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University of Cauca

Language Education Program

PFI

English I
Student’s Textbook

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TALKING ABOUT YOURSELF AND YOUR FAMILY

LANGUAGE EDUCATION PROGRAM


CLASSROOM VOCABUALRY

FRASES Y ORACIONES DE USO EN EL


SALÓN DE CLASE

Students:
Good morning/afternoon/evening.

Excuse me…

Say that again please?

How do I say “Compañero” in English?

Can you help me?

How do you spell “clase”?

I don’t know. I don’t understand.

Teacher:

Move into pairs.

Move into groups of four.

Quiet, please.

FRASES Y ORACIONES PARA CONTROLAR


AL HABLANTE

Please speak slowly.

Please speak more slowly.

I don’t understand.

Repeat please.

Can you repeat that please?

Once more please.

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LANGUAGE EDUCATION PROGRAM
FONÉTICA: LOS SONIDOS DEL INGLÉS AMERICANO - Google: Phonetics university of IOWA

CONSONANANTES
Manera: como se produce el sonido y la forma como el aire se modifica cuando pasa por el sistema fonatorio.
Lugar: lugar de articulación. Se refiere a las partes de la articulación que están involucradas en la producción
del sonido.
Sonoridad: se refiere a si las cuerdas vocales vibran o no durante la producción de una consonante.
Consonantes sonoras: /w/, /v/, /z/, /b/, /d/, /g/, /Ʒ/, /dʒ/, /ð/
Consonantes no sonoras: /h/, /f/, /s/, /p/, /t/, /k/, /ʃ/, /tʃ/, /θ/

Manera:
Un sonido fricativo es una consonante producida al forzar el aire a través de la construcción formada por los
articuladores.
Un sonido africado es una consonante que tiene un sonido fricativo y una manera frenada de producción.
Un sonido nasal es una consonante producida por el cierre total de la cavidad oral pero con el velo abajo para
permitir que el aire salga por la cavidad nasal.
Un sonido “glide” es una consonante caracterizada por un movimiento continuo y deslizado de los articuladores.

Consonant Manner Place Voicing Example


/f/ Fricative Labio dental Voiceless Food, lifeboat, thief
/v/ Fricative Labio dental Voiced Voice, waiver, above
/θ/ Fricative Lingua dental Voiceless Thing, toothbrush, with
/ð/ Fricative Lingua dental Voiced That, wither, smooth
/s/ Fricative Lingua alveolar Voiceless Soap, assume, miss
/z/ Fricative Lingua alveolar Voiced Zipper, buzzer, nose
/ʃ/ Fricative Lingua palatal Voiceless Shoe, fishing, wish
/tʃ/ Affricate Lingua alveolar Voiceless Chop, catcher, watch

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/Ʒ/ Fricative Lingua palatal Voiced Vision, beige
/dƷ/ Affricate Lingua alveolar Voiced Job, badger, cage
/h/ Fricative Glottal Voiceless Happy, greyhound
/ƞ/ Nasal Lingua alveolar Voiced Singer, ring
/j/ Glide Lingua palatal Voiced Yellow, opinion

PHONETIC SYMBOLS AND SOUNDS

PHONETICS EXERCISE
Exercise 1. Match the phonetic transcriptions with the words.
1. /ʃʌt/ a. later
2. /hɑːt/ b. joke
3. /θɪŋk/ c. heart
4. /wɜːk/ d. there
5. /leɪtə/ e. doubt
6. /bɔːt/ f. work
7. /puːl/ g. shut
8. /dɑʊt/ h. think
9. /dʒəʊk/ i. pool
10. /ðeə/ j. bought
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Exercise 2. Listen to the following words and circle the sound that you hear.

1. /æ/ /ʌ/ 6. /eɪ/ /ɑɪ/


2. /æ/ /e/ 7. /ʊ/ /uː/
3. /ʊ/ /ɒ/ 8. /ɪə/ /eə/
4. /ɪː/ /ɪ/ 9. /θ/ /ð/
5. /ɜː/ /ɔː/ 10. /ʃ/ /ʒ/

Exercise 3. The teacher will read out sentences. Tick the word that you hear.

1. ill hill 6. old hold


2. eye high 7. heir hair
3. art heart 8. all hall
4. air hair 9. eight hate
5. ear hear 10. edge hedge

Exercise 4. Write down the first phonetic symbol for the words that you hear.

1._________ 2._________ 3.__________ 4.__________ 5._________

Exercise 5. Write down the last phonetic symbol for the words that you hear.

1._________ 2._________ 3.__________ 4.__________ 5._________

Exercise 6. Mark (x) the words that contain the /s/ sound.

1. song 5. face 9. issue 13. disciple


2. Islam 6. city 10. months 14. sugar
3. vision 7. message 11. castle 15. mix
4. science 8. houses 12. fascism 16. psychology

Exercise 7. Write down the normal language of these phonetic transcriptions.


/ðə stɑrtɪŋ pɔjnt əf ɔːl əˈtʃiːvmənt ɪz dɪˈzaɪər/

_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
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LANGUAGE EDUCATION PROGRAM
LISTENING AND SPEAKING
1. Listening to the conversation It’s Nice to Meet You and answer the following
questions.

QUESTIONS

1. What is the woman’s name?


2. What is the man’s name?
3. How do you spell the woman’s last name?
2. Listen to your teacher and repeat the pronunciation of the English Alphabet.

3. Listen to the recording and write the CORRECT spelling for each name.

1 2 3 4 5 6
Denice Nique Ana Ebon Aike Manddi
__ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __

4. Prepare a conversation following the model of the conversation of exercise 1.

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LANGUAGE EDUCATION PROGRAM
INTENSIVE READING
My name is John. I’m seventeen years old. I’m from Cali, Valle. My mother’s name is Gabriela. She is
a teacher. My father’s name is Jorge. He is a lawyer. I’ve two siblings. My sister is fourteen and my
brother is four years old. They’re students.
Although I’m not a good player, I love playing soccer. My favorite team is Real Madrid. What
is your favorite sport? Are you a good player?
I am not short, I am very tall. My hair is short and dark and I have brown eyes. I like chicken
and candies. Listening to music, sleeping and watching TV are some of the things I like to
do. I don’t like fish and I really hate mathematics.
In my free time, I hang out with my friends; I play video games with the play station or computer
games. My favorite game is Legend of Legends. I love board games and cartoons too.

VERB “TO BE” EXERCISE

1. Notice the use of the verb “to be” in the previous reading. Write down the
correct form of the verb “to be” in present tense in the following text.
My name (be) ________(1) John. I (be) ________(2) fifteen years old. I live on a farm. It (be)
________(3) in the country. It is quiet in the country. It (be, not) ____ ____(4) loud in the country.
I wake up early. Sometimes, I wake up before the sun rises. Sometimes, it (be) ________(5) still dark
when I wake up. But I don’t mind. I like waking up that early. I like the way the country
looks in the morning. The first thing I do after I wake up is milk the cow. After I (be)
________(6) finished milking the cow, I bring the milk to my mom. I think she uses it to
make breakfast. She makes a delicious breakfast. My mom (be) ________(7) a really
good cook.
Next, I feed the pigs. One time, I asked my mom how come my little sister doesn’t feed them. She said
it is because my sister (be, not) ____ ____(8) strong enough. But I still don’t understand. She is almost
as strong as me! I guess my mom doesn’t want my sister to get hurt. After all, the pigs can (be)
________(9) pretty rough, especially when they (be) ________(10) hungry.
The last thing I do (be) ________(11) feed the chickens. That (be) ________(12) easy. I just throw
some food down on the ground and they run out and eat it. While the chickens (be) ________(13)
eating, I go into their house to collect their eggs. Chicken eggs (be) ________(14) really good to eat.
They (be) ________(15) easy to cook too. That is what I do in the mornings. I (be) ________(16)
pretty busy.

2. Ask the following questions in English to your classmates.

1. ¿Quién es John?
2. ¿Cuántos años tiene John?
3. ¿La mama de John es una buena cocinera?
4. ¿Son rudos los cerdos cuando tienen hanbre?
5. ¿Qué es fácil de cocinar?

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LANGUAGE EDUCATION PROGRAM
VERB “TO BE” CONJUGATION

Affirmative Sentences

Subject Verb Complement Pronoun Verb Contractions


My name is John I am I’m
I am 17 years old You are You’re
My father’s is Jorge He is He’s
name She is She’s
My sister is fourteen It is It’s
They are students We are We’re
You are You’re
They are They’re
Negative Sentences

Subject verb + not Complement Pron. Verb + Contractions


I am not a good player not
I ’m not short I am not I’m not
You are not You’re not You aren’t
He is not He’s not He isn’t
She is not She’s not She isn’t
It is not It’s not It isn’t
We are not We’re not We aren’t
You are not You’re not You aren’t
They are not They’re not They aren’t
Yes/No Question

Verb Subject Complement


Verb Subject Complement
Am I your friend?
Are you a good player? Are you a good English student?
Is he your husband?
Is she a good student?
Is it here?
Are we in the museum?
Are you at the university?
Are they married?
WH-Questions

WH-word Verb Subject WH word Verb Subject


Where am I?
What is your favorite sport?
What kind of person are you?
How many chairs are there?
Who is he?
When is it?
What color is it?
How tall are we?
Why are you here?
How old are they?

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VERB “TO BE” HOMEWORK

I. Fill in the blanks with the correct form of the verb TO BE

1. I ________ an English student. 6. The car _______black.


2. How old ______ you? 7. They ________ angry.
3. We _______ singers. 8. My sisters _______ happy.
4. _______ she a teacher? 9. ______they my siblings?
5. They ________ my parents. 10. What _______ your name?
II. Correct each one of the following sentences.
1. My father and mother is teachers. ___________________________________________________
2. Is your parents 45 years old? _______________________________________________________
3. I are a good student. ______________________________________________________________
4. Juan and Nancy is my siblings. _____________________________________________________
5. What are your name? ____________________________________________________________

III. Write sentences according to Martha’s family tree. Use the verb BE.

Pedro Milena
Father/Grandfather/Husband Mother/Grandmother/Wife
Lawyer Housewife
54 years old 45 years old

Martha
Daughter/Mother
Teacher
27 years old

Betty
Martha’s
daughter/Granddaughter
Student
6 years old

1. Pedro __________________________________________________________________________
2. Martha _________________________________________________________________________
3. Pedro and Milena ________________________________________________________________
4. Betty___________________________________________________________________________
5. Milena _________________________________________________________________________

IV. Answer the following questions with your own information.


1. What is your last name? 2. How old are you? 3. Are you an only child? 4. Where are you from? 5.
What is your address?
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LANGUAGE EDUCATION PROGRAM
LISTENING AND SPEAKING

1. Listen to the conversation Tell me about Your Brother and Sister Sue and answer the
following questions.

QUESTIONS:

1. What does Sue’s sister do?

2. What does Sue’s brother do?

3. Where are Sue’s siblings now?

2. Prepare a conversation with your partner about the family. Ask about:
Parents’ names
Parents’ occupations
Parents’ ages
Number of siblings
Siblings’ names
Siblings’ occupations
Siblings’ ages

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LANGUAGE EDUCATION PROGRAM
DICTATION

Listen to your teacher and complete the text.

