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acids, bases and salts

 Compounds that yield hydrogen ions (H+) or protons in solution
 Have sour taste
 Reaction with metals producing hydrogen
 Reaction with carbonates and bicarbonates producing CO2
 Neutralization reactions with oxides and hydroxides of metals
 Corrosive action on tissues and clothes
 Uses:
o HCl of gastric juice is necessary for the digestion of proteins
 Patients with less than normal HCl in the stomach (hypoacidity) are given diluted HCl
orally before meals to overcome this deficiency.
 Dyspepsia is a term which is loosely used to refer to a disorder in digestion. Dyspepsia
involves such symptoms as pain in the upper abdomen, heartburn, belching, fullness and
heaviness in the stomach region, and spitting up food or sour-tasting liquid. Dyspepsia
may be caused by ulcers of the stomach or duodenum, hyperacidity, cancer of the
stomach, gallstones, infection of the gall bladder, colitis, constipation, adhesions, chronic
appendicitis, and worry and nervousness. It can be treated only by treating the disorder
which is causing it. In many cases, proper diet is part of the treatment.
o HNO3 is used to test the presence of albumin in urine
 Albumin is a sticky, gelatinous (jelly-like) substance. Its best-known form is the white of
an egg. Albumin belongs to the class of foods called proteins. The word is spelled
albumen when it refers to egg whites, but albumin when referring to the general
substance. The albumin of egg white is called ovalbumin. The albumin in milk is called
lactalbumin. Serum albumin is the name of the albumin found in blood serum. It makes
up more than half of the protein in blood serum. Some albumin is found in vegetable
matter. All albumins contain carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, and sulphur.
 Albumin hardens into a solid mass when it is heated. If albumin is heated with a liquid, it
either settles at the bottom of the container as sediment or forms a scum at the top.
The sediment or the scum collects foreign substances as it forms. Many cooks for this
reason drop an egg or egg white into coffee to "settle" it. Albumins are used to collect
impurities from liquids in sugar refining, industrial dyeing, and making photographic
o In fever, mild acids are used to diminish thirst because they stimulate the flow of saliva
o HClO (hypochlorous acid) is used as a disinfectant for floors and wards in the hospital
o H3BO3 (boric acid) is used as a germicide (any substance that kills germs, especially disease
germs. Disinfectants and fungicides are germicides).
o Acetyl salicylic acid as aspirin is used as an analgesic and as an antipyretic.
 Relieves headache, muscle pain, and fever due to colds
 Analgesic is any drug that relieves pain without causing unconsciousness. People use
various analgesics to eliminate or reduce many types of pain. Aspirin, a relatively mild
analgesic, relieves headaches, muscle pains, and some discomforts of a cold. A doctor may
prescribe more powerful analgesics, such as codeine, for the severe pain caused by back
injuries, serious burns, and such illnesses as cancer.

 Analgesics relieve pain by acting on the nervous system or by blocking the formation of
prostaglandins, hormonelike chemicals found throughout the body. However, scientists do
not understand exactly how analgesics work.

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acids, bases and salts
 There are two kinds of analgesics, narcotic and nonnarcotic. Narcotic analgesics relieve
severe pain but are addictive. Nonnarcotic analgesics relieve only fairly mild pain but are
not addictive.

o Ascorbic Acid (Vitamin C) present in citrus fruits is used in the prevention and treatment of
 Scurvy is a disease caused by lack of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) in the diet.

 If a person does not get enough vitamin C, any wound he or she might have heals
poorly. The person also bruises easily. The walls of the capillaries (small blood vessels)
become so weak that slight pressure may cause them to break. The mouth and gums
become sore. The gums bleed and the teeth may become loose. Patients lose their
appetite, their joints become sore, and they become restless. Anaemia may also develop.

 Scurvy has been known since ancient times. It was once a common disease among sailors.
During long voyages, sailors rarely had fresh fruit and vegetables. They lived on salt beef
and hardtack (dry biscuits) for weeks at a time. Portuguese navigator Vasco da Gama
once lost about 100 out of 170 men from scurvy. In 1753, James Lind, a Scottish
doctor, showed that eating oranges and lemons would cure scurvy, and that adding lemon
juice to the diet would prevent the disease. In 1795, the British Navy followed his advice
and began issuing daily rations of juice to its men.

