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INPUTS

Goemetry Values
Panel ID TU#3
Avg. spanwise length 18.36 in.
Avg. chordwise length 6.13 in.
(Inbd) Distance from fastener line to panel edge 0.61 in.
(Inbd) Distance from Fastener Line to core edge 1.29 in.
(Inbd) Distance from core edge to support edge 0.25 in.
(Otbd) Distance from Fastener line to panel edge 0.61 in.
(Otbd) Distance from Fastener Line to core edge 1.29 in.
(Otbd) Distance from core edge to support edge 0.25 in. FWD
(Fwd) Distance from fastener line to panel edge 0.61 in.
(Fwd) Distance from Fastener Line to core edge 1.29 in.
OB
(Fwd) Distance from core edge to support edge 0.25 in.
(Aft) Distance from fastener line to panel edge 0.65 in.
(Aft) Distance from Fastener Line to core edge 1.41 in.
(Aft) Distance from core edge to support edge 0.25 in. AFT

(Inbd) Maximum Fastener Spacing 1 in.


(Otbd) Maximum Fastener Spacing 1 in.
(Fwd) Maximum Fastener Spacing 1 in.
(Aft) Maximum Fastener Spacing 1 in.
Core cell size 0.19 in.
Core thickness 0.5 in.
IFS Thickness, t1 0.01 in.
OFS Thickness, t2 0.01 in.
Overall Thickness of the laminate, t 0.53 in.
Total thickness of the edgeband, t_eb 0.1 in.
Max. fastener dia. 0.19 in.
Constants Values
Equivalent Young's modulus of laminate, E 1.41E+06 psi
Poisson's ratio of face material in warp direction, Mw 1.30E-01 psi
Poisson's ratio of face material in fill direction, Mf 1.30E-01 psi
Compression Buckling Coefficient, Kc 10.6
Core shear Modulus in X-Z plane, G13 6.62E+03 psi
Equivalent Young's modulus of face material, Ef 7.41E+05 psi
Elastic compression modulus of core, Ecc 1.90E+04 psi
End fixity coefficient, c for Interrivet buckling 2.3
Compressive yield strength of the face material, Fcy 190000 psi
Loads & Allowables Values
Axial Load acting over the edge of the panel_Fs_axial 37.36 lb/in.
Stress acting on the edgeband, eb_axial 373.57 psi
Maximum bending Moment. 701.89 lb.in
Applied load for Fastener shear out, P 100 lb
Shear force acting in X-Z Dir. For Core shear 3.52E+00 lb
Shear force acting in Y-Z Dir. For Core shear 1.33E+00 lb
Core shear stress, fxz for fastener pull through 7.04 psi
Core shear stress, fyz for fastener pull through 2.66 psi
Applied Pressure, Po 3.6 psi
Allowable core crushing strength of the material, Fcc 260 psi
Allowable core shear stress, Fxz 143.24 psi
Allowable core shear stress, Fyz 75.99
Allowable shear stress for fastener shear out, Fs.all 22500 psi
Allowable fastener pull through strength of the laminate, Pfpt 489.6 psi
Ultimate bearing strength of the material, fbr.ult 50645 psi
Axial load in the edgeband for fastener bearing, eb_axial 588.04 psi
Allowable interlaminar shear strength, F_intlam 4200 psi
OUTPUTS
Failure Criteria Margin of safety
General Buckling 1237.68
Intracell Buckling 87.08
Face Wrinkling 46.43
Shear Crimping 69.11
Local Core crushing 4.2 To be done exclusively
Flexural Core Crushing -0.64
Inter Rivet Buckling 2.59
Core Shear 19.36
Shear out 27.56
Fastener Pull Through 39.12
Fastener Bearing 1.4
IB
Interlaminar shear strength 32.6