I (1) ___________ Maria Realpe. I (2) ___________ from Cali,


but now I ___________ in Popayán. I live with my mother,
father, brother and ____________. They (3) ___________ in
my house now. My brother (4) ___________ seventeen years
old. He (5) ___________ a student. He likes ___________. He
(6) ___________ very important to me. My brother and I (7)
___________ good ____________. We (8) ___________ very
close and listen to music in the afternoon. My sister (9)
___________ small; she (10) ___________ three years old.
She (11) ___________ my sunshine. What about you? (12)
___________ you a good friend of your sister or brother?
Where (13) ___________ your parents now?

2. Listen to your teacher and write down the whole text.

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LANGUAGE EDUCATION PROGRAM
WRITING WITH FEEDBACK

Write a paragraph about your personal information. Mention your full


name, age, program, parents’ names, occupations, ages, etc.

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LANGUAGE EDUCATION PROGRAM
INTEGRATED-SKILL ACTIVITY - ELECTRONIC ENGINEERING – LEVEL 1

1. SPEAKING. Before you read the passage, talk with your classmates
about these questions:
a. What is one unit of measurement in electricity?
b. Why is copper wire used in electrical wiring?

THE BASICS OF ELECTRICITY – Professor Vanessa Thompson.


Tuesday, Thursday 12-2 PM
In this class, students learn about the basics of electricity. First, they learn how electricity is created.
This leads to an in-depth study of electrons. Then students learn about electrical charge, current, and
resistance. They also find out how a material conducts current. Finally, students learn how to measure
electricity. They study units of measurement such as amperes, volts, ohms, and watts. At the end of
the class, students do a final project. Each student builds his or her own electrical circuit.

2. Reading
Read the course description. Then, mark the following
statements as true (T) or false (F).
a. __ Electrons are a unit of measurement.
b. __ Students learn about electrical currents.
c. __ The final project is a written exam.

3. VOCABULARY. Match the words (1-8) with the definitions (A-H).


1. __ ampere A The flow of electricity
2. __ charge B a unit that measures electrical resistance
3. __ circuit C how much an object opposes an electric current passing through it
4. __ conduct D a system of electrical conductors that electricity flows through
5. __ current E the act of electricity passing through an object
6. __ electron F the electric property of an object that makes it have a negative or positive
force
7. __ ohm G the particle in an atom that carries electric currents
8. __ resistance H the base unit of an electric current

4. Listen and read the course description again. What will students complete as a final project?
_______________________________________________________________________________

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5. LISTENING. Listen to a conversation between a professor and a student. Mark the following
statements as True (T) or false (F).

a. __ The student was confused about resistance.


b. __ The professor gave an example of an object with resistance.
c. __ The more resistance, the more current that passes through.

6. LISTENING-WRITING. Listen again and complete the conversation.

Student: Excuse me, Professor Thompson. I was


1 _________ by some of the stuff you said today.
Professor: Okay. What were you confused about?
Student: Well, can you clarify what 2 ___________ is,
please?
Professor: Of course. Resistance is how much a material
opposes an electrical 3 ___________.
Student: Okay. But how does it 4 _________, exactly?
Professor: Some materials are made up of insulators that
block current from passing through. This
5 ____________ is electrical resistance.
Student: So, the 6 _________ current allowed through, the
more resistance?
Professor: Exactly.

7. WRITING.
Use the course description and the conversation from task 6 to fill out the student’s notes.

Monday, 8-10
Electricity 101
What are some units of measurements for electricity?
________________ and ___________________ are some _____________________________.
How are they different?
_______________________ measures _______________ and _____________ measures
_________________.

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TALKING ABOUT ROUTINES
LANGUAGE EDUCATION PROGRAM
INTENSIVE READING
Lesley’s Day
Lesley is an ESOL teacher at Hackney College in London. On
weekdays she always gets up at about 7 o’clock. She has a shower
and she has breakfast with her husband and daughter. After breakfast
she brushes her teeth and gets dressed and then she takes her
daughter to school. She goes to college by bicycle at 8:30 and she
starts work at 9 o’clock.
At about 1:30 she usually has lunch. She has a sandwich and some fruit in her office. She finishes
work at 5’oclock and picks up her daughter from her after-school club. She usually has dinner at
about 7 o’clock and then she drinks a cup of coffee. In the evening she watches television or
sometimes she listens to the radio. She likes listening to music. She usually goes to bed at about
11:30. Then she reads her book for about half an hour. She goes to sleep at midnight.

Notice the verbs used in the previous text about Lesley’s routine. Write the correct
form of the verb in present tense in the following text.
Use the information in parenthesis to complete the questions at the end of the text.

Susan usually _____________ (go) to university at 7:30. She _______________ (have) classes of
English and Economics from 8 a.m. to 12 p.m. She _____________ (eat lunch) with her friends at the
university cafeteria. Susan’s friends usually ______________ (eat) soup, rice, chicken, and juice for
lunch. Susan _____________ (prefer) to eat fish, salad and juice for lunch. She _______________
(not eat) soup or rice because she ____________ (be) on a low carbohydrate diet.

Susan ______________ (come back) home at 2 p.m. and


_____________ (do) her homework. She _________________ (not
watch) television in the afternoon and the evening. She and her
parents _________________ (not like) to watch television; they think
it ______________ (be) a waste of time.

Susan _______________ (go) to bed at 9 p.m. because she


_____________ (get up) at 5 a.m. every day to study an online
course in English about finances.

What about you? ________________________________ (you / what time / get up)?


________________________________ (you / watch / television)?

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SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE GENERAL RULES

We use the Present Simple for daily


Affirmative and Negative routines and activities. With I, we, Questions
you and they the Present Simple
+ - affirmative form is the same as the I
I infinitive. With he, she, and it we add Do we
We work don’t work –s to the infinitive, but note these What time do you
You do not work exceptions: they
They work
He doesn’t work Verbs Watch: Does he ?
She works does not work endings Add -es Watches When does she
It -ch, -s, Go: Goes it
-sh, -x and
I work in an office. -o In questions, don’t add –s to the
She doesn’t work every day. Verbs Remove Carry: verb.
ending -y and add Carries Note the short answers:
consonant -ies. Yes, I/we/you/they do.
+ -y he/she/it does.
No, I/we/you/they don’t.
Note: The third person of have is he/she/it doesn’t.
has.
Verbs ending with a vowel + -y are
regular: Play: He plays.

SINPLE PRESENT TENSE CONJUGATION

Affirmative Sentences
Pronoun Verb Complement Subject Verb Complement
I get up at 5 a.m.
You go to bed at 9 p.m. She gets up about 7 o’clock
He works from 8 to 6 She has a shower
She studies In the morning
It rains every day She brushes her teeth
We eat soup for lunch
You have breakfast with your family
They do their homework

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Negative Sentences
Pron Auxiliary Verb Complement Sub verb + Verb Comple.
. + not
I do not get up at 5 a.m. not
You do not go to bed at 9 She does not drive to work
He does not work from 8 to 6
She does not study in the morning She does not go to bed at 9
It does not rain every day
We do not eat soup for lunch
You do not have with your family
breakfast
They do not do their homework

Yes/No Question
Auxi. Subje. Verb Complement Aux. Subj Verb Comple.
do I get up at 5 a.m.? Does she drive to work?
do you go to bed at 9? Does she go to bed at 9?
does he work from 8 to 6?
does she study in the morning?
does it rain every day?
do we eat soup for lunch?
do you have breakfast with your family?
do they do their homework?

WH Questions
Wh-Word Auxil. Subj. Verb Wh- Auxi. Su. Verb
What time do I get up?
What do you do? word
Where does he work? Where does she have lunch?
How many friends does she have?
How often does it rain? What does she eat for lunch?
What kind of food do we eat?
What time do you have lunch
Who do they study with?

Practice the following questions. Ask them. Write short answers.

QUESTION ANSWER

1. What time … get up?


2. Do … shower … morning?
3. How … work or college?
4. What time … start work or college?
5. Where … lunch?
6. What … for lunch?
7. What time … dinner?
8. Who … dinner with?
9. What … do in the evening?
10. What time … bed?

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LANGUAGE EDUCATION PROGRAM
SIMPLE TENSE HOMEWORK

1. Add –s / -es / -ies to the following verbs.

2. Use the verbs in brackets to complete the sentences, as in the example:


1. I ..live.. (live) in Edinburgh.
2. He ………. (do) his homework every evening.
3. She’s a teacher. She ……….. (work) at primary school.
4. “Are you a singer?” “No, I’m a pilot. I ………….. (fly) airplanes.
5. Joan …………. (wash) her hair every day.
6. The museum …………….. (close) at seven in the evening.
7. Daniel ……………. (brush) his teeth every morning.
8. She ……………... (study) Science at university.

3. Write questions and negative answers as in the example.


Tom lives in England. → Does Tom live in England? No, Tom doesn’t live in England.
Mr. Simpson teaches Chemistry. →_____________________________________________________
You like playing computer games. → ___________________________________________________
John and Sue work in a café. →________________________________________________________
We do the shopping on Saturdays. →___________________________________________________
The baby cries all the time. →_________________________________________________________

4. Match the questions to the answers.


1. What time does she get up? A. She goes to bed at 10:00.
2. Does he walk to school? B. No, she doesn’t.
3. Does she have breakfast every day? C. She does her homework.
4. What does she do in the afternoon? D. Yes, he walks to school.
5. When does she go to bed?

