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Chapter XXII Exile in Dapitan, 1892-96

 Dapitan (Mindanao) under missionary jurisdiction of Jesuits

 Steamer Cebu
 Rizal carried a letter from Father Pablo Pastells to Father Antonio Obach which
states that he can live at the parish convent under certain conditions, but Rizal did
not agree to this
 He lived in the house of the commandant, Captain Carnicero
 He reports once a week to Carnicero
 He wrote a poem entitled “A Don Ricardo Carnicero” on August 26, 1892 on the
birthday of the captain
 Mail boat Butuan brought news that Lottery Ticket No. 9736 by Carnicero, Rizal,
Francisco Equilior won second prize of P20,000; Rizal’s share was 6,200: 2,000 to
his father, 200 to Basa, rest to purchase agricultural lands
 Rizal had debate with Pastells on religion, Pastells gave Rizal a copy of Imitacion de
Cristo (Imitation of Christ)
 Duel with Frenchman, Mr. Juan Lardet, for accusing Rizal that lumber he sold were
bad; but he apologized
 Rizal gave Father Sanchez a manuscript entitled Estudios sobre la lengua tagala
(Studies on the Tagalog Language)
 He had three houses
 Rizal’s encounter with the Friar’s spy, Florencio Namanan (assumed name: Pablo
 Physician
 Water system in Dapitan: title of expert surveyor (perito agrimensor)
 Get rid of malaria
 Established a school in 1893 with three pupils
 Poem entitle ‘Hymn to Talisay”
 Concology, 364 shells representing 203 species
 Draco rizali (flying dragon), Apogania rizali (small beetle), Rhacophorus rizali (rare
 Bisayan, Subanum, and Malay languages
 “The Mother’s Revenge”, mother-dog eating the crocodile
 Bust of Father Guerrico, statue of “the Dapitan Girl”, woodcarving of Josephine
 Partnership with Ramon Carreon, a Dapitan merchant
 Most profitable business is the hemp industry
 Cigaretter lighter, sulpukan
 Poem as requested by Dona Teodora, “Mi Retiro” (My Retreat)
 Death of Leonor Rivera on August 28, 1893
 Josephine Bracken (born on October 3, 1876) daughter of James Bracken, adopted
by Geroge Taufer
 Poem entitle Josephine, Josephine
 Eight-month old baby boy named Francisco
 Katipunan meeting in a little river called Bitukang Manok on May 2, 1896
 Dr. Pio Valenzuela left Manila on June 15 on board steamer Venus with blind man
Raymundo Mata
 He objected to Bonifacio’s project because (1) the people are not ready for a
revolution, (2) arms and funds must first be collected before raising the cry of
 Offered services a military doctor in Cuba, yellow fever epidemic
 “The Song of the Traveler” (El Canto del Viajero)
 July 31, 1896 went to Manila on board España with Josephine, Narcisa, Angelica
(Narcisa’s daughter)
 Four years, thirteen days, and a few hours
Chapter XXIII
Last Trip Abroad, (1896)