 Improved understanding of nutritional requirements has made scurvy rare. Foods

especially rich in vitamin C include citrus fruit, tomatoes, cabbage, lettuce, celery, onions,
cress, carrots, and potatoes. These foods should be fresh to be most useful in supplying
vitamin C. Including such foods in the diet will prevent or cure scurvy.

 Compounds yielding hydroxide ions (OH-) in solution
 Accept protons
 Have slippery, soapy feeling
 Neutralize acids
 React with certain metals to produce hydrogen
 Affect tissues and clothing
 Examples:
o Caustic soda (NaOH) is used to remove fats and grease from clogged drains
 Very corrosive and car must be taken while handling it
 Used in the conversion of fat to soap
o Calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH)2] – lime water is used to overcome excess acidity in the stomach
 Antidote for oxalic acid poisoning because it reacts with oxalic acid to form the insoluble
calcium oxalate
 Oxalic acid is a strong organic acid found in many vegetables and other plants. It occurs
abundantly as its potassium salt in the sap of dock and other plants in the oxalis and
rumex plant groups. It is found in spinach, rhubarb, tomatoes, grapes, and sweet
potatoes. Oxalic acid is also produced in the body. It has been known since early times.

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 Industry uses oxalic acid in processing textiles, bleaching straw hats, and removing paint
and varnish. It is widely used in chemistry as an analytical reagent. Oxalic acid forms
substances called complexes with various metals, especially iron. For this reason, it is
also used as a rust and scale remover.

 The acid is prepared commercially by heating sodium formate with sodium hydroxide or
by bubbling carbon monoxide gas into a concentrated sodium hydroxide solution.

 Oxalic acid occurs as clear, colourless crystals, soluble in water. It is highly poisonous if

o Magnesium hydroxide [Mg(OH)2] is used as “milk of magnesia”

 Dilute solutions – used as an antacid for the stomach
 Suspension of Mg(OH)2 in water is laxative

o Spirits of ammonia which contains NH4OH and (NH4)2CO3 is used as a heart and respiratory
 NH4OH known as ammonia water is used as a water softener for washing clothes

 Important:
o To neutralize strong bases taken internally, weak acids like those present in citrus fruit juices,
vinegar, sour milk and curds are used
o Mild alkaline substances like baking soda (NaHCO3), lime water and milk of magnesia are used as
antidotes for mineral acid poisoning
o To counteract the acid spilled on the skin or clothing, the acid is first removed by running water.
The remaining acid may be neutralized by very dilute NaOH
o Strong acids spilled on the floor or similar surface may be neutralized by continued addition of
baking soda till effervescence ceases

 Are formed when an acid and base react (neutralization)
 Acid + base  salt + water
o HCl + NaOH  NaCl + H2O
 Necessary for the proper growth and metabolism of the body
o Iron salts – formation of hemoglobin
o Iodine salts – functioning of the thyroid gland
o Calcium and phosphorous salts – for the bones and teeth
o Sodium and potassium salts – help regulate the acid-base balance of the body
o Regulate the irritability of the nerve and muscle cells and the beating of the heart
o Help maintain proper osmotic pressure of cells

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Classification Formula Chemical name Common name
Antacid CaCO3 Calcium carbonate Precipitated chalk
NaHCO3 Sodium bicarbonate Baking soda
Cathartics Na2SO4 Sodium sulfate Glanber’s salt
(laxative) MgSO4 · 7H2O Magnesium sulfate Epsom salt
MgCO3 Magnesium carbonate
MgHC6H5O7 · 5H2O Magnesium citrate Citrate of magnesia
KNaC4H4O6 · 4H2O Potassium sodium Rochelle salt
citrate tetrahydrate
Diuretic NH4Cl Ammonium chloride Sal ammoniac
Germicides KI Potassium iodide
AgNO3 Silver nitrate Lunar caustic