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LANGUAGE EDUCATION PROGAM
PRONUNCIATION – Third-Person singular – s endings

1. Listen and practice. Notice the pronunciation of the –s endings.

S = /S/ S = /Z/ (e)s = /IZ/ irregular


take takes drive drives dance dances do does
sleep sleeps study studies watch watches have has

2. Find the exit following the (e)s= /IZ/ ending of the verbs.

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HOME PRACTICE
word final -s = /s, z, Iz/
Video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=r8ksyiycxq4&list=PLcn-K68f4IskMdeTSsCCBYSa4J7FZ099R
Audio: http://www.allenglish.org/Activities/activities-spronunciation3.html
Directions: Decide if the word ends with an /s/, /Ιz/, or a /z/ sound. Circle the correct answer.

1. acts* /s/ /Ιz/ /z/

2. replies* /s/ /Ιz/ /z/

3. gets /s/ /Ιz/ /z/

4. crashes* /s/ /Ιz/ /z/

5. invests /s/ /Ιz/ /z/

6. debates* /s/ /Ιz/ /z/

7. ages* /s/ /Ιz/ /z/

8. feels /s/ /Ιz/ /z/

9. persuades /s/ /Ιz/ /z/

10. searches* /s/ /Ιz/ /z/

11. appears /s/ /Ιz/ /z/

12. releases /s/ /Ιz/ /z/

13. spends /s/ /Ιz/ /z/

14. results* /s/ /Ιz/ /z/

15. attempts* /s/ /Ιz/ /z/

Answers: * Can be nous as well.

1
acts* /s/ 9. persuades /z/
.
2 replies
/z/ 10. searches* /Ιz/
. *
3
gets /s/ 11. appears /z/
.
4 crashe
/Ιz/ 12. releases /Ιz/
. s*
5
invests /s/ 13. spends /z/
.
6 debate
/s/ 14. results* /s/
. s*
7
ages* /Ιz/ 15. attempts* /s/
.

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8
feels /z/
.

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LANGUAGE EDUCATION PROGRAM
INTENSIVE READING

Mary’s Night
On Monday, Mary comes back home from work. She looks at the clock and
yawns. What time is it? She asks herself. It’s nine o'clock. She goes to her
bedroom and puts on her pajamas. She gets her blanket. She lies down on her
bed. The room is cold. It’s rainy outside. She gets up and goes to her closet to get
extra blankets. She lies down again and covers herself. She falls asleep at half
past ten. She wakes up at midnight to get a glass of water. She drinks the glass
of water. She walks back to her bedroom. What time is it? She asks herself
again. It is five to one. She yawns and falls asleep. Two hours passes. She
wakes up and goes to the restroom. She hears a noise outside her window. She
looks out the window to see what it is. It is a black cat climbing a tree. She hushes
the cat. The cat runs away. She goes back to bed. She closes her eyes and falls
asleep. She sleeps very little.

IN ON AT
Parts of the day: in
the morning,
afternoon, evening. Days of the week:
Months: January, Times:
Monday, Tuesday morning
February… Three o’clock,
Weekdays, weekends
Years: 2001, 2002 midday/noon
Dates: July 12th, 2012,
Seasons: summer, midnight.
my birthday, Christmas
winter, autumn, Night
Day.
spring. Vacation

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LANGUAGE EDUCATION PROGRAM
PREPOSITION HOMEWORK

ACTIVITY 1:
Complete the text with the correct time preposition: IN, ON, AT.

My father’s name is Jack. He is a math’s teacher in an elementary school. (1)


_____ the mornings he usually gets up (2) _____ 6:30. But this is only (3)
______ weekdays, because (4) _____ weekends he gets up later. (5) _____
Tuesday and Thursdays he has lunch in the school (6) ______ 12:30, because
he has lessons both (7) _____ the morning and (8) ______ the afternoon. The
other days he finishes work (9) _____ noon, so he comes home for lunch. He
sometimes corrects exercises (10) _____ the evenings after dinner.
My father has his summer holiday (11) ______ August. He has a difficult job, but
he loves it!

ACTIVITY 2:
Complete the sentences with the correct time preposition:

1. What do you usually do _______ weekends?

IN 2. My father doesn’t work _______ Saturdays.


3. The film starts ______ 11:00 p.m. and finishes _______ midnight.
4. ______ spring, my garden is full of flowers.
5. William Shakespeare was born ______ 1564.

ON 6. My mum’s birthday is _____ May 5th.


7. Our office is closed ______ August.
8. There are a lot of stars in the sky ______ night.
9. My best friend always phones me _______ the evening.
AT 10. ______ my birthday I always have a big party.
11. I love reading in bed ______ Sunday mornings.

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27
LANGUAGE EDUCATION PROGRAM
LISTENING AND SPEAKING

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LANGUAGE EDUCATION PROGRAM
LISTENING AND SPEAKING
1. Read and Listen

Rick: What time is English class?


Lily: 10: 00.
Rick: Uh-oh. Am I late?
Lily: No, you’re not. It’s five to ten.
Rick: Five to ten?
Lily: That’s right. Don’t worry. You’re on time.

2. Practice the conversation. Use the clock, the class times and this guide

A: What time is …….?


B: ______________________.
A: Uh –oh. Am I late?
B: ______________. It’s ______________.
A: ____________________?
B: That’s right. _____________.

Math Class
Ethics
Sports class
class
8:00
2:00 a.m
p.m
10: 00 a.m

3. Listening Exercise. Listen and complete the table with the show times for the movies

Holiday in Rome Hong Kong Warrior Ralph the rabbit Alien from Saturn
3:40

LANGUAGE EDUCATION PROGRAM


WRITING WITH FEEDBACK
THE PARAGRAPH
29
DEFINICIÓN DE PÁRRAFO: Un
párrafo es la mínima unidad de
redacción que explica y desarrolla el
significado de una idea. La idea
principal de un párrafo está
contenida en una oración principal,
la cual debe ser lo suficientemente
clara.

PARTES DEL PÁRARFO:


Generalmente tiene tres partes:
1. La oración temática
2. Las oraciones argumentativas
3. La oración concluyente

LA ORACION TEMÁTICA: La idea principal de un párrafo está contenida en una oración temática, la
cual debe ser lo suficientemente clara. Una buena oración temática no es demasiado general o
demasiado estricta en su sentido. Es recomendable establecer la idea central al principio del párrafo,
en la primera oración.

LAS ORACIONES ARGUMENTATIVAS: Van después de la oración principal, componen el cuerpo de


un párrafo. Dan detalles para desarrollar y sustentar la idea principal del párrafo. Se deben dar
hechos, detalles y ejemplos para sustentar.

LA ORACIÓN CONCLUYENTE: La oración concluyente es la última oración de un párrafo. Reafirma


la idea principal del párrafo. Se debe volver a exponer la idea del párrafo usando palabras diferentes.

EJEMPLO DE CONSTRUCCIÓN DE PÁRRAFO


1. Oración temática: Hay tres razones por las cuales Canadá es uno de los mejores países del
mundo.
2. Explicación o desarrollo de la oración principal
a. Canadá tiene un excelente sistema de salud. Todos los canadienses tienen acceso a los
servicios médicos a un precio razonable.
b. Canadá tiene un alto estándar de educación.
c. Las ciudades canadienses son limpias y están dirigidas de manera eficiente.

3. Oración concluyente: Canadá es un lugar deseable para vivir.


There are three reasons why Canada is one of the best countries in the world. First, Canada has an
excellent health care system. All Canadians have access to medical services at a reasonable price.
Second, Canada has a high standard of education. Students are taught by well-trained teachers and
are encouraged to continue studying at university. Finally, Canada's cities are clean and efficiently
managed. Canadian cities have many parks and lots of space for people to live. As a result, Canada is
a desirable place to live.

How to Write a Descriptive Paragraph

30
The purpose of descriptive writing is to make our readers see, feel, and hear what
we have seen, felt, and heard. Whether we're describing a person, a place, or
a thing, our aim is to reveal a subject through vivid and carefully
selected details.

1) Find and Explore a Topic : Before you can write an effective descriptive paragraph, you need to do
two things:
1. Find a good topic.
2. Study the topic carefully (a strategy that we call probing).

2) Draft a Descriptive Paragraph: Once you have settled on a topic for your descriptive paragraph and
collected some details, you're ready to assemble those details in a rough draft that begins with
a topic sentence. (Topic sentence is a sentence, sometimes at the beginning of a paragraph,
that states or suggests the main idea (or topic) of a paragraph.)

3) Revise a Descriptive Paragraph: Now you will revise your descriptive paragraph, concentrating on
its organization. That is, you will check to see that your sentences follow a clear and logical
order, each detail related to the one that came before and leading to the one that follows.

4) Revise, Edit, and Proofread: You're almost done. It's now time to invite someone else (a classmate,
for example, or your instructor) to read your descriptive paragraph and suggest ways to
improve it. Taking your reader's comments into consideration, revise the paragraph one last
time, using as a guide this Revision.
Checklist for a Descriptive Paragraph:
a. Does your paragraph begin with a topic sentence--one that clearly identifies the person, place,
or thing you're about to describe?
b. In the rest of the paragraph, have you clearly and consistently supported the topic sentence
with specific descriptive details?
c. Have you followed a logical pattern in organizing the supporting sentences in your paragraph?
Is your paragraph unified--that is, do all your supporting sentences relate directly to the topic
introduced in the first sentence?
d. Is your paragraph cohesive--that is, have you clearly connected the supporting details in your
paragraph and guided readers from one sentence to the next? Throughout the paragraph,
have you chosen words that clearly, accurately, and specifically show readers what you mean?
e. Have you read your paragraph aloud (or asked someone to read it to you) to check for trouble
spots, such as awkward phrasing or needless repetition?
f. Finally, have you carefully edited and proofread your paragraph?

Gregory is my beautiful gray Persian cat. He walks with pride and


grace, performing a dance of disdain as he slowly lifts and lowers
each paw with the delicacy of a ballet dancer. His pride, however,
does not extend to his appearance, for he spends most of his time
indoors watching television and growing fat. He enjoys TV commercials, especially
those for Meow Mix and 9 Lives. His familiarity with cat food commercials makes
him to reject generic brands of cat food in favor of only the most expensive
brands. Gregory is as careful about visitors as he is about what he eats,
associating with some and repelling others. He may snuggle up against your
ankle, begging to be petted, or he may imitate a skunk and stain your favorite
trousers. Gregory does not do this to establish his territory, but to humiliate me
because he is jealous of my friends. After my guests leave, I look at him smiling to

31
himself in front of the television set, and I have to forgive him for his annoying,
but charming, habits.

