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Nervous System II.

Spinal Cord-This serves as a Sympathetic - it is activated when the

The nervous system is a complex channel for signals between the brain body is in a dynamic role or stress.
network of nerves and cells that carry and the rest of the body, and controls (e.g., increased heart rate and
messages to and from the brain and simple musculoskeletal reflexes breathing, dilation of pupil, sweating,
spinal cord to various parts of the without input from the brain. etc.)Peripheral Nervous System
body. (PNS)
Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
Central Nervous System
The CNS serves as the main Parasympathetic - it maintains body
The PNS connects the central nervous
processing center for the entire functions and restores the body to
system to the organs and limbs. It has
normal or relaxed mode.
nervous system. It consists of two two main divisions:
main components, namely the: The Nerve Cell
1. Somatic Nervous System- This
system is associated with the The basic unit of the nervous system
voluntary control of body movements is the nerve cell. Nerve cells are
and has two main parts: called neurons. There are billions of
neurons in the body. Some exist
alone. Others are joined together to
form organs like the brain and spinal
I. Brain-This is an organ located cord.
within the skull that functions as
organizer and distributor of
information for the body. It has three
main parts:
a. Cerebrum – large, upper part of a. Spinal Nerves – the nerves that
the brain that controls activity and carry motor and sensory signals
thought. between the spinal cord and the body.
b. Cerebellum – the part under the b. Cranial Nerves – the nerve fibers There are twelve to fourteen billions
cerebrum that controls posture, that carry information into and out of of neurons in one part of the brain
balance, and coordination. the brain stem.
c. Brain Stem – the part that connects 2. Autonomic Nervous System- This
the brain to the spinal cord and system is associated with the
controls automatic functions such as involuntary control of body
breathing, digestion, heart rate, and movements and has two subdivisions:
blood pressure.
Pituitary Gland Disorder and Diseases in Goiter
The pituitary gland is often called
the master gland because it controls Endocrine System
several other hormone glands in your Dwarfism
body, including the thyroid and
adrenals, the ovaries and testicles.
Thyroid Gland
Thyroid Gland is a large ductless
gland in the neck which secretes
hormones regulating growth and
development through the rate of A goiter can sometimes occur when
metabolism. your thyroid gland produces too much
Dwarfism can be caused by any of thyroid hormone (hyperthyroidism).
Testes more than 200 conditions. Causes of In Graves' disease, antibodies
The testes (testicles) are the male proportionate dwarfism include produced by your immune system
gonads, that is; they are the primary metabolic and hormonal disorders mistakenly attack your thyroid gland,
male reproductive organs. They fulfil such as growth hormone deficiency. causing it to produce excess
two key functions, the production of Gigantism thyroxine. This overstimulation
gametes (sperm) and the secretion of causes the thyroid to swell.
hormones, particularly the male Osteoporosis
hormone testosterone.
Parathyroid Glands
The parathyroid glands are four tiny
glands, located in the neck, that
control the body's calcium levels.
Gigantism is a rare condition that Osteoporosis is a disease of the
Thymus causes abnormal growth in children.
The thymus is a small, irregular- This change is most notable in terms
shaped gland in the top part of the of height, but girth is affected as well.
chest, just under the breastbone and It occurs when your child’s pituitary
between the lungs. It is located in an gland makes too much growth
area of the body called the hormone.
Reproductive System Male Reproductive System Includes: Urethra - Tube that extends from the
The primary reproductive organs are urinary bladder through the penis.
the gonads (ovaries and testes), which This canal allows for the excretion of
are responsible for gamete (sperm and Penis - Main organ involved in sexual reproductive fluids (semen) and urine
egg cell) and hormone production. intercourse. This organ is composed from the body. Sphincters prevent
Structures of the female reproductive of erectile tissue, connective tissue, urine from entering the urethra while
system include: and skin. semen is passing through.
