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Key Stage 2,3

Basic Geometry

Stella Seremetaki

Train …to learn mathematics


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Κey Stage 2,3 ...................................................................................................................... 3

Geometry .............................................................................................................................. 3

Point-line-line segment –rays-plane .................................................................. 3

Angle-Angle Measurement-Angle Types............................................................ 3

Supplementary-Supplementary-Vertical angles-Successive and


consecutive angles ......................................................................................................... 3

Length measurement units - Straight segment tool ................................. 3

Linear positions at level-Point distance from straight-Parallel


distance................................................................................................................................ 3

Circle and Circle Elements-Spot Angle -Adjacent Angle and Arc-


Arched Measurement.................................................................................................... 3

Straight and circle positions................................................................................... 3

Points ..................................................................................................................................... 3

Straight line .................................................................................... 4

Properties ............................................................................................................................. 4

Inferior ................................................................................................................................. 4

Opposite ray ....................................................................................................................... 5

Level ........................................................................................................................................ 5

Half-level ............................................................................................................................. 5

Curved corner ................................................................................................................... 6

Non-convex angle .......................................................................................................... 7

Types of angles .................................................................................................................. 7

Straight angle .................................................................................................................. 7

Acute angle ........................................................................................................................ 7

Obtuse angle ..................................................................................................................... 8

Full angle............................................................................................................................ 8

Supplementary angles ................................................................................................. 8

Supplementary angles ................................................................................................. 9

Vertical angles ................................................................................................................. 9

Property of vertical angles ........................................................................................ 9

From now on angles ................................................................................................... 10

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Successive angles ........................................................................................................... 10

Corner bisector ............................................................................................................... 10

Unit length ....................................................................................................................... 11

Straight segment tool ................................................................................................ 11

Parallel lines................................................................................................................... 11

Intersecting lines ......................................................................................................... 11

Vertical Straights ......................................................................................................... 12

Point distance from straight ................................................................................. 12

Distance of parallel lines ........................................................................................ 13

Cycle...................................................................................................................................... 13

Symbolism of the center circle K and radius ρ ........................................... 13

Diameter of the circle ................................................................................................ 14

Property of the diameter of the circle............................................................... 14

Circular disc.................................................................................................................... 14

Equal circles..................................................................................................................... 15

Vice versa ........................................................................................................................... 15

Central angle ................................................................................................................. 16

Arc of the concentric angle .................................................................................... 16

Vice versa ........................................................................................................................... 16

Straight and circle positions................................................................................. 17

External line of the circle ........................................................................................ 17

Attached to the circle ................................................................................................ 17

Cutting the circle ......................................................................................................... 17

Note: By saying distance we mean vertical! ................................................ 18

Well reading ! ................................................................................................................. 18

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Κey Stage 2,3

Geometry

Contents

Point-line-line segment –rays-plane

Angle-Angle Measurement-Angle Types

Supplementary-Supplementary-Vertical angles-Successive
and consecutive angles

Length measurement units - Straight segment tool

Linear positions at level-Point distance from straight-


Parallel distance

Circle and Circle Elements-Spot Angle -Adjacent Angle and


Arc-Arched Measurement

Straight and circle positions

Points
The point has no dimensions, we represent it with a dot and
we call it a capital letter.For example,point A:
A.

If we connect two points A, B form the straight line AB. A is


called the beginning of the straight segment and B is called
the end of the straight segment.

For example, the straight line AB

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Straight line
If we extend indefinitely a straight line AB, then the new
shape that has neither beginning nor end is called straight.

From one point go through infinite lines

Properties
For example, an infinite line passes through A

From two points A, B only one line passes. Eg, from A, B only
the straight line passes

Inferior
If we extend indefinitely a straight segment AB from one
end, for example B, then the new shape that has the
beginning of A but has no end (end) is called half-straight
and is symbolized by Ah

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Opposite ray
If C is a point of the straight line x then at the beginning O
denotes two halves Ox’ and Ox which are called oblique
half-axes.

Therefore, two semi-openings are called objects when they


have a common authority and have the same entity, eg
straight line.

For example, Ox and Ox ‘ are called oblique rays

Level
Level is a surface on whichapplies the straight line
everywhere.

Each straight line of a plane divides it into two half-planes.


Phx, the line is divided by the plane Π in two half-planes P1
and P2

Half-level

I consider two semi-integers Oh and Oh with a common


principle point O.

The semixed Ox and the Split the plane in two regions a


convex P1 and a non-convex P2

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Each of the regions D1 and D2 together with the semixed Cx


and Cx is called a convex and non-convex angle respectively
with a vertex point C and sides Cx and Cx

For example, the convex angle and the non-convex angle

Unit of measurement of angles. Unit of measurement of


angles is the fate: 10
10 = 60, 1 = 60.P.x, the angle is 1800

Curved corner
The convex angle is degrees, less than 180degrees or equal to
180degrees.

Eg, the angle is 70 i.e. it is convex (less than 180 degrees)

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Non-convex angle
The non-convex angle is greater than 1800 BC, the angle is
290 degrees, ie it is non-convex (greater than 180 degrees)

Types of angles
Right angle

Straight angle
The right angle is called the angle that has a measure of 90
degress .P.x, the angle is 90 degrees and is called correct

Acute angle
Straight is called the angle having a measure equal to 180
degrees, the angle is 180 degrees and is called straight

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Acute is called the angle having a measure less than


90degrees .