Miscellaneous Uses
X-ray work BaSO4 Barium sulfate Barium
Caries reduction NaF Sodium fluoride
SnF2 Stannous fluoride
For casts (CaSO4) · H2O Calcium sulfate hydrate Plaster of Paris
Treatment of anemia FeSO4 Ferrous sulfate
Decrease of blood CaCl2 Calcium chloride
clotting time
Physiologic saline NaCl Sodium chloride Table salt
solution used for
irrigation and as IV
replacement fluid
Thyroid treatment KI Potassium iodide
NaI Sodium iodide
Prevent clotting of Na3C6H5O7 Sodium citrate
stored blood

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 Diuretic is a drug or other substance that increases the amount of urine discharged by the kidneys.
Most diuretics increase the amount of sodium and chloride discharged in the urine. Natural
substances such as water, tea, coffee, beer and sugar solutions have a diuretic effect on the kidneys.

o Some drugs are used as diuretics to lower blood pressure in individuals with hypertension.
Such drugs reduce the volume of blood in the body. Diuretics may also be used to treat
congestive heart failure and other diseases that are accompanied by a condition called
oedema. Oedema occurs when the body retains too much fluid and often visibly swells as a
result. Diuretics may cause a loss of potassium and other important substances in the body.
If such losses are not made up, they may cause seizures or heart or blood problems.

 Rochelle salt is used in some medicines. Crystals of Rochelle salt, which are piezoelectric, are also an
important part of some microphones.
o Piezoelectricity is an electric phenomenon that occurs in certain nonmetallic minerals, such as

 Silver nitrate is a chemical used in medicine and industry. It dissolves easily in water. It burns the
skin and can cause severe poisoning or even death if swallowed. Doctors use silver nitrate to
cauterize (burn) wounds to prevent bleeding or infection, and to remove warts. They use a mild
solution of it to treat certain eye and skin diseases, and as an antiseptic. Some countries require
that the eyes of newborn infants be treated with silver nitrate solution to prevent possible
o Antiseptic is a substance that destroys--or stops the growth of--germs on living tissue.
Antiseptics are applied to skin and mucous membranes to help prevent infection. They must
be strong enough to fight germs but mild enough not to irritate sensitive tissues. Antiseptics
differ from disinfectants and antibiotics. Disinfectants are chemicals that destroy germs on
nonliving objects, and antibiotics are drugs that treat infection after it occurs.

 Barium sulphate is an extremely insoluble barium compound that is not poisonous. Doctors use it in
X-ray examinations of a patient's digestive system. The barium sulphate absorbs X-rays to show
an outline of the intestines on the developed film.

 Plaster of Paris is a white powder that, when mixed with water to form a paste, will turn hard in a
few minutes. This substance is used for casting small statuary, for surgical casts, and for many
other purposes. It is made by heating gypsum, a stone composed of calcium sulphate and water.
When the water is partly driven off, the gypsum softens and is easily crushed to form a powder.
When water is added again, the mass hardens to a stonelike substance similar to the original gypsum.

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acids, bases and salts
 Electrolytes
o Substances whose water solution conduct electricity
o Soluble acids, bases and salts
 Most salts are strong electrolytes because they are completely ionized

Ions Found in the Body

1. calcium ion (Ca2+)
 necessary for clotting of the blood
 formation of milk curd during digestion in the stomach
 formation of bones and teeth
 formation of muscles including the heart

2. iron ion (Fe2+)

 formation of hemoglobin and cytochromes

3. sodium ion (Na+)

 principal extracellular positive ion

4. potassium ion (K+)

 principal intracellular positive ion

5. chloride ion (Cl-)

 intracellular and extracellular negative ion

6. bicarbonate ion (HCO3-)

 extracellular negative ion

7. iodide ion (I-)

 present in thyroid hormones

8. ammonium ion (NH4+)

 important in maintaining acid-base balance of the body

9. phosphate ion (PO43-)

 plays an important role, along with Ca ions in the formation of bones and teeth

10. magnesium ion (Mg2+)

 important activator for many enzyme systems

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