32
LANGUAGE EDUCATION PROGRAM
WRITING WITH FEEDBACK
Write a descriptive paragraph about the routine of a very close relative.
First draf

Final paper

LANGUAGE EDUCATION PROGRAM


DICTACTION
Listen to your teacher and complete the text.
Tom ________ at a _________. He _____ the manager. He _______
work every day _____ _____ _____. He __________ work every day
_____ _______ ______. He _______ very close to the ________. He
________ to _______ every _______. _____ ________ and ________
also _______ _____ the bank. However, they _____ ____ _______ close
to the bank. They _______ cars to ______. They _______ _______
_____ _____ ____. In the bank, Tom _____ the _______. He ________
all the _______ and _______ them what to do. He ________ ______
_____. He ____ also very ________ _____ ______ ______.
Many customers like Tom, and they ________ hello to ______ when
they ________ to the bank. Tom __________ to talk to the customers and ________ ______
feel _______. Tom really ________ _____ ______.

33
LANGUAGE EDUCATION PROGRAM
3/2/1

Talk about a relative’s routine.


LANGUAGE EDUCATION PROGRAM
WRITING: INFORMATION TRANSFER

Watch the video sequence and take notes. Then, write about Vanessa’s routine.

Notes:

Vanessa’s Routine

34
LANGUAGE EDUCATION PROGRAM
SUBSTUTION TABLES

1. Oral practice: Simple Present WH-Questions.

What time do you work


How long we study
Where they go shopping
How many students I have ?
Who live with
Which subject does she like
Why he work alone
What type of music it listen to

2. Write down four questions that follow the previous patterns.


1.
2.
3.
4

3. Oral practice: Prepositions of Time.

Bryan and Carlos get up January


You watch television 6 a.m.
I like to exercise at the evening
We study in Mondays and Wednesday .
Martha works on night
He loves reading the afternoon
It always rains Saturday’s mornings

4. Write four sentences that follow the previous pattern.


1.
2.
3.
4

35
LANGUAGE EDUCATION PROGRAM
INTEGRATED-SKILL ACTIVITY - ELECTRONIC ENGINEERING – LEVEL 1

ELECTRIC CIRCUITS

1. READING. Read the text and try to label the picture


with the name of each part.

An electric Circuit or network is a pathway through


which the electric current can flow. A simple circuit
consists of a power source, two conducting
wires, each one attached to a terminal of the
source and a device through which electricity can
flow. This device is called a load and it's attached
to the wires. If all the parts are properly
connected, the current flows and the lamp lights
up. This kind of circuit is called 'closed'.
On the contrary, if the wires are disconnected the
circuit is called 'open' or 'broken'. The circuit can
be opened and closed by a device called a switch.
Loads can turn electrical energy into a more
useful form. Some examples are:
■ light bulbs, which change electrical energy
into light energy;
■ electric motors, which change electrical energy into mechanical energy;
■ speakers, which change energy into sound.
The source provides the electrical energy used by the load. It can be a storage battery or a
generator. The switch interrupts the current delivered to the load by the source and allows us to
control the flow.
When an abnormally high amount of current passes through a network, you get a short circuit.
This may occur when there is a drop ¡n the resistance or a broken insulation. In order to
prevent short circuits, it is best to use fuses, which melt when too much current flows through
them, interrupting in this way the circuit.

2. In pairs, compare your picture and check the correct answers.

36
3. VOCABULARY. Match the words with their definitions:

1. load a. ____ a device which interrupts the circuit


2. switch b. ____ a circuit in which wires are disconnected
3. source c. ____ a device which provides power
4. fuse d. ____ a complete circuit with no breaks at all
5. closed circuit e. ____ a device which consumes electric power
6. broken circuit f. ____ a protective device

4. READING-WRITING. Read the text again and answer the following questions:

1 What does a simple circuit consist of?


________________________________________________________________________________.
2 What happens to the lamp in a closed circuit?
________________________________________________________________________________.
3 Can you name some examples of loads?
________________________________________________________________________________.
4 What is a generator?
________________________________________________________________________________.
5 What is the function of a switch?
________________________________________________________________________________.
6 When does a short circuit occur?
________________________________________________________________________________.
7 What can we use to prevent short circuits?
________________________________________________________________________________.
8 How does a fuse work?
________________________________________________________________________________.

5. Compare your answers with a classmate and with your teacher.

37
TALKING ABOUT CLOTHES AND WEATHER
LANGUAGE EDUCATION PROGRAM - INTENSIVE READING
1. Read the text and underline the nouns related to clothes and accessories.

Jenny tells us about her favorite places for shopping in London

When I visit London, one of my favorite things to do is shopping!


I really enjoy searching for a bargain in the sales, and buying
something new to wear on a Saturday night, for example a beautiful dress,
high heels and a purse. I also like doing window-shopping. It’s nice and it
doesn't cost a penny! Sometimes I spend hours just walking around a
market and having a chat with my friends.
There are lots of different places to go shopping in London. One of the most famous places
is Oxford Street, but it gets too busy sometimes. If you want a more relaxing shopping experience,
go to Covent Garden. There you can have a cappuccino, and watch some street theater at the
same time.
Some people like shopping in department stores. The most famous one in London is
'Harrods' in Knightsbridge, but for me, it's not modern and it’s too expensive. Sometimes shopping
there is really a rip-off! The best of all the big department stores is 'Selfridges' in Oxford Street. It's
a shoppers' paradise, nice clothes like jeans, t-shirts, trousers, panties, scarves, and the prices?
Well, at least I can look, can't I?
If you go to London, you can’t miss Camden street markets. It's busy and exciting. You can
find trendy accessories like sunglasses, earrings and all kinds of shoes for really low prices. It’s
really a bargain!

2. Classify the nouns in singular and plural in the following chart.

SINGULAR PLURAL

3. Complete the following sentences, making any underlined singular nouns


plural. Notice that modifiers like many, most, and two, signal the plural form of
count nouns.
Example: The student studied for the history midterm.
Many students studied for the history midterm.

1. I filled a box while I was working.


1. I filled several _______________ while I was working.

2. The library has a collection of rare books.


2. Most _____________ have _____________ of rare books.

3. The photographer took shots of a wolf traveling in a pack.


3. A team of ______________ took shots of _____________ traveling in a pack.

4. The woman ran a daycare center.


4. The three _____________ ran a daycare center together.

5. Maria ate a stuffed tomato for dinner.


5. Maria ate two stuffed _____________ for dinner.

38
THE PLURAL OF NOUNS

1. How to form the plural 2. Nouns ending in sibilants


We form the plural by adding Add -es. Add -s if the noun ends in one -e.
-s to the singular of the noun. The English sibilants are /s, z, ʃ, ʒ, tʃ, dʒ/

Singular Plural Singular plural


A car Two cars A box Two boxes
A cassette Two cassettes A sandwich Two sandwiches
A lamp Two lamps A suitcase Two suitcases
A hat Two hats A rose Two roses
A cup Two cups A garage Two garages

3. Nouns ending in -y
3.1. y after consonant 3.2. y after vowel
Change –y to –i, then add –es. Add –s after a vowel.
Singular Plural Singular plural
A city Two cities A boy Two boys
A lady Two ladies A day Two days

4. Nouns ending in –f or –fe 5. Nouns ending in o


Plurals of nouns that end in –f or A lot of nouns that end in o take es in the
–fe usually change the –f sound plural.
a –v sound and add –s or –es.

Singular Plural Singular plural


A knife Two knives A potato Three potatoes
A leaf Two leaves A hero Two heroes
A life Two lives
A wife Two wives

6. Irregular Nouns
Singular Plural Singular Plural
A woman Two women A goose Two geese
A child Two children A foot Two feet
A mouse Two mice An ox Two oxen
A man Two men A tooth The teeth

39
TIC TAC TOE
Clothes: singular / plural

panty T-shirt purse

tie jeans sunglasses

dress shoe scarf

earring blouse watch

jacket trousers boot

glove sock suit

belt hat vest

swimsuit sweater coat

briefcase cap necklace

40
41
LANGUAGE EDUCATION PROGRAM
PLURAL AND SINGULAR NOUNS HOMEWORK
Change the sentences from singular into plural.
1. There is a mouse under the bed.
2. This is a box.
3. This is a child.
4. There is a goose in the garden.
5. He is a thief.
6. My foot is cold.
7. He has an ox.
8. There is a man there.
9. He is in the bus.
10. He has a nice watch.
11. There is a knife on the table.
12. She has a baby.
13. She is a beautiful woman.
14. This is a red dress.
15. He is a boy.
16. This is a big city.
17. This leaf is green.
18. He wears a nice scarf.

Additional Task: Put the sentences into the possessive case, using apostrophes.
1. The book of the girl.
2. The bike of Jim.
3. The shoes of the women.
4. The husband of Mrs. West.
5. The toys of the children.
6. The room of Helen.
7. The leg of the dog.
8. The eyes of the cats.
9. The garden of Mrs. Brown.
10. The father of Jean.
11. The brother of Helen.
12. The books of the boys.

LANGUAGE EDUCATION PROGRAM


LISTENING AND SPEAKING

Shopping for clothes. Colors and sizes

1. Listen to three people buying clothes and complete the grid.

Clothes item Color Size


Woman 1

42
Woman 2

Woman 3

2. Read the conversation. Turn the copy, listen to the conversation and answer the questions.

QUESTIONS:
1. How much are the gloves?
2. Which scarf does she want?
3. Does she buy the hat?

3. Read and listen to the conversation.

Man: Can I help you?


Woman: Yes, thank you. How much are these gloves?
Man: The gray ones? They’re $ 18
Woman: Oh, that’s not bad! Do they come in black?
Man: No, sorry. Just gray.
Woman: Ok. Hmmm, how much is that scarf?
Man: Which one? The blue and orange one?
Woman: No, the yellow one.
Man: Let’s see. It’s $ 24.95.
Woman: it’s really pretty. I’ll take it.
Man: We have some nice hats over here.
Woman: Oh, yeah? I need a new hat.
Man: They’re on sale, today only.
Woman: Oh, they are nice. This red one is pretty. How much is it?
Man: it’s $ 26.50
Woman: hmmm…I don’t think so. Thanks anyway.