 From Dapitan to Manila (Dumaguete, Cebu, Iloilo, Molo, Capiz) Rizal board the
steamer España (July 31, 1896 – August 6, 1896)
 He visited the Molo Church which he praised for the interior is painted by a lad
and are mostly copy of biblical scenes from Gustave Dore
 España arrived at Manila Bay and Rizal misses the mail ship Isla de Panay, he
was later then transferred to the Spanish cruiser Castilla (Captain Enrique
Santalo) by the order of Gov Gen Ramon Blanco. (August 6, 1896)
 Katipunan’s plot to overthrow Spanish rule by means of revolution was
discovered by Fray Mariano Gil, Agustinian cura of Tondo. (August 19, 1896)
 The discovery of Katipunan’s plot aggravated the “Cry of Balintawak” which was
raised by Bonifacio and his valiant Katipuneros (August 26 1896)
 The revolutionists led by Bonifacio and Jacinto attacked San Juan and Gov Gen
Blanco proclaimed a state of war in the first eight provinces for rising in arms
against Spain (MaBulCavBatLaPaNeTar) (August 30, 1896)
 Rizal, on board the Castilla the day before his departure for Spain, he also wrote
to his mother Rizal and was later transferred to the steamer Isla de Panay which
was sailing to Barcelona, Spain. (September 2, 1896)
 The Isla de Panay arrived (also on board Don Pedro Roxas and his son Periquin)
at Singapore and Rizal took shopping the day after. (September 7 – 8, 1896)
 Blanco was Rizal’s implacable foe, who regarded him as a “dangerous Filipino”
who was responsible for the raging Philippine Revolution, and therefore plotted
his doom.
 Isla de Panay, Rizal on board, left Singapore and arrived at Barcelona, Rizal now
as a prisoner. (September 8 – October 3 1896)
 Rizal wrote to Blumentritt (September 28, 1896)
 Rizal was imprisoned in Monjuich and was taken out and brought for an
interview to Gen Eulogio Despujol (Dapitan July 1892), he was later transferred
to Colon which later left Barcelona (October 6)
Chapter XXIV
Last Homecoming and Trial
 Left Barcelona on October 6, 1896
 Confiscation of Rizal’s diary (October 11) returned on November 2
 Dr. Antonio Ma. Regidor and Sixto Lopez sent telegrams to lawyer Hugh Fort to
rescue Rizal by means of writ of habeas corpus, but failed since it was carrying
Spanish troops
 Arrived in Manila on November 3
 Deodato Arellao, Dr. Pio Valenzuela, Moises Saalvador, Jose Dizon, Domingo
Franco, Temoteo Paez, and Pedro Serrano Laktaw were tortured to implicate Rizal
 Paciano was arrested and tortured
 Appeared before Judege Advocate Colonel Francisco Olive
 Documentary evidence (letters, poem entitled “Kundiman”, poem entitled “A
 Oral testimonies by Martin Constantino, Aguedo del Rosario, Jose Reyes, Moises
Salvador, Jose Dizon, Domingo Franco, Deodato Arellano, Ambrosio Salvador,
Pedro Serrano Laktaw, Dr Pio Valenzuela, ANtono Salazar, Francisco Quison,
Timoteo Paez
 November 26, appointed Captain Rafael Dominguez as Judge Advocate
 Judge Advocate General, Don Nicolas de la Peña
 Peña’s recommendations: (1) accused immediately brought to trial, (2) kept in
prison, (3) attachment to property, (4) defended in court by an army officer
 Don Luis Taviel de Andrade, brother of Lt. Jose Taviel de Andrade (bodyguard), as
 December 13, General Camilo G. de Polavieja became Governor General of the
 On December 15, Rizal wrote a manifesto to the people appealing to stop the
revolution but was not released
 Rizal wrote a letter to Taviel on December 25, 1896
 Trial on December 26 at military building called Cuartel de España
 P 259
Chapter XXV
Rizal's martyrdom at bagumbayan
After being court-martialed, Rizal returned to his cell in Fort Santiago to prepare
his rendezvous with destiny. During his last 24 hours on earth – from 6:00 A.M. of
December 29 to 6:00 A.M. of December 30, 1896 – he was busy meeting visitors
which including Jesuit priests, Josephine Bracken and members of his family.

He was also able to write his last poem – his final contribution for the
emancipation of the Filipino people. As a Christian and a hero-martyr, he was serenely
regisned to die for his beloved country, which he called “Pearl of the Orient Sea” in his
last poem and “Pearl of the Orient’ in the article entitled “Unfortunate Philippines”
published in The Hongkong Telegraph on September 24, 1892.