RAMP

b CORE

MONOLITHIC REGION

a
Fastener Line
NMAT
2
S.No E11 E22 E33 G12 G13 G23 V12 V13 V23
1 3.50E+07 3.50E+07 1.00E+07 3.80E+06 3.80E+06 3.80E+06 1.10E-01 3.00E-01 3.00E-01
2 1.00E+00 1.00E+00 1.90E+04 1.00E+00 6.62E+03 3.69E+03 0.00E+00 0.00E+00 0.00E+00
NL
7
TL THETA MID
0 0 1
0 45 1
0 45 1
0.5 0 2
0 45 1
0 45 1
0 0 1

NMAT - Number of materials


S.No - material ID - 1 for ply; 2 for core
NL - Number of layers including core
TL - Thickness of the layer
THETA - Oreintation of the layers
MID - Material ID
RHO
6.70E-02
2.00E-03
ABD Matrix:
A11 A12 A16
7.41E+05 3.21E+05 -4.42E-05 0.00E+00 -2.27E-12 0.00E+00
3.21E+05 7.41E+05 4.42E-05 -2.27E-12 0.00E+00 0.00E+00
-4.42E-05 4.42E-05 3.18E+05 0.00E+00 0.00E+00 9.09E-13
0.00E+00 -2.27E-12 0.00E+00 3.19E+04 1.35E+04 -1.85E-06
-2.27E-12 0.00E+00 0.00E+00 1.35E+04 3.19E+04 1.85E-06
0.00E+00 0.00E+00 9.09E-13 -1.85E-06 1.85E-06 1.34E+04

Effective Stiffness:

Exx = 1.41E+06
Eyy = 1.41E+06
Gxy = 7.45E+05
Vxy = 4.33E-01
Vyx = 4.33E-01
LOADS
Assumption:
Panel is rectangular and simply supported on all sides.

The moments and forces are given by,

[    ]    
∞ ∞ 2 2
16P 1 m n mxπ nyπ
M x = 4O ∑ ∑ mnD D 11 D 12 sin sin
π m=odd n=odd a b a b

[    ]    
2 2
16PO ∞ ∞
1 m n mxπ nyπ
M y=
π4
∑ ∑ mnD a
D12
b
D 22 sin
a
sin
b
m=odd n=odd

[     ]    
3 2
16PO ∞ ∞
1 m m n mxπ nyπ
Q x=
π3
∑ ∑ mnD D11
a
  D122D66 
a b
cos
a
sin
b
m=odd n=odd

[     ]    
∞ ∞ 3 2
16PO 1 n m n mxπ nyπ
Q y=
π3
∑ ∑ mnD D 22
b
 D 122D66 
a b
sin
a
cos
b
m=odd n=odd

(Ref: Mechanics of Composite M

Where

a= Length of panel in x-direction


b=Length of panel in y-direction
P O =Applied pressure
D 11 , D 12 , D22 , D 66=Com ponents of the lam inate bending stiffness m atrix
4 2 4
D=D 11 
m
a
2  D 122D66
mn
ab   
D 22
n
b
color index
inputs
output

INPUTS

Number of buckle of half wavelenghts in X-dir, m 1


Number of buckle of half wavelenghts in Y-dir, n 1
Avg. spanwise length, a 18.36
Avg. chordwise length, b 6.13E+00
Applied pressure, Po 3.60E+00
D11 3.19E+04
D12 1.35E+04
D22 3.19E+04
D66 1.34E+04

OUTPUTS

Laminate bending stiffness, D 1.62E+01


Shear Force, Qx 3.52E+00
Shear Force, Qy 1.33E+00
Moment, Mx 1.38E+00
Moment, My 2.70E+00
os    
mxπ
a
sin
nyπ
b

n    
mxπ
a
cos
nyπ
b

Mechanics of Composite Materials, Robert M Jones)

g stiffness m atrix
GENERAL BUCKLING

General buckling is one of the general instability criteriae which is treated as failure of sandwich element a
acting together. It is a part of overall instability check of the composite panel.