4. Practice the conversation substituting colors, clothes items, accessories, and prices.

5. Practice the conversation using the guide on the board.

43
LANGUAGE EDUCATION PROGRAM
DICTATION

1. Listen to your teacher and complete the text.

London is a major ______________ ___________ _____________.


There are thousands of ___________ and ____________
______________ in London. The shops in London can be __________
______________ especially the ____________ _____________ like
Harrods, Harvey Nicholls and Liberty, but the ___________ are of
________ ___________ and tourists come from all over the
___________ to shop there. In these shops you can find
__________________ kinds of clothing like ____________,
___________, __________, __________, __________ and a big
variety of _____________ and ______________ for everybody. London
_______ __________ _________ __________ markets that are often
inexpensive. The markets sell all kind of ____________, from
_____________ and ________________ to ______________ and
_________________.

2. Listen to your teacher and write down the whole text.

44
LANGUAGE EDUCATION PROGRAM
PROBLEM SOLVING ACTIVITY

1. Read the following situation and the task given about it in order to solve a problem.

Context
One female friend of yours has decided to change her wardrobe since she has a lot
of weight and any of the actual clothes fit her. Your friend does not have a lot of
money but she likes to wear trendy clothes.

Restrictions
- Your friend only has 500.000 Colombian pesos.
- She needs different kinds of clothes. Clothes for work (she is a secretary),
and casual clothes.

2. Working together as a group, suggest different places where your friend can buy clothes in
Popayan. Each member of the group has to suggest one place and say the reasons why he/she
suggests it.

3. After all the places are presented to the group individually, as a group rank the places from
one to four in the order of pertinence as the best option for your friend.

4. Once the group is ready, present the results to the whole class.

Useful Phrases Useful Phrases


Clothes there are I think…
expensive, too expensive I agree with you
cheap, really cheap I don’t agree with you
reasonable This is the best…
At that place there are no
casual clothes
beautiful clothes
At that place there are
a lot of clothes for work
a lot of sizes

45
LANGUAGE EDUCATION PROGRAM
SUBSTITUTION TABLES
1. Oral practice

this
that scarf
these hat
is
How much those gloves ?
are
the shoes
a undershirt
an

2. Write down three questions where you use is, three questions where you use are and three
questions where you use 3 words about clothes different from the ones given in the table.

a. _______________________________________________________________________________
b. _______________________________________________________________________________
c. _______________________________________________________________________________
d. _______________________________________________________________________________
e. _______________________________________________________________________________
f. _______________________________________________________________________________
g. _______________________________________________________________________________
h._______________________________________________________________________________
i. ________________________________________________________________________________

DETERMINERS: A/AN, THE, THIS/THAT/THESE/THOSE

A/AN: we use a/an before singular nouns, indefinite article (not a specific object, one of a number of
the same objects) A: with consonants AN: with vowels (a,e,i,o,u)

Examples: Eric has a dog.


Gregory works in a factory.
I saw an eagle in the forest.
Donata is an English teacher.

THE: we use THE to talk about a specific object that both the person speaking and the listener know.

Examples: The dogs are sleeping.


I like the birds they have in their house.

A, AN or THE
The first time you speak of something use "A or AN", the next time you repeat that object use "the".

I live in a house. The house is very old and has two bedrooms.
I ate in an Italian restaurant. The restaurant was not very clean.

46
NO ARTICLE
We use no article to talk about things in general, with plural nouns.

Dogs don’t like cats.


Lions live in the savannah.
Jane loves children.

DEMONSTRATIVES

The demonstratives are this, that, these, and those. We use demonstratives to point to things and
people.

Examples: This is my desk. Those desks are for students.

 We use this, that, these, those with a noun: This jacket is very nice. - Do you like these
shoes?
Or without a noun: This is a nice jacket. - Who’s that?
 Use a verb in singular after this – that: That is a beautiful blouse.
 Use a verb in plural after these – those: These books are very interesting.

47
LANGUAGE EDUCATION PROGRAM
DETERMINERS HOMEWORK

1. Insert a or an 2. Insert definite or indefinite articles, the an, a,


where necessary
1. This is __________ orange.
2. That is __________ book. 1. Greeks like __________ coffee.
3. This is __________ hospital. 2. English like __________ tea.
4. That is __________ egg. 3. __________ exercise he is writing is very easy.
5. He is eating __________ apple. 4. __________ exercise is good for our health.
6. This is __________ umbrella. 5. He lives in __________ Japan.
7. That is __________ university. 6. Is __________ Chinese easy?
8. I'll be away for __________ hour. 7. __________ Chinese language is difficult.
9. What __________ nice day! 8. Mr. Brown is __________ teacher.
10. ______ horse is _____ animal. 9. They took him to hospital in __________ ambulance
10. __________ good student work hard.
11. __________ students must work hard.
12. He is having __________ lunch.

3. Use `this´ or `these´. 4. Use `that´ or `those´.


1. ____________ is my desk. 1. Who owns ___________ house?
2. ____________ are my pets. 2. Look at ___________ man over there.
3. ____________ is Pete’s house. 3. ___________ is a computer.
4. It’s raining again. ____________ is awful. 4. ___________ woman is a professor.
5. Hello Kath, ____________ is Bob. 5. ___________ is my brother.
6. ____________ is my friend, Paul. 6. Wasn’t ___________ a horrible thing to say?
7. ____________ cake tastes delicious. 7. ___________ is my cousin, Jessica.
8. I don’t like ____________ one. 8. Do you see ___________ birds on the tree top?
9. ____________ apples look good. 9. What does ___________ notice say?
10. I’ll take ____________ grapes. 10. ___________ mountains are the Alps.
11. ____________ books belong to Linda. 11. Don’t take ___________ mug.
12. Jack brought ____________ trousers. 12. This book or ___________ book?
13. ____________ hamburgers taste good. 13. This is my car and ___________ is your car.
14. Have you seen ____________ movie? 14. ___________ is my school.
15. ____________ are good times. 15. ___________ are my brother’s things.
16. Do you like ____________ shirts? 16. ___________ is my aunt.
17. ____________ is much heavier than that. 17. ___________ is my friend’s umbrella.
18. ____________ is unbelievable. 18. I can’t read ___________ words.
19. Is ____________ John’s house. 19. ___________ stars are very far from the earth.
20. Do you like ____________ flowers? 20. I’d like to live in ___________ country.

48
LANGUAGE EDUCATION PROGRAM
INTENSIVE READING

I have two teenage children who love shopping for clothes. They go to
the mall with their friends every Saturday.

On school days, my son, Stan, likes to wear blue jeans and T-shirts. He
only wears a suit on formal occasions like weddings or funerals. He
feels comfortable wearing a jacket but not a tie. My daughter, Lily, likes
to wear tight pants. She wears a dress or a skirt and blouse for parties
or dinners. She doesn't feel comfortable in high heeled shoes and loves
wearing casual and sporty clothe s. When Lily visited her aunt in Texas,
she bought cowboy boots, tight blue jeans and a cowboy hat.

In winter, my children wear coats, hats and gloves on cold days. When
they go skiing, they put on toques and mittens. Mittens are warmer than
gloves. My son doesn't like rainy days because he has to wear a
raincoat and carry an umbrella. My daughter loves to wear the scarf that I bought for her
Birthday.

In the summer, when the weather is hot and windy, Lily and Stan usually wear shorts, tank
tops and sandals to the beach. Sometimes on weekends, we go walking in the mountains so
they wear hiking boots and thick woolen socks to protect their feet and toes.

Last Saturday, my children came home with a bag of clothes each. My son bought two
sweaters, and a pair of leather shoes. My daughter bought a black belt to wear with her blue
dress, a pair of grey pants and a matching jacket. She also bought a green blouse.

My children have no problem spending money. They think money grows on trees!

Answer the following questions:

1. What clothes do Stan and Lily wear in winter?


2. Who doesn’t like rainy days?
3. What clothes do Stan and Lily wear when the weather is hot and windy?

49
D ic t a t io n - W e a th e r
U n it 6 , A c t iv it y 8

1. snow s p r in g f a ll

2. sum m er c o ld hot

3. w in d y c lo u d y r a in y

4. w in t e r sunny s to rm y

50
LANGUAGE EDUCATION PROGRAM
LISTENING AND SPEAKING

1. Listen and check today’s weather in each of the cities. Then listen again. Write
today’s temperature.

2. Listen and complete the blanks with the word you hear.

The _______ today is very _______. It's just a few degrees above zero right now, and it's
probably going to _______. The sky is gray and _______.

Yesterday's _______ was like today's. It was cold and cloudy, and then it snowed in the
afternoon. In the evening, it got really, really cold. After _______, the temperature was ten
degrees below zero.

The _______ in Minnesota is long and hard. Usually, the _______ starts to fall in November
and it stops falling in March. In April it melts. On average, there are five months of _______
weather.

On days when it snows, the _______ is dark and gray, but on _______ when the temperature
goes below zero, it's very _______ and the sky is _______ and blue. Isn't that interesting?

3. Speaking: Write and practice a conversation about clothes and weather including
the following aspects:

 Favorite type of weather and clothes to wear accordingly


 Characteristics of your favorite type of weather

 Clothes you usually wear regardless the type of weather

 Importance of the weather in people’s daily life activities

51
LANGUAGE EDUCATION PROGRAM
PRONUNCIATION: PLURAL –S ENDINGS

1. Listen and practice. Notice the pronunciation of the plural –s endings.

s = /z/ s = /s/ (e)s = /iz/


Earring Earrings Desk Desks Pencil case Pencil cases
Phone Phones Laptop Laptops Class Classes
Book bag Book bags Wastebasket Wastebaskets Box Box

2. Say the plural forms of these nouns. Then complete the chart.

briefcase ID map newspaper purse

Stamp television ticket watch

/z/ /s/ /iz/

3. Listen and check your answers.

52
LANGUAGE EDUCATION PROGRAM
3/2/1
Where do you usually buy your clothes? Why?

LANGUAGE EDUCATION PROGRAM


WRITING: INFORMATION TRANSFER

1. Read the following interview: My Favorite Item of Clothing

Jimmy is talking about his favorite item of clothing. Read the


interview.

Interviewer: What is your favorite item of clothing?

Jimmy: I’m not really a fashion fan. I try to look good but I do not
worry too much about my personal appearance and the clothes I’m
wearing. But I will tell about my favorite article of clothing – my
leather jacket. That is my favorite piece of clothing.

Interviewer: What does it look like?