For example, the angle is 60 degrees. Therefore, it is acute


because it is less than 90 degrees

Obtuse angle
Ambulance is called the angle having a measure greater
than 90degrees . Eg, the angle is 110 degrees. Therefore, it is
blurry because it is greater than 90 degrees

Full angle
Full is called the angle that its measure is 360degrees

For example, the angle is complete because C = 360degrees

Two angles that have a sum of 180 degrees are called


complementary.

Supplementary angles
For examble , the corners are complementary, because ω + φ
= 180 degrees

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Supplementary angles
Angles that have a sum of 900 are called complementary.

For example, the angles are complementary because ω + φ =


90degrees

The corners that have a common top and their sides are
oblique half-denominated are called vertical.

For example, angles are angles and are vertical. They are
also verticals and are vertical

Vertical angles

Property of vertical angles


The vertical angles are equal:

Two angles are called hereafter when they have a common


vertex and a common side and have no other common

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point. Ie, the corners are from now on because they share a
common point O and a common side

From now on angles

More than two corners that are at the same level and each of
them is hence angle to the previous or next are said to be
successive. Eg, the corners are called successive

Successive angles

Corner bisector
An angle bisector is called the vertex that has the beginning
at the top of the corner and splits it into two equal angles.
Eg, the straight line δ is a bisector of the angle because

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Unit length
Unit length is the meter (1m)
1m=10dm=100cm=1000mm
1dm=10cm=100mm
1cm=10mm
Multiple of measure
1km=1000m
Subdivisions of the measure
1dm=(1/10)m
1cm=(1/100)m
1mm=(1/1000)m

Straight segment tool


The middle divides the straight section into two equal
segments.

For example, the point M divides the straight line AB into


two straight straight sections AM and MB

Parallel lines
Two straight lines of the same plane are called parallel
when they have no common point if extended. For example,
lines ε1 and ε2 are parallel.

Intersecting lines
Two lines of the same plane that have a common point are
called intersecting. The common point is called a point of

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intersection. For example, lines ε1 and ε2 are intersecting


and their intersection is A

Conclusion: Two lines of the plane will either be parallel or


intersect.

Caution: A single point A of the plane passes a single parallel


line ε1 in the line ε2

Vertical Straights
Two lines of the plane are called vertical when they form an
angle of 90 degrees

for example, lines ε1 and ε2 are vertical in point A

Point distance from straight


The distance of point A from the line ε is called the vertical
straight line from point A to line ε1.

For example, AB is the distance A from the line ε1

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Distance of parallel lines


The distance of two parallel lines is the length of any
straight section that is perpendicular to the two parallel
straight lines and has its ends in them.

For example, AB is the distance of the parallel lines ε1 and ε2

Cycle
Circle is called the set of points of the plane that are
equidistant from a fixed point called the center of the circle.

For example, the circle centered on the point K and a


constant distance ρ called the radius of the circle

Symbolism of the center circle K and radius ρ


The center circle K and radius ρ is denoted by (K, ρ). Chord
of the circle. The linear segment connecting two points A and
B of the circle is called the chord.P.x, AB is the chord of the
circle (K, ρ)

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Diameter of the circle


The chord passing through the center of the circle is called a
diameter. For example, AB is a diameter δ of the circle (K, p)

The diameter of a circle (K, p) is twice its radius. That is, δ =


2p

Diameter and radius of the circle

Property of the diameter of the circle


The diameter divides the circle into two equal parts
(semicircles)

For example, the diameter AB separates the circle (K, ρ) into


two equal parts

Circular disc
A circular disk is the circle (K, ρ) along with the part of the
plane surrounding it. The circle (K, ρ) and the part of the
enclosing plane

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Arc of the circle


Two points of the circle divide it into two parts, each called
the arc of the circle. For example, points A and B divide the
circle (K, ρ) into two arcs, and the

Equal circles
Circles having equal radii are equal.P.x,

Vice versa
When two circles have equal radii are equal.
For example, circles (O, p) and (M, p) have equal radii and
are therefore equals

The corner which has the center of the circle and its sides
intersect the circle is called the focal point.For example, the
angle = φ is concentr of the cycle (O, p)

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Central angle

Arc of the concentric angle


If the sides of the concentric angle intersect the circle (O, p)
at points A and B the arc located inside the convex angle is
called a corresponding arc of focal angle = φFor example,
the arc is the corresponding arc of the focal angle = φ

Attribute: In equal circles or in the same circle, equal


concentric angles have equal equal arcs.

For example, the focal angles (φ) and ω are equal, that is, φ
= ω, this means that the arcs are equal.

Vice versa
In equal circles or in the same circle, equal arcs are equal
in their focal angles. For example, the arcs are equal and
therefore their corresponding concentric angles (φ) and ω
are equal

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Straight and circle positions


A straight e1 is called the outside of the circle when the
distance OM of the center of the circle from the line ε1 is
greater than the radius,

External line of the circle

Attached to the circle


A straight e1 is said to be tangent to the circle when the
distance OM of the center of the circle from the line ε1 is
equal to the radius ρ.

Cutting the circle


A straight e1 is said to be external to the circle when the
distance OM of the center of the circle from the line ε1 is
smaller than the radius ρ. For example,

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Note: By saying distance we mean vertical!

Well reading !

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