Loading: Edgewise
Caused due to
• Insufficient panel thickness
• Insufficient core shear rigidity

Assumptions
1) Sandwich panel is having similar orthotropic faces and is simply supported at all edges.
2) The panel is subjected to edgewise compressive loads.
3) The principal axes of the orthotropic material are parallel to the edges of the panel.
4) The faces have identical properties and ther respective warp directions are parallel.
5) The panel is rectangular with out any cutouts.

For Loading parallel to the warp direction

π 2⋅K c⋅E 2
F c=
12  1− μ 2  
t
b
Where,
Fc is critical buckling stress of the panel
Kc is Buckling coefficient
E is effective modulus of the laminate
t is total thickness of the panel
b is width of the loaded edge
μ is poisson's ratio of the laminate

color index
inputs
output
INPUTS

Core thickness 0.5


IFS Thickness, t1 0.01
OFS Thickness, t2 0.01
Overall Thickness of the laminate, t 5.27E-01
Equivalent Young's modulus of laminate, E 1.41E+06
Loaded width of the laminate, b 6.13
Poisson's ratio 1.30E-001
Buckling coefficient, K 10.6
Axial Load acting over the edge of the panel. 37.36

OUTPUTS

Effective thickness taking the load 0.51


Compressive stress for loading parallel to warp direction, Fc 87805.86 psi
Apllied stress, fc 70.89 psi
Margin of Safety for case 1 1237.68
ure of sandwich element as a whole, with face sheet, core and bonding

ges.
INTRACELL BUCKLING

A local instability failure of a facing, characterized by the buckling of facings into or out of the core cells.

Assumptions

1) Panel faces are not subjected to normal pressure.


2) The panel is subjected to edgewise compressive loads.(Compression intracell buckling)
3) The principal axes of the orthotropic material are parallel to the edges of the panel.
4) The faces have identical properties and ther respective warp directions are parallel.

Assuming Loading is parallel to the warp direction

3 /2
Intracell Buckling stress is given by,
F ci
η
=0 . 75⋅E⋅
2⋅E
tf
s  
η=
E  Et
Where,
E - Effective Young's modulus of the face material
Et - Tangent modulus of the material at Fc

d - Distance between face sheets and is given by,


s- core cell size
d =c  
t 1 t 2
2
Fcy is compression yield strength of the material

η is a function of compression yield strength of the material obtained from the graph shown below.
Ref. Bhrun c.12.5.2.b

Facing compressive stress, fc is given by

f c=
  
N
t 1t 2

M
d . t1
Where N - Axial load
M - Moment

color index
inputs
output

INPUTS

Youngs Modulus of face material in fill direction, E 7.41E+05 psi


Core cell size, s 0.19 in.
Load in warp direction, N 37.36 lb/in
Moment, M 701.89 lb.in.
Core height, c 0.5 in.
Thickness of the lamina undergoing compression, t1 0.01 in.
Thickness of the lamina undergoing tension, t2 0.01 in.
Constant, η, from graph
Compression yield strength of the face material, Fcy 1.90E+05

OUTPUTS

Distance between face sheets, d 0.51


Fci/η 1.07E+04
Fcy/(Fci/η) 17.69
Fci/Fcy --- From Graph 0.65 psi
Intracell Buckling Stress, Fci 1.24E+05 psi
Facing compressive stress, fc (For outer face) 1402.05 psi
Facing compressive stress, fc (For inner face) 1402.05
Margin of safety, M.S (For outer face) 87.08
Margin of safety, M.S (For inner face) 87.08
or out of the core cells.

g)
.
CORE SHEAR CRIMPING

This is one of the general instability failures of the composite laminate caused due to
low core shear modulus or low adhesive shear strength.

Critical Crimping load, Ncr, is given by,

N cr =0 . 75. G XZ .
d2
c  
Where Gxz is core shear modulus in X-Z Plane.
d is Distance about which load Nx acts
c is Core thickness

d =c  
t 1 t 2
2

color index
inputs
output

INPUTS

Core thickness, c 0.5 in.


Thickness of top facing, t1 0.01 in.
Thickness of bottom facing, t2 0.01 in.
Shear modulus in X-Z plane, G13 ### psi.
Load acting on the edge, Nx 37.36 lb/in

OUTPUTS

Distance about which load Nx acts, d 0.51 in.