Jimmy: It’s a normal or regular leather jacket. I suppose one


unusual feature is that it has white stripes down the sleeves. I
usually wear it throughout the winter months. I still love it though
and I don’t mind at all that it looks rather second-hand.

Interviewer: When do you wear it?

Jimmy: I wear it especially on weekends when I go out with my friends. I also wear it when I have
concerts with my band, I play the guitar.

Interviewer: Where can you buy this type of jacket?

Jimmy: You can find it in almost any department store, in the clothes section. But if you are looking for
a great discount or a good price you can go to K-S Discount Mart.

Interviewer: How much does this kind of jacket cost?

Jimmy: Well, there are different prices depending on the place or the brand. You can have one for
about $250, however, when there are sales the price can be reduced by 50%.

Interviewer: Why do you like it?

Jimmy: I like it because it’s different – it’s just not like any other clothes I have in my wardrobe.

53
2. Fill in the following diagram with information about Jimmy’s favorite item of clothing. Use
vocabulary and grammatical structures from the interview you just read. Then, give an oral
report about Jimmy’s favorite item of clothing.

What is his favorite item of


clothing?

What does it look like?

Why does he like it?

Jimmy’s favorite item of


clothing

When does he wear it?

Where can you buy this


item?

How much does this item


cost?

3. Use the previous diagram to write and talk about Jimmy’s favorite item of clothing.

54
LANGUAGE EDUCATION PROGRAM
LISTENING AND SPEAKING

It’s a question of style

1. Interview your partner. Write your partner’s answers to the questions about clothes and style
in the spaces provided.

1. What kind of clothes do you like? 6. How often do you go shopping?


__________________________ __________________________
__________________________ __________________________

2. Describe your favorite item of clothing? 7. What is your favorite place to


shop?
__________________________ __________________________
__________________________ __________________________

3. What item of clothing would you never 8. What do you normally wear to a
wear? party?
__________________________ __________________________
__________________________ __________________________

4. What do you normally wear to work or 9. Do you compare prices at


class? different stores when you go
shopping?
__________________________ __________________________
__________________________ __________________________

5. What color do you like to wear? 10. Do you like to go shopping alone
or with friends?
__________________________ __________________________
__________________________ __________________________

2. When you have finished, make a report about your partner’s answer to the whole class.

55
LANGUAGE EDUCATION PROGRAM
WRITING WITH FEEDBACK

Write a paragraph describing the clothes you wear according


to the weather.

56
57
LANGUAGE EDUCATION PROGRAM
INTEGRATED-SKILL ACTIVITY - ELECTRONIC ENGINEERING – LEVEL 1

Telecommunications and
networks
Communication has always played a crucial role in human societies and over time its forms have evolved
through the progression of technology, transforming itself into telecommunication. The telegraph, the
telephone, the radio, the television, the radar, the fax and, more recently, the Computer are all devices
which were invented to communicate using electromagnetic waves. Thanks to them, we can transmit texts,
pictures, sounds and images and reach everyone in any part of the world.

MEANS OF TRANSMISSION
1. SPEAKING. Work in pairs. Look at the following means of communication and take turns asking and
answering the following questions.

2. WRITING. Look at the diagram and complete the text about telecommunication systems.

Telecommunication systems need means for the (1) _______________________ of any information, which
is translated into electromagnetic waves that connect the transmitter to the receiver. These means can be
physical media, such as (2) __________________________, or radio (3) _________________________,
which are transmitted by air. Different kind of cables can be used. The simplest communication cables
consist of a single pair of (4) _____________________ twisted together. Other types are (5)
______________________ cables and optical (6) ___________________. Radio waves need (7)
______________________________________ to be transmitted and sometimes (8)
_____________________ are necessary for long-distance transmission.

58
3. READING. Read the text about the different kinds of transmission media and complete the table.
Wires provide a cheap and effective means of communication that was predominant in the
past. Wires, which are made out of copper and insulated with plastic, can be single or
twisted, and they are used mainly in telephone and Computer networks.
Coaxial cables consist of an inner conductor insulated with plastic a surrounded by a woven
copper shield. They are used in television and radio as these cables can support about 60
channels. The inner copper cable is insulated to protect the wires from bending and
crushing and to reduce the noises.
Optical fibers are used in place of simple copper wires to carry larger amounts of
information. They consist of strands of pure glass as thin as a
human hair. Signals travel along fibers with less loss and
without any electromagnetic interference. As they permit transmission over longer
distances and at a higher speed, they are used in communication systems, in some
medical instruments and in a wide variety of sensing devices.
Air transmission
Antennas were invented to capture radio signals
and convert them into electrical signals through the
receiver. They can also receive electrical signals from the transmitter and
convert them into radio signals.
These electric devices, which provide information at a cheap rate, are essential
to all equipment that uses radio. They are used in systems such as radio and
television broadcasting, radar, mobile phones, and satellite Communications,
for which they are in form of dishes.
Satellites are machines launched
into space to move around Earth
or another celestial body. A Communications satellite is basically a
station which receives signals in a given frequency and then
retransmits them at a different frequency to avoid interference
problems. The first satellite was launched by the Soviet Union in
1957. There are different types of satellites: low-orbit satellites, which
travel at about 300 km from the Earth and observe the planet,
providing accurate information about agriculture, pollution and
weather forecasting; medium-altitude satellites, which travel at about 9000-18000 km from the Earth and are used in
telecommunications.

Complete the table.

Means of Type of signal


Material Function Advantages
transmission (ground or air)

wires

coaxial cables

optical fibres

antennas

satellites

59
TALKING ABOUT LIKES AND DISLIKES

LANGUAGE EDUCATION PROGRAM


LISTENING AND SPEAKING

1. Listen to the conversation. Answer the following questions before reading the conversation.

QUESTIONS:

1. Who likes country music?


2. What kind of music does Brian like?
3. Who is Brian’s favorite singer?

Marissa: Do you like country music, Brian?


Brian: No, I don’t like it very much. Do you?
Marissa: Yeah, I do. I’m a big fan of Taylor Swift.
Brian: I think I know her. Does she play the guitar?
Marissa: Yes, she does. She’s a really good musician.
So, what kind of music do you like?
Brian: I really like hip-hop.
Marissa: Oh, yeah? Who’s your favorite singer?
Brian: Jay-Z. Do you like him?
Marissa: No, I don’t. I don´t like hip-hop very much.

2. Listen to the rest of the conversation. Who is Brian’s favorite group? Does Marissa like
them?

3. Practice the conversation in pairs. Then, try to change some of the information to talk about
your favorite type of music, songs, and singers.

60
LANGUAGE EDUCATION PROGRAM
SUBSTITUTION TABLE - EXPRESSING LIKES AND DISLIKES

1. Oral practice

I hate
You love to swim
We like to play pool
You prefer to work out
They would like to watch TV
hates sleeping .
He loves going shopping
She likes visiting friends
It prefers
would like

2. Write down five sentences that follow the previous pattern.


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

LANGUAGE EDUCATION PROGRAM


LISTENING AND SPEAKING

to + verb Verb + -ing


I love to swim I love swimming
I like to play pool I like playing pool
I hate to work out I hate working out
I prefer to watch TV I prefer watching TV
I’d like to play jazz I’d like playing jazz

Prepare a talk about likes and dislikes. Consider the following questions that your
classmates may ask you when you present your talk:

What kind of ….do you like? (music, TV programs, video games)


Do you like…? (reggae, game shows, action movies)
Who is your favorite…? (singer, actor, athlete)
What do you like to do…? (on the weekends, on Saturdays, on
vacations, in your free time, at night)

LANGUAGE EDUCATION PROGRAM


61
PRONUNCIATION: Intonation in questions

1. Listen and practice.

Yes/No questions usually have rising intonation.


Wh-questions usually have falling intonation.

2. Practice the correct intonation of the following questions.

1. What kind of music do you like?


2. What kinds of music don't you like?
3. Do you like to watch TV?
4. Do you like movies?
5. Who are your favorite actors?
6. Do you like sports?
7. What are your favorite kinds of sports?
8. Who are your favorite athletes?
9. Do you like books? Who are your favorite authors?
10. What do you do in your free time?
11. What hobbies do you have?
12. Do you have a hobby?

3. Students can watch the video too: Wh questions – video or audio


http://www.elementalenglish.com/intonation-asking-a-wh-question/

62
LANGUAGE EDUCATION PROGRAM
DICTATION

1. Listen to your teacher and complete the text.

Ana and Pablo aren’t interested in reading books. They prefer ___
_____________ magazines. They really _______ ___________
together. His friend, Carlos, ________ ________ ____ ________
every day. He __________ _________ ____________ in the gym at
all. He ____________ _____________ at home with a video. They
have another friend, Maria. She ___________ ______
____________ salsa. She can’t __________ the tango. She
___________ ______________ with her friends. Their friends Erica
and German usually ___________ _______ ____________. They
____________ ____ ____________together and they
____________ _______________ for their friends. Marcos can’t _________ the piano very
well. He ___________ ________________ the guitar, and he __________ ___________ to
learn to play different instruments, too.

2. Listen to your teacher and write down the whole text.

63
LANGUAGE EDUCATION PROGRAM
3/2/1
Talk about your likes and dislikes.

LANGUAGE EDUCATION PROGRAM


WRITING WITH FEEDBACK

Write about your best friend’s likes and dislikes.

_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________

64
LANGUAGE EDUCATION PROGRAM
INTEGRATED-SKILL ACTIVITY - ELECTRONIC ENGINEERING – LEVEL 1

WHAT IS ELECTRICITY?
1. READING. Read the text and label the picture with the name of each part.

All substances, solids, liquids or gases, are


composed of one or more of the chemical
elements. Each element is composed of
identical atoms.
Each atom is composed of a small central
nucleus consisting of protons and neutrons
around which orbit shells of electrons.These
electrons are very much smaller than protons
and neutrons.
The electrons in the outermost shell are
called valence electrons and the electrical
properties of the substance depend on the
number of these electrons.
Neutrons have no electric charge, but
protons have a positive charge while
electrons have a negative charge. In some substances, usually metais, the valence
electrons are free to move from one atom to another and this is what constitutes an
electric current.

