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# Proof by Exhaustion A- level

Stella Seremetaki
Pure Mathematician
http://www.mathschool-online.com/
Contents

## Methods of proof ................................................................................. 1

Proof by Exhaustion ........................................................................... 1
First Example ...................................................................................... 1
Proof .................................................................................................... 1
Second example .................................................................................. 2
Proof .................................................................................................... 3
References............................................................................................ 3

Methods of proof

Proof by Exhaustion
Note: In proof by exahaustion you break things down into two

or more cases. You have to make sure that your cases cover all

## statement is true for each case.

First Example
Prove the following statement : “For any integer x, the value of
3
h(x)=x +x+1 is an odd integer”.

## (i)X is an even number and (ii) x is an odd number

Proof
(i) If x is an even integer then it can be written as x=2n, for

## Substitute x=2n into the function h :

3 3 3
h(2n)=(2n) +2n+1=8n +2n+1=2(4n +n)+1

1
3
n is an integer thus (4n +n) is an integer (the sum or the
product of any inegers are also integers)

3
2(4n +n) is an even integer

3
2(4n +n)+1 is an odd integer

## So h(x) is odd when x is even

(ii) If x is an odd integer then it can be written as x=2m+1

## for some integer m. Substitute x=2m +1 into the function h

3 3 2
h(2m+1)=(2m+1) +(2m+1)+1=(8m +12m +6m+1)+(2m+1)+
3 2 3 2
1=8m +12m +6m+1+2m+1+1=8m +6m +8m+2+1=

3 2
2(4m +3m +4m+1)+1, m is an integer thus
2 2
2(4m +3m +4m+1)+1 is an odd integer

## So h(x) is odd when x is odd

We have shown that f(x) is odd when x is even and when x is

## odd (both cases). As any integer x must be either odd or even

3
we have therefore schown that h(x)= x +x+1 is odd for any

integer x.

Second example

of 9.

2
Proof

## n is either a multiple of 3, or 1 more or 1 less than a multiple

of 3. So these 3 cases are exhaustive:

3 3
 Case 1: If n = 3p, then n = 27p , which is a multiple of 9.

3 3 2
 Case 2: If n = 3p + 1, then n = 27p + 27p + 9p + 1,

## which is 1 more than a multiple of 9. For instance, if

3
n = 4 then n = 64 = 9.7 + 1.

3 3 2
 Case 3: If n = 3p − 1, then n = 27p − 27p + 9p − 1,

## which is 1 less than a multiple of 9. For instance, if n

3
= 5 then n = 125 = 9.14 − 1

References