Critical loading, Ncr 2619.16 lb/in
Margin of Safety, MS 69.11
FACE WRINKLING

Face wrinkling of a honeycomb sandwich element is a local instability charecterized by


buckling of one or both of the load carrying faces into or away from the core.

Assumptions
1) Sandwich panel is flat honeycomb structure with isotropic faces.
2) The panel is subjected to uniaxial compressive loads.
3) The panel is rectangular with out any cutouts.

Face wrinkling stress, Ffw, for sandwich panels under compression is given by the following empirical relation.

F fw
=0. 43⋅ E⋅E cc⋅G xz 1/3
η
Where
E= Youngs modulus of face material

Ecc is elastic compression modulus of core in transverse direction (E33 in general)

Gxz is core shear modulus in X-Z plane (Assuming loading is in X-direction which is structurally preferred orientatio

η is a function of compression yield strength of the material obtained from the graph shown below.
Maximum compressive stress on the faces, fc, is given by,

f c=
  
N
t 1 t 2

M
d . t1
Where,
N is axial load acting on the face, lb/in.
t1 - thickness of the facing undergoing compression
t2 - thickness of other facing (incase of unequal facing thickness)
M - moment
c - core height
d - Mean distance about which load acts given by

d =c  
t 1 t 2
2
color index
inputs
output

INPUTS

Axial load acting on the edge, N 37.36 lb/in


Moment causing compression, M 701.89 lb.in
Thickness of the facing undergoing compression, t1 0.01 in
Thickness of the other facing, t2 0.01 in
Core thickness, c 0.5 in
Core shear modulus in X-Z plane, Gxz 6543 psi
Elastic compression modulus of core, Ecc 1.90E+004 psi
Youngs modulus of the face material, E 7.41E+05 psi
Compression yield strength of the face material, Fcy 1.90E+05 psi

OUTPUTS

Mean distance about which load acts, d 0.51 in


Ffw/η 19421.77 psi
Fcy/(Ffw/η) 9.78
Ffw/Fcy --- From Graph 0.35
Maximum compressive stress on the outer face, fc 1402.05 psi
Maximum compressive stress on the inner face, fc 1402.05
Face wrinkling stress, Ffw 6.65E+04 psi
Margin of safety, MoS 46.43
Margin of safety, MoS 46.43
ed by

owing empirical relation.

cturally preferred orientation).


LOCAL CORE CRUSHING

This is local instability of core caused due to insufficient compressive strength of the core due to transve

Here the compressive stress is due to local pressure loading as shown in the figure.
So it is analyzed with respect to material's allowable and pressure loading.

Allowable compression strength is Fz


Compressive stress through area of load applied, fc, is given by

P pA
F C= = = p
A A
Where p= pressure
color index
inputs
output

INPUTS

Applied load, P 100 lb


Area of appilcation, A 2 sq. in
Allowable compression strength, Fz 260 psi

OUTPUTS

Pressure applied locally, p 50 psi


Margin of Safety, MS 4.2
gth of the core due to transverse loading.
FLEXURAL CORE CRUSHING

Flexural core crushing is due to bending which causes inadequate core compression strength.

Here the loading is due to maximum bending moment that happens due to flexural loading.
The applied flexural core crushing stress is given by,

 M max  2
f cc=
b 2 dD
Where,

M m ax=M aximum bending moment


b=W idth= 1  Assuming unit width

d=Distance between faces
D=Flexural rigidity of panel
Flexural rigidity of panel, D, is nothing but the panel bending stiffness given by,

d2
D=

 1− μ w μ f
Ex t 1

 
1− μ w μ f
Ex t  2

Where,

d=Distance between facesheets


t = Thickness of each facesheet
d =c
2  
t 1 t 2

μ w= Poisson's ratio of each facesheet in the warp direction


μ f =Poisson's ratio of each facesheet in the fill direction
E x =Elastic modulus of each facesheet parallel to the loading direction
Margin of Safety is given by,

MS . cc =
  F cc
f cc
−1
Where,
MS . cc =
  F cc
f cc
−1

Fcc is allowable core crushing strength of the material.


