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INTRODUCTION AND OVERVIEW OF MANUFACTURING

1. What is Manufacturing?
2. Materials in Manufacturing
3. Manufacturing Processes
4. Production Systems

What is manufacturing?

The word manufacture id derived from two Latin words: manus (hand) and factus (make): the combination means
“made by hand”.
“Made by hand” accurately described the fabrication methods that were used when the English word “manufacture”
was first coined around 1567 A.D.
Most modern manufacturing operations are accomplished by mechanized and automated equipment that is
supervised by human workers

Il termine manufatto indica un prodotto fatto a mano. Oggi le lavorazioni sono effettuate utilizzando utensli e
macchine attraverso processi supervisionati dall’uomo ma non più artigianali.

MANUFACTURING

Definition: Process of converting raw materials into products.

I processi converono il material grezzo o il semilavorato in un prodotto perfezionato.

Type of Products:

o Discrete Products (ex. nails, bolts, beverage, cans): bibite


o Continuous Products (ex. wires, sheet of metals, yarns): processi continui per la produzione di lamiere o filati
o Unique Products (shipyard -> limited lots): cantieristica (navi, case)

Tipologia prodotto -> chiave di lettura dei processi


La produzione è rilevante in termini tecnologici, economici, storici.

MANUFACTURING IS IMPORTANT

o Technologically
o Economically
o Historically

La produzione determina la qualità e economicità del prodotto e ne modifica il valore.


Perché una nazione deve fare produzione? Negli ultimi deceni del secolo scorso si è assistito a una crescente
migrazione dell’attività produttiva verso est (minore costo della manodopera).
La delocalizzazione ha rappresentato un motore per lo sviluppo di questi Paesi. Tuttavia l’idea cheel’Occidente
potesse fare a meno della produzione è crollata nel primo decennio del nuovo millennio (crisi dei subprime).
La valenza storica è riferita soprattutto alle rivoluzioni industriali.

PRE-INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION (1500-1600)

Domestic system: merchants put out materials to families.


Craft guilds: goods passed from one craft to another (e.g. tanner to courier to saddiers/shoemakers)

FIRST INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION (1750-1830)


Technological Breakthroughs

o 1733 flying shuttle


o 1765 spinning jenny
o 1769 water frame
o 1781 Watt steam engine
o Factories became economical (economies of scale)
o Division of labor (beginning of labor specialization)
o Steam power freed industry from water power and made more flexible location possible (rise of industrial
centers)
o Cheap goods became available to wider segment of population
o Major alternation of lifestyles, from agrarian to industrial

Produzione beni di massa grazie all’introduzione di innovazioni radicali (es. telaio a spoletta, filatoio con diverse
tecniche). Le macchine hanno iniziato ad essere movimentate da energia ricavata dalla natura (es. idrica, carbone)
permettendo una produzione molto più ampia. Le industrie hanno iniziato a sorgere pertanto vicino ai corsi d’acqua
per sfruttarne l’energia e adoperando operai del luogo.

Industrial Revolution in America

o Lagged behind England (first modern textile plants in 1790s were actually attained through espionage).
o Less skilled labor and little craft guild tradition.
o More availability of large, unfragmented sources of water power.
o Water power + no guilds  vertical integration (e.g., Waltham and Lowell textile plants).
o Unskilled labor  interchangeable parts (Whitney).
o Distinct American System of Manufacturing in evidence by 1850's.

Le innovazioni tecnologiche sono state


sviluppate soprattutto sotto l’aspetto militare
piuttosto che civile (es. tessile). Il filone militare
ha infatti finanziato diverse innovazioni. Per
esempio, nel 1798 il governo USA istituì 2
armerie (principalmente per la costruzione di
moschetti): una in Springfield Armory –
Springfield (MA) e una in Virginia (al confine di
confluenza di due fiumi), per rifornire l’esercito
USA.
Il problema dei moschetti costruiti
artigianalmente riguardava soprattutto la
difficoltà di produrre la canna del fucile dritta e
la difficoltà nella riparazione di moschetti guasti.
Un moschetto guasto doveva rientrare in
fabbrica e l’artigiano doveva provare a ripararlo.
Nel 1827 John Hall progettò per la Harper’s Ferry Armery un
moschetto che presentava intercambiabilità di componenti.
Tale moschetto in seguito brevettato presentava pezzi riferiti a
un corpo centrale.
Questo consentiva maggiore tolleranza e variabilità poiché la
propagazione dell’errore era minore: ogni pezzo aveva una sua
base. Venivano in questo modo risolti i problemi di
riparazione, che poteva quindi avvenire sostituendo i singoli
pezzi guasti. Questo ebbe un impatto sulla produzione poiché
erano necessari molti meno operai.