Testes - Male primary reproductive Seminal Vesicles - Glands that
structures that produce male gametes produce fluid to nurture and provide
(sperm) and sex hormones. energy for sperm cells. Tubes leading
from the seminal vesicles join the
Scrotum - External pouch of skin that
ductus deferens to form the
contains the testes. Because the
ejaculatory duct.
scrotum is located outside of the
abdomen, it can reach temperatures Prostate Gland - Gland that produces
that are lower than that of internal a milky, alkaline fluid which
body structures. Lower temperatures increases sperm motility. The
Vagina - Fibrous, muscular canal are necessary for proper sperm contents of the prostate empty into the
leading from the cervix (opening of development. urethra.
the uterus) to the external portion of
the genital canal. Epididymis - System of ducts that Bulbourethral or Cowper's Glands
Uterus - Muscular internal organ that receive immature sperm from the - Small glands located at the base of
houses and nurtures female gametes testes. Its function is to develop the penis. In response to sexual
after fertilization. Also called the immature sperm and to house mature stimulation, these glands secrete an
womb, the uterus is where a sperm. alkaline fluid which helps to
developing fetus resides during neutralize acidity from urine in the
Ductus Deferens or Vas Deferens -
pregnancy. urethra and acidity in the vagina.
Fibrous, muscular tubes that are
Fallopian tubes - Uterine tubes continuous with the epididymis and
which transport egg cells from the provide a pathway for sperm to travel
ovaries to the uterus. Fertilization from the epididymis to the urethra
typically occurs in these tubes.
Ovaries - Female primary Ejaculatory Duct - Duct formed
reproductive structures that produce from the union of the ductus deferens
gametes and sex hormones. There is and seminal vesicles. Each
one ovary on each side of the uterus. ejaculatory duct empties into the
The DNA molecule is composed of
three types of component molecule:
phosphate group, the sugar
deoxyribose, and the bases adenine,
thymine, cytosine, guanine (A, T,
C,G). There are three molecules that
form the basic building block of
DNA, the nucleotides. Each
nucleotide is composed of one
phosphate group, one sugar molecule,
and one of the four bases – in the
example. Across the strands of the
helix, A alwayspairs with T, and G
with C.
Ribonucleic Acid, like DNA, is a
nucleic acid. However, RNA structure
differs from DNA structure in three
ways. First, RNA is single stranded –
whereas DNA is double stranded.
Second, the sugar in RNA is ribose;
DNA has deoxyribose. Finally, both
DNA and RNA contain four
nitrogenous bases, but instead of
thymine, RNA contains a similar base
called uracil (U). The uracil pairs with
adenine. The major types of RNA
include: messenger RNA (mRNA),
ribosomal RNA (rRNA), and transfer
A cell may have as many as 200 The chemical crosses the space The Endocrine System
dendrites carrying impulses toward between neurons called synapse and
the cell body. A single dendrite can be stimulates the nerve impulse to start
over one meter long. Axons carry in the next dendrite.
impulses away from the cell body. A stimulus (plural: stimuli) is any
Axons pass impulses to the dendrites factor in the environment that may
of other neurons or cell body of trigger a nerve impulse. A stimulus is
muscle cells. Axons can be grouped received by the body and a response
together into cable-like bundles called is made
A response is a reaction to a
condition or stimulus. An organism
must be able to respond to a stimulus
in order to survive.
Reaction time is the length of time
between application of a stimulus and The endocrine system is composed of
detection of a response. glands that secrete different types of
Nerve Impulse hormones that affect almost every
cell, organ, and function of our body.
It is essential in regulating growth and
development, metabolism, as well as
reproductive processes and mood.
Endocrine glands secrete chemicals
known as hormones into the
When a receptor such as an organ bloodstream, which carries them
A nerve impulse is a combination of
perceives a stimulus, the impulse is throughout the body. When a
an electricalcharge and a chemical
reaction. A nerve impulse is not a sent to the brain by the sensory
flow of electricity, but an neurons, which then transmit
electrochemical signal moving along information from one nerve cell to
a neuron. A nerve impulse cannot another. As the message reaches the
jump from one neuron to another. brain, it processes the information and
When a nerve impulse comes to the commands an effector such as a
end of an axon, it produces the muscle or an organ to respond. The
chemical, called neurotransmitter, message coming from the brain is sent
to be released. through the motor neurons.