2. READING AND WRITING. Read the text again and complete the sentences with the missing
information.

1. Elements make up ___________________________________________________________


2. Identical atoms _____________________________________________________________
3. Atoms consist of ___________________, __________________ and ___________________
4. Inside there are ___________ and _________________, while outside _________________
5. Shells _____________________________________________________________________
6. Valence electrons ___________________________________________________________
7. Neutrons do not have ________________________________________________________
8. Electricity is generated when __________________________________________________

65
3. LISTENING Listen and complete the text with the missing information.

Electricity consists of a (1) _____________ of free electrons along a conductor. To


produce this current flow, a generator is placed at the end of the conductor in order
to move the (2) ________________.
Conductors
E lectricity needsa material which allows a current to pass through easily, which offers
little (3)______________ to the flow and is full of free electrons. This material is called
a conductor and can be in the form of a bar, tube or sheet. The most commonly used
(4)______________ are wires, available in many sizes and thicknesses. They are
coated with insulating materials such as plastic.
Semiconductors
Semiconductors such as Silicon and germanium are used in transistors and their
conductivity is halfway in between a conductor and an
(5)_________________________. Small quantities of other substances, called
impurities, are introduced in the material to (6) ___________________ the
conductivity.
Insulators
A material which contains very (7) ______________________ electrons is called an
insulator. Glass, rubber, dry wood and (8) __________________________ resist the
flow of electric charge, and as such they are good insulating materials.

4. READING. Read the text again and decide if the following statements are true (T) or false (F),
then correct the false ones.

1. A flow of electrons moving inside a conductor creates an electric current. ( )


2. A generator ¡s used to move the charges. ( )
3. Electrons can easily pass through any material. ( )
4. Any material is a good conductor. ( )
5. Conductors are coated with insulators. ( )
6. The presence of free electrons affects the conductivity of materials. ( )
7. Impurities are introduced to increase conductivity. ( )
8. Insulating materiais resist the flow of electrons ( )

66
67
LANGUAGE EDUCATION PROGRAM
FIRST LEVEL REVIEW
1. READING
Read about Andrea’s family and complete her family tree with the corresponding information.

This is Andrea’s family. Andrea is 20 years old. She is single.


And she’s a university student. Her grandparents are Rodrigo
and Mary. Rodrigo is 75 years old and he is retired. Mary is
74 years old and she is a housewife. They have two sons.
Carlos and Francisco. They are married. Carlos is 46 years old
and he is an architect and his wife Laura is 42 years old and
she is a teacher. They have 2 children. Camilo is 10 years old
and he is a student. Katy is 22 years old and she is a lawyer.
Anna is Rodrigo’s daughter-in- law. She is 38 and she is a
nurse. Her husband, Francisco, is 40 years old and he is an
engineer. They have three children. They are Miguel, Juan,
and Andrea. Miguel is a university student and he is 18 years
old. Juan is 7 years old and he is a primary school student.

Andrea’s family tree

Name:______ Name:______
Occupation_________ Occupation_________
Age: _________ = Age: _________

Name:______ Name:______
Occupation_________ = Occupation___
Age: _________ = Age: ________

Name:______ Name:______
Occupation_________ Occupation________
Age:__________ Age: _________

Name: Andrea Name:______ Name:______ Name:______ Name:______


Occupation________ Occupation________ Occupation_________ Occupation_________ Occupation________
Age: _________ Age: _________ Age: _________ Age: _________ Age: _________

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2. LISTENING
A. People are talking about themselves and other family members. Which family member is the
speaker most similar to? Listen and check the correct answer.
Father Mother Sister Brother
1. Wen-ping
2. Michael
3. Justin
4. Susan
5. Robert
6. Beth
B. Listen again. How is each family member different from the speaker? Write the letter.
1. Wen-ping’s brother a. likes sports.
2. Michael’s brother b. likes reading and music.
3. Justin’s sister c. is taller than the father.
4. Susan’s father d. prefers to play cards.
5. Robert’s sister e. hates flying
6. Beth’s father f. is not interested in music.
3. SPEAKING
A. Prepare 10 questions to ask your classmate. Once the questions are ready, ask them and
take notes.
TOPIC QUESTIONS
1. Your classmate’s full name
2. The place your classmate is from
2. Number of his/her family relatives
3. Your classmate’s parents’ names
4. The age of your classmate and his/her parents
5. The time your classmate gets up on weekdays
6. Your classmate’s likes and dislikes
7. Clothes your classmate usually wear to go to the university
8. Description of your classmate’s favorite type of weather
9. Activities his/her parents like to do in their free time

Take notes here

B. Write a paragraph about your classmate’s personal information.


_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
C. Tell the class about your classmate’s personal information. Use your own words.

69
LANGUAGE EDUCATION PROGRAM
MARKING SYSTEM FOR GRAMMATICAL ERRORS

Pay attention to the few features that must be correct in any piece of writing that is to be
marked. If more than one minimum requirement error is found, the writing is returned for
checking before it is marked.

No Minimum requirements Incorrect Correct


1. Subject-verb agreement She hate onions She hates onions

2. Pronoun-noun agreement Please call Maria to tell she about Please call Maria to tell
her mother her about her mother
3. Every sentence must I from Perú I am from Perú
contain a subject and a
verb
4. No spelling errors I need to go witht you I need to go with you

Sign Meaning Example


Prep Wrong preposition prep
I have classes in the night.
Pron Wrong pronoun pron
My father is a teacher. She Works at a school
ww
WW Wrong word
I have to make my homework.
Word order She is wearing a dress blue.
VT Verb tense vt
Forty years ago, most women stay at home.
SVA Subject verb agreement sva
Many people is_ studying English.
# Number (singular or plural) #
They have a books.
Sp Spelling sp
Yenny lives whit her sister.
˄ Word missing I love chocolate because ˄ is delicious.
------ This is not necessary They are have many problems.
Punc Punctuation punc
He worked all night so he was tired.
Cap Capital letter cap
canada is the second largest country in the
world.
/ New sentence
// New paragraph
______? Unclear She was proper from the law.?

70
SPEED READING CHART
Write your score for each reading passage at the bottom of the chart. Then put an X in one of the
boxes above the reading passage number to mark your time for each passage. Look on the right side
of the chart to find your reading speed for each reading passage. wpm: Words per Minute.

Time wpm
1.50 300
2.00 275
2.10 254
2.20 236
2.30 220
2.40 206
2.50 194
3.00 183
3.10 174
3.20 165
3.30 157
3.40 150
3.50 144
4.00 138
4.10 132
4.20 127
4.30 122
4.40 118
4.50 114
5.00 110
5.10 106
5.20 103
5.30 100
5.40 97
5.50 94
6.00 92
Reading 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
Score

10 MINUTE WRITING CHART

Each time you do 10 minute writing, put the number of words you wrote on this graph. When your
written work has been marked and returned to you, put the number of errors per 100 words on the
graph for that piece of writing.

Number of words

Error rate per 100 words

Pieces of Writing 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

71
PROGRAMA DE FORMACIÓN EN IDIOMAS - FICHAS DE VOCABULARIO
Traducido y adaptado del libro de Paul Nation “What do you need to know to learn a foreign language?”

Cómo usar fichas de vocabulario: la estrategia de aprendizaje de vocabulario consciente más


importante es el aprendizaje por medio de fichas de vocabulario bilingües. Las fichas de vocabulario
son pequeñas fichas de 6 cm x 4 cm que tienen una palabra o una frase del idioma extranjero en un
lado y la traducción en el idioma nativo de esta palabra o frase en el otro lado. Cada estudiante hace
su propio conjunto de fichas. Instrucciones para los estudiantes:

1. Escriba en fichas de vocabulario las palabras que necesite aprender que se trabajan en la
clase de inglés y el vocabulario de los libros de lectura por niveles que se asignan en el
semestre.

2. Escriba la palabra en la pequeña ficha con su pronunciación en un lado y su traducción en


el otro lado. Esto ayuda a que usted recuerde la palabra después del primer encuentro. Cada vez que usted
recuerda la palabra se fortalece la conexión entre la forma y el significado de la palabra. Si usted escribe la
palabra en el idioma extranjero y al frente su traducción no hay fortalecimiento de esta conexión.
6cm

Bump
/ bʌmp/ 4 cm

Chichón

E.g. The man has a


bump on the back of his
head.

3. Repase las palabras tratando de recordar la traducción del otro lado. No voltee la ficha
demasiado rápido cuando no recuerde la traducción de la palabra. Usted debe tratar de recordarla sin
mirar la traducción por unos instantes. Si no recuerda la traducción, voltee la ficha para ver la
traducción. Después de mirar la palabra y su traducción ponga la ficha en medio del conjunto de
fichas para que la vuelva a repasar rápido de nuevo.

4. Al comienzo, empiece con pequeños conjuntos de fichas –alrededor de 15 o 20 palabras. Las


palabras difíciles deben estudiarse en pequeños grupos para que haya mayor repetición y
procesamiento más profundo. A medida que el aprendizaje se vuelva más fácil, incremente el número
de fichas –más de 50 palabras en un conjunto de fichas parece ser inmanejable porque se hace difícil
mantener las fichas juntas y estudiarlas todas a la vez. Mantenga grupos pequeños de fichas en su
bolso, maletín, bolsillo para estudiarlas cada vez que usted tenga unos minutos libres.

5. Espacie las repeticiones. La mejor forma de estudiar las fichas es repasarlas unos pocos minutos
después de haberlas escrito, luego se deben estudiar una hora después, luego al siguiente día, luego
dos días después, luego una semana más tarde y finalmente un par de semanas después. Esta
repetición espaciada es mucho más efectiva que repeticiones masivas juntas en una hora de estudio.
La cantidad de tiempo invertido en el estudio de las palabras puede ser el mismo pero los resultados
son diferentes. Las repeticiones espaciadas dan como resultado un aprendizaje de larga duración.

6. Use técnicas de procesamiento profundo con las palabras que son difíciles de aprender
como la técnica de la palabra clave. Piense la palabra en contextos situacionales. Divida la palabra
72
en partes, si es posible. Entre más asociaciones usted pueda hacer con la palabra, mejor la
recordará.

7. Asegúrese que las palabras de escritura parecida o de significado parecido no estén juntas
en el mismo conjunto de fichas. Esto significa que los días de la semana no se deben aprender
juntos. Lo mismo aplica para los meses del año, sinónimos, números, antónimos, nombres de
prendas de vestir, frutas, partes del cuerpo, cosas en la cocina, etc. Estas palabras interfieren unas
con otras y hacen que el aprendizaje de vocabulario sea mucho más difícil.