Manufacturing - Historically Important


Throughout history, human cultures that were better at making things were more successful

o Making better tools meant better crafts & weapons


o Better crafts allowed people to live better
o Better weapons allowed them to conquer other cultures in times of conflict
o To a significant degree, the history of civilization is the history of humans' ability to make things

SECOND INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION (1850-1920)


1840's: Coal became widely available, as did inexpensive pig iron. Trend toward larger plants using interchangeable
parts to manufacture watches, clocks, safes, locks, pistols, …

1850-1880: Rise of railroads, steamships and telegraph provided reliable all-weather transport for raw materials and
finished goods. Made mass markets possible for first time.

 Catalyzed by mass markets made possible by railroads.


 Bonsack cigarette machine (1859)
 Automatic canning lines for food processing
 Bessemer steel process
 Electrolytic aluminum refining
Grazie alle fonti di energia a basso costo (carbone) e facilmente trasportabili non vi era più un vincolo geografico.
Grazie al treno a vapore le acciaierie più produttive, poiché erano necessarie locomotive e rotaie sempre più lunghi.
Lo sviluppo dei trasporti portò all’espansione di mercati trasversali.

Role Of The Railroads


Market Creation: enormous growth provided substantial market for

 iron rails
 wire
 glass
 fabric, …

Transportation: supported mass production and mass marketing

 rise of mail order houses like Sears, Montgomery Ward


 advertising was much more important in America where goods were marketed to new communities in the
West by unfamiliar firms than in Europe where goods flowed through networks in established communities
 impact on America's reliance on marketing?

Canergie and Scale: Impacts:

Nel 1868 l’UK aveva già collegato varie città. Il


fabbisogno USA è enormemente aumentato per la
necessità di collegare un territorio molto vasto e
grazie alla facile reperibilità di materie prime.

L’introduzione del cosiddetto sistema Ford permise l’organizzazione di lavoro e processi (riducendo 8 volte i tempi di
assemblaggio di un’autovettura). Il conseguente abbattimento dei prezzi permise l’aumento del target di mercato,
prima riservato ai ceti più abbienti.

Ford and Speed


Mass Production:

 defined new limits for complex assembly operation


 famous moving assembly line in 1913 Highland
Park plant ->mass production became virtually synonymous with assembly lines after
this

Continual Improvement -> single model (Model T)

Impacts:

 By 1920's, Ford had 2/3 of American automobile market


 In 1926, Ford claimed “Our finished inventory is all in transit” and boasted that he could take ore from the
mine and produce an automobile in 81 hours. Even allowing for storage of ore in winter and other stocking,
total cycle time did not exceed 5 days. (No wonder Taiichi Ohno of Toyota was a Ford fan.)

MANUFACTURING - ECONOMICALLY IMPORTANT


Manufacturing is one way by which nations create material wealth

Magnitudes
Production Side: Manufacturing represents roughly 50% of GNP in terms of production.

 Manufacturing represents 24% of GNP (directly)


 Report of the President on the Trade

Agreements Program estimates 25% of GNP originates in services used as inputs by goods
producing industries.
Demand Side: Manufactured goods represent 47% of GNP (services are 33%) in terms of final demand.

Anche se i servizi rappresentano più del 70 % del PIL, bisogna considerare che essi sono generati dall’indotto
industriale.

MANUFACTURING – ECONOMICALLY
Economical Definition:
Transformation of materials into items of greater value
by means of one or more processing and/or assembly
operations. Therefore, manufacturing adds value to the
products.

Manufacturing adds value to the material by changing


its shape or properties, or by combining it with other materials

L’industria deve essere economicamente sostenibile. La trasformazione di materiali in prodotti finiti è un processo
che produce valore. Pertanto l’impresa deve produrre valore e deve ricavare un vantaggio economico. L’utilizzo delle
risorse, operai, macchinari, energia etc. deve essere compensato dal valore del prodotto finito che deve avere un
valore aggiunto. Per essere sostenibile l’imprenditore deve portare sul mercato un prodotto cha ha un valore
maggiore dei costi sostenuti (non solo costi di produzione. L’imprenditore anticipa i costi. Deve pertanto essere
considerato anche il costo finanziario). Momenti di difficoltà sono naturali, ma una situazione persistente di perdita
può portare al fallimento.