Last Hours of Rizal

December 29, 1896
6:00 A.M. – Captain Rafael Rodriguez read Rizal’s death sentence – he will be
shot at the back by firing squad at 7:00 A.M. in Bagumbayan.
7:00 A.M. – Rizal was moved to the prison chapel where he spent his last
moments. His first visitors were Jesuit priests.
7:15 A.M. – Rizal reminded Fr. Luis Viza the statuette of the Sacred Heart of
Jesus whom he carved with his pen knife as a student in Ateneo.
8:00 A.M. – Rizal had a breakfast with Fr. Antonio Rosell. After breakfast, his
attorney, Lt. Luis Taviel de Andrade came.
9:00 A.M. – Fr. Frederico Faura arrived. Rizal reminded the priest of his earlier
‘prophecy’ about Rizal, that someday he will lose his head for writing the Noli.
10:00 A.M. – More Jesuit priests had visited him. After then, he was interviewed
by Santiago Mataix for the newspaper El Heraldo de Madrid.
12:00 – 3:30 P.M. – Rizal was left alone in his cell. He took his lunch and
continued writing his farewell poem which he hid in an alcohol cooking stove. He also
wrote his last letter to Professor Blumentritt.
3:30 P.M. – Father Vicente Balaguer returned to Fort Santiago and discussed
with Rizal about his retraction of the anti- Catholic ideas in his writings and
membership in Masonry.
4:00 P.M. – Teodora Alonzo visited him. They had a very emotional encounter.
Rizal gave the alcohol cooking stove to Trinidad which contains his farewell poem.
Several priests have visited him afterwards.
6:00 P.M. – Don Silvino Lopez, dean of the Manila Cathedral visited him.
8:00 P.M. – Rizal had his last supper. He told Captain Dominguez that he
forgave his enemies including the military judge’s ho condemned him to death.
9:30 P.M. – Rizal was visited by Don Gaspar Cestano, fiscal of the Royal
Audience de Manila.
10:00 P.M. – The draft of the retraction letter sent by the anti-Filipino
Archbishop Bernardino Nozaleda (1890- 1903) was given by Fr. Balaguer to Rizal for
his signature. He had rejected it.
Upon Rizal’s death, his supposedly ‘retraction letter’ became of one of the most
controversial documents in our history.
This ‘retraction letter’ allegedly contains his renunciation of the Masonry and
his ‘anti-Catholic religious ideas.’
December 30, 1896

3:00 A.M. – Rizal heard Mass, confessed his sins and took Holy Communion.
5:30 A.M. – He took his last breakfast. After which he wrote his last letters for
his family and his brother, Paciano.
5:30 A.M. – Josephine Bracken arrived together with Rizal’s sister, Josefa, with
tears in her eyes, bade him farewell. Rizal embraced her for the last time, and before
she left, Rizal gave her a last gift – a religious book, Imitation of Christ by Father
Thomas Kempis.
6:00 A.M. – As the soldiers were getting ready for the death march to
Bagumbayan, Rizal wrote his last letter to his beloved parents.
Death March to Bagumbayan
At about 6:30 A.M., a trumpet sounded at Fort Santiago, a signal to begin the
death march to Bagumbayan. Rizal walked calmly with his defense counsel and two
Jesuit priests at his sides. He was dressed elegantly in a black suit, black derby hat,
black shoes, white shirt and black tie. His arms were tied behind from elbow to elbow.
There a lot of spectators lining the street from Fort Santiago to Bagumbayan.

As he was going through the narrow Postigo Gate, Rizal looked at the sky and
said to one of the priests: “How beautiful it is today, Father. What morning could be
more serene! How clear is Corregidor and the mountains of Cavite! On mornings like
this, I used to take a walk with my sweetheart.” While he was passing in front of the
Ateneo, he saw the college towers above the walls. He asked: “Is that the Ateneo,
Father?” “Yes”, replied the priest.
Martyrdom of a Hero
At about 6:30 A.M., a trumpet sounded at Fort Santiago, a signal to begin the
death march to Bagumbayan.
• Rizal bade farewell to Fathers March and Vilaclara and to his defender, Lt.
Luis Taviel de Andrade.
• He requested the commander of the firing squad that he be shot facing
A Spanish military physician, Dr. Felipe Ruiz Castillo, asked his permission to
feel his pulse.
The death ruffles of the drums filled the air. Above the drum beats, the sharp
command “Fire” was heard, and the guns of the firing squad barked. Rizal, with
supreme effort, turned his bullet-riddled body to the right, and fell on the ground dead
– with face upward facing the morning sun. It was exactly 7:03 in the morning – aged
35 years, 5 months and 11 days.

Rizal died as he described in his farewell poem, third stanza:

“I die just when I see the dawn break,

Through the gloom of night, herald the day;
And if color is lacking my blood, thou shalt take,
Pour’d out at need for thy dear sake,
To dye with its crimson the waking ray”.

It is also interesting to note that fourteen years before his execution, Rizal
predicted that he would die on December 30th. He was then a medical student in
Madrid, Spain.