8. Continúe cambiando el orden de las palabras en su conjunto de fichas. Esto evitará que se
aprenda el significado de una palabra por la cercanía a otra palabra en el conjunto de fichas.

9. Diga la palabra en voz alta. Esto ayuda a que la forma de la palabra entre en la memoria de largo
plazo.

10. Escriba frases u oraciones que contengan las palabras de las fichas cuando esto sea
necesario. Esto se aplica particularmente a los verbos. Algunas palabras se aprenden mejor en
frases o en imágenes mentales.

Nation, I.S.P. (2014). What do you need to know to learn a foreign language? New Zealand: Victoria
University of Wellington.

73
EL APRENDIZAJE
Texto traducido del libro “Make it Stick, the Science of Successful Learning” de Brown, Peter C.,
Roediger, Henry L., and McDaniel, Mark A.

No importa lo que usted desee ser o hacer, si usted desea ser competidor, es el dominio de la
habilidad de aprender lo que lo pondrá en el juego y lo que lo mantendrá allí.

Recuerde que los estudiantes más exitosos son los que se hacen cargo de su propio aprendizaje y
siguen una simple pero disciplinada estrategia. Puede que usted no haya recibido instrucción en esto,
pero usted puede hacerlo, y muy seguramente se sorprenderá con los resultados.
Acepte el hecho de que el aprendizaje significativo es frecuentemente, o incluso usualmente,
de alguna forma difícil. Usted experimentará complicaciones. Estas son señales de esfuerzo, no de
fracaso. Las complicaciones vienen con el esfuerzo, y el esfuerzo construye la experiencia. El
aprendizaje con esfuerzo cambia su cerebro, crea nuevas conexiones, construye modelos mentales,
incrementa su capacidad. Las implicaciones de esto son muy importantes: su habilidad intelectual
depende en un gran porcentaje de su propio control. El saber esto hace que las dificultades que se
experimentan al aprender valgan la pena afrontarlas.
A continuación, se presentan dos estrategias claves de estudio. Conviértalas en un hábito y
organice su tiempo para que las practique con regularidad.

Practique Recuperación de Información de la Memoria

¿Qué significa esto? “Práctica de recuperación” significa hacerse quizzes a sí mismo. La


recuperación de información de la memoria debe convertirse en su primera estrategia de estudio en
lugar de leer, leer, y re-leer.
¿Cómo usar la práctica de recuperación de información como una estrategia de estudio?
Cuando usted lea un texto o estudie sus apuntes, haga una pausa periódicamente y sin mirar el texto
hágase preguntas como las siguientes: ¿Cuáles son las ideas fundamentales? ¿Qué términos o ideas
son nuevas para mí? ¿Cómo defino esos términos? ¿Cómo relaciono los términos o ideas a lo que ya
sé?
Muchos textos guía tienen preguntas de estudio al final de cada capítulo, y estas son muy
buenas para auto-evaluarse. El generar sus propias preguntas y responderlas también es una
excelente forma de estudio.
Programe unas pocas horas cada semana en todo el semestre para hacerse quizzes a usted
mismo sobre el material de un curso, tanto del material trabajado en la semana como del trabajado en
las semanas anteriores.
Cuando se haga quizzes a usted mismo, revise sus respuestas para que se asegure de que
hace una valoración acertada de lo que sabe y de lo que aún no sabe.
Use los quizzes para identificar las áreas de mayor debilidad, y enfoque su estudio en ellas
para fortalecerlas.
Entre más difícil sea para usted recuperar/recordar la información de la memoria, mayor será
el beneficio en el aprendizaje. Cometer errores no lo retrasará, siempre y cuando usted revise sus
respuestas y corrija sus errores.
¿Qué le dice su intuición que haga? La mayoría de los estudiantes se enfocan en subrayar y
resaltar el texto y las notas tomadas de las clases. Estos estudiantes dedican su tiempo a leer y re-
leer las notas, volviéndose fluidos en el texto y la terminología, porque esto les hace sentir como si
estuvieran aprendiendo.
¿Por qué la práctica de recuperación de información es mejor? Después de una o dos
revisiones del texto, hacerse quizzes a sí mismo es más potente para el aprendizaje que leer y re-
leer.

74
La familiaridad que se gana de la re-lectura de un texto crea ilusiones de aprendizaje, pero
estas no son indicaciones confiables del conocimiento del material. La fluidez que se obtiene con un
texto tiene dos aspectos a considerar: esta fluidez es un indicador engañoso de lo que usted ha
aprendido y crea la falsa impresión de que usted recordará el material.
En contraste, haciéndose quizzes a sí mismo sobre las ideas más importantes y los
significados detrás de los términos le ayuda a enfocarse en los conceptos centrales en lugar del
material periférico. El hacerse quizzes a sí mismo suministra una medida confiable de lo que usted ha
aprendido y de lo que aún no maneja. Además, hacerse quizzes frena el olvido. El olvidar es parte de
la naturaleza humana, pero la práctica de recuperación de información la asegura en la memoria y le
ayuda a recordarla en el futuro.
La práctica periódica con auto-quizzes fortalece el aprendizaje y la habilidad de conectarlo con
el conocimiento previo.
El hábito de recuperar información regularmente durante todo un curso acaba con la práctica
común de quemarse las pestañas la noche anterior a un examen. Usted necesitará estudiar muy poco
a la hora del examen. Revisar y aprender el material la noche previa al examen es mucho más fácil
que aprenderlo.
¿Cómo se siente? Comparado con re-leer, el hacerse quizzes a sí mismo se siente un poco
extraño y frustrante, especialmente cuando el nuevo aprendizaje es difícil de recordar. El hacerse
quizzes a sí mismo no se siente tan productivo como re-leer los apuntes, fotocopias y oraciones
resaltadas de un texto. Pero lo que usted no siente cuando se esfuerza por recuperar nuevo
aprendizaje es el hecho de que cada vez que usted trabaja duro para recuperar alguna información,
usted realmente está fortaleciéndola. Si usted estudia algo después de no poder recordarlo, usted
realmente lo está aprendiendo mejor que si usted no hubiese intentado recordar. El esfuerzo de
recuperar información fortalece el aprendizaje de esa información y la habilidad de recordarla en el
futuro.

Espacie/Separe/Reparta su Práctica de Recuperación de Información

¿Qué significa esto? La práctica espaciada significa estudiar la información más de una vez pero
dejando pasar considerable tiempo entre las sesiones de práctica.
¿Cómo usar la práctica espaciada como una estrategia de estudio? Establezca un horario de
auto-quizzes que deje pasar tiempo entre las sesiones de estudio. ¿Qué tanto tiempo? Esto depende
del material a estudiar. Si usted está aprendiendo un conjunto de nombres y rostros, usted necesitará
revisarlos después de unos pocos minutos del primer encuentro porque estas asociaciones se olvidan
fácilmente. El nuevo material de un texto puede necesitar revisión en un mismo día después de su
primer encuentro. Luego, no revise el material durante varios días o una semana. Cuando usted se
sienta más seguro del dominio de un material, hágase quizzes una vez al mes. Durante un curso en
un semestre, a medida que usted se hace quizzes sobre el nuevo material, también recupere
información del material anterior y pregúntense a sí mismo como ese conocimiento se relaciona con
lo que usted subsecuentemente ha aprendido.
Si usted usa fichas (de vocabulario), no deje de hacerse quizzes sobre las fichas que
usted contesta correctamente un par de veces. Continúe revolviéndolas en el paquete de
fichas hasta que estén bien aprendidas. Cuando estén bien aprendidas, déjelas aparte –pero
en un conjunto de fichas que usted repasa periódicamente, quizás mensualmente. Cualquier
cosa que usted desee recordar debe ser periódicamente recuperada de la memoria.
Otra forma de espaciar la práctica de recuperación de información es intercalando el estudio
de dos o más temas, de esta forma el alternar los temas hace que usted continuamente refresque su
mente cada vez que vuelva a ellos.
¿Qué le dice su intuición que haga? Nuestra intuición nos persuade para que dediquemos
mucho tiempo a la práctica repetitiva de algo que queremos dominar, el régimen de práctica-práctica-
práctica masiva que nos han hecho creer que es esencial para tener dominio en una habilidad o en
un nuevo aprendizaje. Estas intuiciones son convincentes debido a dos razones. Primero, a medida
que practicamos algo una y otra vez frecuentemente vemos que nuestro desempeño mejora, lo cual
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Ele refuerza esta estrategia. Segundo, nosotros no podemos percibir que las ganancias de la práctica
repetitiva vienen de la memoria de corto plazo y se desvanecen rápidamente. El no poder percibir lo
rápido que olvidamos lo aprendido de la práctica repetitiva nos deja con la impresión de que este tipo

ctri de práctica es productiva.


Además, la mayoría de los estudiantes, debido a su fe inapropiada en la práctica masiva,
posponen la revisión/el estudio hasta que la fecha del examen se aproxima, y luego se sumergen en
el material, repasándolo una y otra vez, tratando de meterlo en la memoria.
¿Por qué la práctica espaciada es mejor? Una creencia errónea y común es la de pensar que
uno puede aprender algo con pura repetición. Mucha práctica funciona, pero sólo si ésta es
espaciada.
Si usted usa auto-quizzes como su primera estrategia de estudio y separa sus sesiones de
estudio para que algo de olvido suceda entre cada sesión, usted tendrá que trabajar más duro para
reconstruir lo que usted ya había estudiado. En efecto, usted está “recargando” información de su
memoria de largo plazo. Este esfuerzo de reconstruir el aprendizaje hace que las ideas más
importantes sobresalgan y sean más memorables y las conecte de forma más segura a otro
conocimiento y a un aprendizaje más reciente. Esta es una estrategia de aprendizaje poderosa.
¿Cómo se siente? La práctica repetitiva masiva se siente más productiva que la práctica
espaciada, pero esto no es así. La práctica espaciada se siente más difícil porque usted se ha
oxidado un poco y es más difícil recordar el material. Se siente como si usted no estuviera
aprendiendo nada, pero en realidad está sucediendo todo lo contrario. A medida que usted
reconstruye el aprendizaje de la memoria de largo plazo, por extraño que parezca, usted está
fortaleciendo su dominio, así como su memoria.

Brown, Peter C., Roediger, Henry L., & McDaniel, Mark A., (2014). Make It Stick: The Science of
Successful Learning. Cambridge, MA, USA: Harvard University Press.

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