible for ladies.

Second, numerous gender researchers have contended against an administrative model of

administration as a successful model for propelling sex balance on the premise that it limits focal

government power and pieces its capacity to actualize redistributive social arrangements that

advantage ladies and young ladies (Gray, 2006). For instance, if each subnational unit is

separately in charge of the conveyance of open administrations at that point administrations for

ladies may vary as indicated by the riches and needs of each subnational unit. In the event that

benefit conveyance, (for example, medicinal focuses, safe asylums, directing) is duty of

locale/states at that point spending plan, political will, and the quality of ladies' promotion may

decide if administrations are offered, and the sufficiency of administrations advertised. It

likewise sections and disengages ladies' associations and developments making arranging

cooperatively troublesome (Correa, 2014).

Third, a government model of administration can be less receptive to sexual orientation

fairness changes on the grounds that the nearby spotlight is on regional interests and

personalities. Worldwide precedents show alliances frequently endure continuation of provincial

biased practices especially in regions, for example, legacy or family law (Obiora and Tomey


Lastly, a federal model of governance is expensive and convoluted with numerous

foundations (different governments, various organization frameworks, different legal

frameworks). It very well may be troublesome for subjects to comprehend and explore and, for a

littler, poorer nation specifically, this may mean there is less cash for sexual orientation fairness


Gender Issues in Federalism in National Level

Federalism in the Philippines is one of the major problems that our country is facing

wherein there are many number of people who don’t want to have this kind of government but

also there are also many people who wants change especially those from wealthy region.

Professor Maria Ela Atienza, chairperson of the Department of Political Science at the College of

Social Sciences and Philosophy (CSSP) of the University of the Philippines Diliman, Atienza

teaches subjects on governance, politics, local government, gender issues, and human security

still feels that there is a lack of understanding of what federalism is and how it can affect people.

And one of the issues also regarding gender in federalism is that although different regions has

their own power to manage their own affairs such as in crafting their own budget and distribution

if representation in the local assembly. Here we can see that there are many space for new

innovations and opportunities that will enhance people’s participation in government and in the

democratic process but the problem we can see here is that although there are a lots of

opportunities but that opportunities will still just be given to men and women and the LGBTQ

community will be given more opportunities since it is instill in the minds of the people that men

are more capable of governing compared to women. We really can’t escape from that kind of
thinking or perspective of the people because no matter what kind of government we have,

inequality between opportunities given to men, women and LGTBTQ community is really

present. Just like in every other culture, gender roles are prominent also in the Philippines. In

today’s world, the stereotypical woman can be described as a stay at home mother and the

stereotypical man can be described as the moneymaker who provides for his family.

Atienza also said that, issues that must be addressed to champion women regarding their

health under federalism in the country include: accountability; good governance and

participation at the multiple levels of the government; and awareness and appreciation of general

health and women’s health issues not only among state and local authorities but also citizens and

resources and expenditures for women’s and general health programs at the regional and local



Gender equality is very important for us because it gives us the concept that all human

beings regardless of where you came from, what your skin color is or whatever are free to

develop their own personal abilities and make choices of their own without any limitations given

or impose by the society. Rights and opportunities that are given to men must also be given for

women and for the LGBTQ community so that there is fairness to all people. Also, federalism is

indeed helpful to our country and will bring prosperity if this will be properly done by our

government leaders. It is very important that in wanting to shift or change our type of

government, the efforts that were done while planning to change it will still be the same if it will

be allowed to change because the problem with our government leaders today is that they are

only doing their best at first but as the time goes by, their efforts will be vanished and they only

do what’s best for them. Also, another factor to remember also that we have to center upon our
unity as a people living in one country. To also give us a chance to feature the positive things we

share practically speaking, instead of our disparities. For a country is bound by the things that it

adores or relates to. The embodiment of nationhood is considering, feeling, and thinking about

the country all in all, not just for a tip top minority, one's district or part yet for by far most of our

kin - regardless of whether Christian, Muslim, Lumad, worker, poor, ladies, radical, supporter or

other. We need to think that gender is also one of the many things that must be considered in

having changes in the type of our government because all of us will contribute and will be

affected in any of these.


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