Also fcc which is calculated above has to be taken as sum of both the X and Y directions since loading is possible i

color index
inputs
output

INPUTS

Maximum bending moment, M 701.89


core thickness, c 0.5
thickness, t1 0.01
thickness, t2 0.01
Poisson's ratio of face material in warp direction, Mw 1.30E-001
Poisson's ratio of face material in fill direction, Mf 1.30E-001
Young's modulus of the face material in loading direction, Ex 7.41E+05
Allowable core crushing strength of the material, Fcc 260

OUTPUTS

distance between face sheets, d 0.51


Flexural rigidity, D 1341.89
Applied flexural core crushing stress, fcc 714.95
Margin of safety, MS -0.64
ion strength.
s since loading is possible in both the directions.
INTER RIVET BUCKLING

Buckling of skin between fasteners attaching the stiffener to the skin is termed as Inter-rivet buckling.

cπ 2 E t
F ir =
 s/ ρ 2

color index
inputs
output

INPUTS

Axial Load due to wing bending, eb_Axial 373.57 lb/in.


End fixity coefficient, c 2.3
Fastener pitch (Spacing), s 1 in.
Thickness of the Skin, t 0.1 in.
Compressive yield stress, Fcy 13402 psi
Tangent Modulus of skin at Fir, Et 1666989 psi

OUTPUTS

Edge band stress (span wise), Fx_EB 3735.73 psi


Raduis of gyration of skin, Rho 0.03 in.
Allowable Inter-rivet buckling Stress, Fir 31791.85 psi
Allowable Inter-rivet buckling Stress(Conservative) 13402 psi
Margin of Safety, MS 2.59
as Inter-rivet buckling.
CORE SHEAR

Core shear is caused due to insufficient core shear strength or panel thickness.

This is generally maximum at the mid span of the panel.

Applied shear stress has to be calculated in Spanwise and chordwise edges of the panel.

Chordwise:

qx X-Z Direction
f cs.C =
tc
Spanwise:

qy Y-Z Direction
f cs.S =
tc
Margin of safety for span and chordwise has to be evaluated by using,

F xz
MS cs = −1
f xz
color index
inputs
output

INPUTS
Shear force acting in X-Z Dir. ### lb/in.
Shear force acting in Y-Z Dir. ### lb/in.
Core thickness 0.5 in.
Allowable core shear stress 143.24 psi
Allowable core shear stress 75.99 psi

OUTPUTS

Maximum transverse shear stress 7.04 psi


Applied shear stress chordwise 7.04 psi
Applied shear stress spanwise 2.66 psi
Margin of safety, MS, Chordwise 19.36
Margin of safety, MS, Spanwise 27.6
SHEAR OUT

Fastener shear out occurs due to insuffucient distance from panel edge to fastener line.

P
Applied shear stress is given by, τ=
As
where
P is appied load
A is area of c/s given by,
where
A =2.t .c
s
(Refer Fig. shown above)

t is thickness of the laminate


c is distance from panel edge to fastener line

f s .C CSK
Allowable shear stress is given by, f s.all =
Ks
Ccsk is countersunk factor=0.92
Ks is shear notch factor that depends on stacking sequence (Assuming Ks=1)

Margin of safety,
f s . all
MS fso= −1
τ
color index
inputs
output

INPUTS

Applied Load, P 100 lb


Fastener distance from edge, c 0.61 in
Thickness of the laminate, t 0.1 in
Allowable shear stress, Fs.all 22500 psi

OUTPUTS

Applied area of the c/s, As 0.12 sq.in


Applied shear stress, Tau 816.33 psi
Margin of safety, MS 27.56
FASTENER PULL THROUGH

Vxz is Shear force acting at the edge of the panel, Vxz, given by

V xz= f xzsd
Where
fxz is Core shear stress
s is maximum fastener pitch
d is distance between face sheets given by,

d =c  
t 1 t 2
2
t1 and t2 are thickness of inner and outer facesheets respectively
c is core height

This shear force Vxz creates a moment about the fastener line along the chord wise and span edges of the pane
And the Moment is given by,

M e b=x c_fclV x z
Xc_fcl is the distance from the core edge to the fastener centerline.