The Importance of Operations

• Costs are a function of operating decisions‐‐‐planning, design, and execution.


• Toyota was far more profitable than Ford in 1979.

La competitività è aumentata. E’ necessario pertanto produrre di più a minor costo. Si adotta pertanto una gestione
strategiaca delle operations, spesso attraverso una riorganizzazione aziendale.
Per esempio, al Lingotto le auto erano prodotte quasi totalmente internamente. L’evoluzione ha visto le case
automobilistiche mantenere il know-how demandando la produzione dei componenti a aziende specializzate.

Takeaways
• A big chunk of the developed countries economy is rooted in manufacturing.
• Global competition has raised standard for competitiveness.
• Operations can be of major strategic importance in remaining competitive.

Manufacturing Industries
Industry consists of enterprises and organizations that produce or supply goods and services
Industries can be classified as:
1. Primary industries - those that cultivate and exploit natural resources, e.g., farming, mining
2. Secondary industries - take the outputs of primary industries and convert them into consumer and capital goods -
manufacturing is the principal activity
3. Tertiary industries - service sector

 Secondary industries include manufacturing, construction, and electric power generation


 Manufacturing includes several industries and thousands of products: e.g., clothes, beverages, chemicals,
and food processing
 For our purposes, manufacturing means production of hardware
Nuts and bolts, forgings, cars, airplanes, digital computers, plastic parts, and ceramic products

MANUFACTURING - TECHNOLOGICALLY IMPORTANT


Technology - the application of science to provide society and its members with those things that are needed or
desired

 Technology provides the products that help our society and its members live better
 What do these products have in common?
 They are all manufactured
 Manufacturing is the essential factor that makes technology possible
o Application of physical and chemical processes to
alter the geometry, properties, and/or appearance of a
starting material to make parts or products
o Manufacturing also includes assembly
o Almost always carried out as a sequence of
operations, a process

MATERIALS IN MANUFACTURING
Most engineering materials can be classified into one of three basic categories:
1. Metals
2. Ceramics
3. Polymers

o Their chemistries are different


o Their mechanical and physical properties are dissimilar
o These differences affect the manufacturing processes that can be used to produce products from them

In Addition: Composites
Nonhomogeneous mixtures of the other three basic types rather than a
unique category
I compositi offrono proprietà interessanti in quanto combinano
proprietà di diversi elementi ma comportano processi più complessi
non tradizionali. Fino ad oggi hanno trovato vastissime applicazioni ma
non hanno sostituito i materiali tradizionali. Ci si aspetta che
evolveranno in futuro

Figure 1.3 Venn diagram of three basic material types plus composites
1. METALS
Usually alloys, which are composed of two or more elements, at least one of which is metallic
Two basic groups:
1. Ferrous metals - based on iron, comprises about 75% of metal tonnage in the world:

 Steel = Fe-C alloy (0.02 to 2.11% C) -> ferro


 Cast iron = Fe-C alloy (2% to 4% C) -> ghisa

2. Nonferrous metals - all other metallic elements and their alloys: aluminum, copper, magnesium, nickel, silver, tin,
titanium, etc.

Il principio di purezza non esiste in fisica. pertanto sono state stabilite tali soglie convenzionali.

The top mineral and metal commodities traded over the 2003-2005 period

(average annual exports of aircraft were $116 billion


over this same period)

Temperature che determinano il cambiamento di stato di alcune miscele di elementi diversi (soprattutto Fe+C).
A una % maggiore di C corrisponde una temperatura più bassa: la T diminuisce all’aumentare di C.
Per questo nel passato si è utilizzata molto la ghisa poiché più facile da fondere. Ha numerose applicazioni.

2. Ceramics
Compounds containing metallic (or semi-metallic) and nonmetallic elements.
Typical nonmetallic elements are oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon
For processing, ceramics divide into:
1. Crystalline ceramics – includes:
 Traditional ceramics, such as clay (hydrous aluminum silicates)
 Modern ceramics, such as alumina (Al2O3)

2. Glasses – mostly based on silica (SiO2)


3. Polymers

Compound formed of repeating structural units called mers, whose atoms share electrons to form very large
molecules
Three categories:

1. Thermoplastic polymers - can be subjected to multiple heating and cooling cycles without altering molecular
structure -> diventano più deformabili all’aumentare della temperatura
2. Thermosetting polymers – molecules chemically transform (cure) into a rigid structure – cannot be reheated ->
all’aumentare della temperature acquisiscono durezza
3. Elastomers - shows significant elastic behaviour
4. Composites
Material consisting of two or more phases that are processed separately and then bonded together to achieve
properties superior to its constituents

o Phase - homogeneous mass of material, such as grains of identical unit cell structure in a solid metal
o Usual structure consists of particles or fibers of one phase mixed in a second phase
o Properties depend on components, physical shapes of components, and the way they are combined to form
the final material

Manufacturing Processes
Two basic types:

1. Processing operations - transform a work material from


one state of completion to a more advanced state

o Operations that change the geometry, properties,


or appearance of the starting material

2. Assembly operations - join two or more components to


create a new entity
Processing Operations
Alters a material’s shape, physical properties, or appearance in order to add value
Three categories of processing operations:

1. Shaping operations - alter the geometry of the starting work material


2. Property-enhancing operations - improve physical properties without changing shape
3. Surface processing operations – to clean, treat, coat, or deposit material on exterior surface of the work

Shaping Processes – Four Categories

1. Solidification processes – starting material is a heated liquid or semifluid


2. Particulate processing - starting material consists of powders
3. Deformation processes - starting material is a ductile solid (commonly metal)
4. Material removal processes – starting material is a ductile or brittle solid

Solidification Processes
Starting material is heated sufficiently to
transform it into a liquid or highly plastic state
examples: metal casting, plastic molding
Il material fuso viene versato in una forma
prestampata e lasciato raffreddare (usato sin
dall’era del bronzo)

Particulate Processing
Starting materials are powders
of metals or ceramics
Usually involves pressing and
sintering, in which powders are
first compressed and then
heated to bond the individual
particles
Usato per polveri metalliche o
di material ceramico (prodotte
da altra industria specializzata a
monte). Consente la
realizzazione di prodotti
composti miscelando le
particelle con il collante. Viene sottoposto a pressaggio e poi a cottura. Queste operazioni fanno sì che il prodotto
possa avere dimensioni ridotte e forma non molto variegata. La lunga lavorazione porta tali prodotti ad avere un alto
valore aggiunto. Le ultime innovazioni al collante di saldare le particelle grazie al laser o con microscariche,
permettendo di avere diversissime forme.

Deformation Processes
Starting workpart is shaped by
application of forces that exceed
the yield strength of the material
Examples: (a) forging, (b) extrusion

Solitamente per I metalliche sono


duttili. Lo stampo deve essere
particolarmente resistente alla
pressione. ( Estrusione rif. tubo
dentifricio)
Material Removal Processes
Excess material removed from the starting piece so what remains is the desired geometry
Se la forma finite non è ottenibile con I precedent processi, si procede con la rimozione del materiali in eccesso
(taglio) ricavando la forma definita. Fondamentale per produrre oggetti di precisione.

Examples: machining such as turning, drilling, and milling; also grinding and non-traditional processes

Waste in Shaping Processes


Desirable to minimize waste in part shaping
Material removal processes are wasteful in unit operations, simply by the way they work

o Most casting, molding, and particulate processing operations waste little material
o Terminology for minimum waste processes:
 Net shape processes - when most of the starting material is used and no subsequent machining is
required
 Near net shape processes – when minimum amount of machining is required

Nella fase di taglio vi è spreco di materiale che può essere recuperato o no. E’ necessario minimizzare lo sfrigio per
un aspetto non solo economico ma anche di salvaguardia dell’ambiente.

Property-Enhancing Processes
Performed to improve mechanical or physical properties of work material

o Part shape is not altered, except unintentionally


Example: unintentional warping of a heat treated part
o Examples:
o Heat treatment of metals and glasses
o Sintering of powdered metals and ceramics

Surface Processing Operations

o Cleaning - chemical and mechanical processes to remove dirt, oil, and other contaminants from the surface
o Surface treatments - mechanical working such as sand blasting, and physical processes like diffusion
o Coating and thin film deposition – coating exterior surface of the workpart

Assembly Operations
Two or more separate parts are joined to form a new entity
Types of assembly operations:

1. Joining processes – create a permanent joint

 Welding, brazing, soldering, and adhesive bonding

2. Mechanical assembly – fastening by mechanical methods

 Threaded fasteners (screws, bolts and nuts); press fitting, expansion fits
Production Systems
People, equipment, and procedures used for the combination of materials and processes that constitute a firm's
manufacturing operations

o A manufacturing firm must have systems and procedures to efficiently accomplish its type of production
o Two categories of production systems:
 Production facilities
 Manufacturing support systems
o Both categories include people (people make the systems work)