The Toe load can then be determined by summing moments about the fastener line and setting the total momen
And is given by,

M eb
P toe =
2
x fcl_e
3

Xfcl_e is the arm length causing moment

Pfast - Fastener load given by

P fast=V xzP toe


Where
Pfpt - Allowable fastener pull through strength of the laminate

Margin of safety for Fastener Pull through is given by

P
MSfpt .= fpt −1
∣P fast∣
color index
inputs
output

INPUTS

Chordwise (Inbd) Distance from fastener line to panel edge 0.61 in


Chordwise (Inbd) Distance from Fastener Line to core edge 1.29 in
Chordwise (Inbd) Distance from core edge to support edge 0.25 in
Chordwise (Otbd) Distance from fastener line to panel edge 0.61 in
Chordwise (Otbd) Distance from Fastener Line to core edge 1.29 in
Chordwise (Otbd) Distance from core edge to support edge 0.25 in
Spanwise (Fwd) Distance from fastener line to panel edge 0.61 in
Spanwise (Fwd) Distance from Fastener Line to core edge 1.29 in
Spanwise (Fwd) Distance from core edge to support edge 0.25 in
Spanwise (Aft) Distance from fastener line to panel edge 0.65 in
Spanwise (Aft) Distance from Fastener Line to core edge 1.41 in
Spanwise (Aft) Distance from core edge to support edge 0.25 in
Chordwise Core shear stress, fxz 7.04 psi
Spanwise Core shear stress, fyz 2.66 psi
(Inbd) Maximum Fastener Spacing 1 in
(Otbd) Maximum Fastener Spacing 1 in
(Fwd) Maximum Fastener Spacing 1 in
(Aft) Maximum Fastener Spacing 1 in
Distance between facesheets, d 0.51 in
Allowable fastener pull through strength 489.6 psi

OUTPUTS

Toe load distance (Inbd) 0.29 in


Toe load distance (Otbd) 0.29 in
Toe load distance (Fwd) 0.29 in
Toe load distance (Aft) 0.34 in
Shear force at spanwise edge (Fwd) 1.36 lb
Shear force at spanwise edge (Aft) 1.36 lb
Shear force at chordwise edge (Inbd) 3.61 lb
Shear force at chordwise edge (Otbd) 3.61 lb
Moment at spanwise edge (Fwd) 0.92 lb.in
Moment at spanwise edge (Aft) 1.03 lb.in
Moment at chordwise edge (Inbd) 2.45 lb.in
Moment at chordwise edge (Otbd) 2.45 lb.in
Toe Load at spanwise edge (Fwd) 3.24 lb
Toe Load at spanwise edge (Aft) 3.05 lb
Toe Load at Chordwise edge (Inbd) 8.59 lb
Toe Load at Chordwise edge (Otbd) 8.59 lb
Fastener Load (Fwd) -4.61 lb
Fastener Load (Aft) -4.42 lb
Fastener Load (Inbd) -12.2 lb
Fastener Load (Otbd) -12.2 lb
Margin of Safety (Spanwise) 109.79
Margin of Safety (Chordwise) 39.12
heets respectively

d wise and span edges of the panel.


ner line and setting the total moment to zero.
FASTENER BEARING CHECK

As fasteners are assumed to be much stronger in bearing than edge band region of laminate, only edgeban

Margins of safety have to be calculated for bearing stress for spanwise and chordwise edges of the panel.

Bearing stress for IB/OB edges of the panel is given by,

f br  IB /OB =
  NX
t eb
. s IB /OB

df
Where,
Nx is the load acting on the edge, lb/in.
teb is thickness of the edgeband region, in
s is maximum fastener pitch for the corresponding IB/OB edges, in
df is the diameter of the fastener, in

Margin of safety in chordwise edge of the panel, MS_c is given by

f br. ult
MSC =
Max.Value∣ f br .IB , f br. OB∣
Where fbr.ult is ultimate bearing strength of the material, psi

Bearing stress at forward side of the panel is given by,

f br . fwd=
  f ax . eb
t eb
.
sOB. Max
2
d fwd . fcl . e 
df
Similarly, bearing stress at aft side of the panel is given by,

f br . aft =
 
f ax. eb
t eb
.
s OB. Max
2
d aft. fcl . e 
df
Margin of safety in spanwise edges of the panel, MS_s is given by

f b r.ult
M SS = −1
M a x.V a lu ∣e f b r. fw d, f b r.aft∣
f b r.ult
M SS = −1
M a x.V a lu ∣e f b r. fw d, f b r.aft∣
color index
inputs
output

INPUTS

Load acting on the edge, Nx 37.36 lb/in


Edgeband thickness, t_eb 0.1 in
Maximum fastener spacing, (Inbd) 1 in
Maximum fastener spacing, (Otbd) 1 in
Diameter of the fastener, df 0.19 in
(Fwd) Distance from fastener line to panel edge 0.61 in
(Aft) Distance from fastener line to panel edge 0.65 in
Axial edgeband stress 588.04 lb/in
Ultimate bearing strength of the material 50645 psi

OUTPUTS

Bearing stress (Inbd) 1992.39


Bearing stress (Otbd) 1992.39
Bearing stress (Fwd) 34890.2
Bearing stress (Aft) 36144.67
Margin of Safety (Chordwise) 25.42
Margin of Safety (Spanwise) 1.4
on of laminate, only edgeband is checked for bearing strength.

se edges of the panel.

f br . OB∣

fwd . fcl . e 

aft. fcl . e 

−1
f b r.aft∣
−1
f b r.aft∣
INTERLAMINAR SHEAR STRENGTH

Inter laminar shear stresses are treated as 1.5 times the normal load as shown in the figure below.

Inner Inner Face


sheet Honeycomb
doubler Core
LOAD, P

Edgeband
filler

Edgeband

Outer
doubler Ramp stages
Outer Face
sheet

Interlaminar shear stresses are calculated at all free edges to design for delamination at forward, aft, inboa
and is given by,
1 . 5 . P toe
f ils =
t eb . s
Margin of Safety is given by,

Spanwise
F in tla m
M Sils. s = −1
M a x.V a lu ∣ef ils. fw d, f ils.a ft∣
Chordwise

F in tla m
M Sils.c = −1
M a x.V a lu ∣ef ils. IB, f ils.O B∣
F in tla m
M Sils.c = −1
M a x.V a lu ∣ef ils. IB, f ils.O B∣
Where,
F_intlam is allowable interlaminar shear strength, psi

color index
inputs
output

INPUTS

Toe Load at spanwise edge (Fwd) 3.24


Toe Load at spanwise edge (Aft) 3.05
Toe Load at chordwise edge (Inbd) 8.59
Toe Load at chordwise edge (Otbd) 8.59
Maximum Fastener Spacing (Fwd) 1
Maximum Fastener Spacing (Aft) 1
Maximum Fastener Spacing (Inbd) 1
Maximum Fastener Spacing (Otbd) 1
Thickness of the edgeband, t_eb 0.1
Allowable interlaminar shear strength, F_intlam 4200

OUTPUTS

Interlaminar shear stress (Fwd) 48.65


Interlaminar shear stress (Aft) 45.82
Interlaminar shear stress (Inbd) 128.84
Interlaminar shear stress (Otbd) 128.84
Margin of Safety - Spanwise 86.33
Margin of Safety - Chordwise 32.6
in the figure below.

Honeycomb
Core
LOAD, P

Thickness

nation at forward, aft, inboard and outboard edges.