Production Facilities
The factory, production equipment, and material handling systems

o Production facilities "touch" the product


o Includes the way the equipment is arranged in the factory - the plant layout
o Equipment usually organized into logical groupings, called manufacturing systems
o Examples:
 Automated production line
 Machine cell consisting of an industrial robot and two machine tools

Facilities versus Product Quantities


A company designs its manufacturing systems and organizes its factories to serve the particular mission of each plant

o Certain types of production facilities are recognized as the most appropriate for a given type of
manufacturing:
1. Low production – 1 to 100
2. Medium production – 100 to 10,000
3. High production – 10,000 to >1,000,000
o Different facilities are required for each of the three quantity ranges

Low Production
Job shop is the term used for this type of production facility

o A job shop makes low quantities of specialized and customized products


 Products are typically complex, e.g., space capsules, prototype aircraft, special machinery
o Equipment in a job shop is general purpose
o Labor force is highly skilled
o Designed for maximum flexibility

Medium Production
Two different types of facility, depending on product variety:

 Batch production
 Suited to hard product variety
 Setups required between batches
 Cellular manufacturing
 Suited to soft product variety
 Worker cells organized to process parts without setups between different part styles

High Production

o Often referred to as mass production


o High demand for product
o Manufacturing system dedicated to the production of that product
o Two categories of mass production:
1. Quantity production
2. Flow line production
Quantity Production
Mass production of single parts on single machine or small numbers of machines

o Typically involves standard machines equipped with special tooling


o Equipment is dedicated full-time to the production of one part or product type
o Typical layouts used in quantity production are process layout and cellular layout

Flow Line Production


Multiple machines or workstations arranged in sequence, e.g., production lines

o Product is complex
 Requires multiple processing and/or assembly operations
o Work units are physically moved through the sequence to complete the product
o Workstations and equipment are designed specifically for the product to maximize efficiency

Manufacturing Support Systems


A company must organize itself to design the processes and equipment, plan and control production, and satisfy
product quality requirements

o Accomplished by manufacturing support systems - people and procedures by which a company manages its
production operations
o Typical departments:
1. Manufacturing engineering
2. Production planning and control
3. Quality control

Overview of Major Topics

Figure 1.10 Overview of production


system and major topics in
Fundamentals of Modern
Manufacturing.

Production Quantity Q
The quantity of products Q made by a factory has an important influence on the way its people, facilities, and
procedures are organized
o Annual production quantities can be classified into three ranges:
Production range Annual Quantity Q
Low production 1 to 100 units
Medium production 100 to 10,000 units
High production 10,000 to millions of

Product Variety P
Product variety P refers to different product types or models produced in the plant

o Different products have different features


o They are intended for different markets
o Some have more parts than others
o The number of different product types made each year in a factory can be counted
o When the number of product types made in the factory is high, this indicates high product variety
P versus Q in Factory Operations

More About Product Variety


Although P is a quantitative parameter, it is much less exact than Q because details on how much the designs differ
is not captured simply by the number of different designs

o Soft product variety - small differences between products, e.g., between car models made on the same
production line, with many common parts among models
o Hard product variety - products differ substantially, e.g., between a small car and a large truck, with few
common parts (if any)

Manufacturing Capability
A manufacturing plant consists of processes and systems (and people, of course) designed to transform a certain
limited range of materials into products of increased value

o The three building blocks - materials, processes, and systems - are the subject of modern manufacturing
o Manufacturing capability includes:
1. Technological processing capability
2. Physical product limitations
3. Production capacity

1. Technological Processing Capability


The available set of manufacturing processes in the plant (or company)

o Certain manufacturing processes are suited to certain materials


 By specializing in certain processes, the plant is also specializing in certain materials
o Includes not only the physical processes, but also the expertise of the plant personnel
o Examples:
 A machine shop cannot roll steel
 A steel mill cannot build cars

2. Physical Product Limitations


Given a plant with a certain set of processes, there are size and weight limitations on the parts or products that can
be made in the plant

o Product size and weight affect:


o Production equipment
o Material handling equipment
o Production, material handling equipment, and plant size must be planned for products that lie within a
certain size and weight range
3. Production Capacity
Defined as the maximum quantity that a plant can produce in a given time period (e.g., month or year) under
assumed operating conditions

o Operating conditions refer to number of shifts per week, hours per shift, direct labor manning levels in the
plant, and so on
o Usually measured in terms of output units, such as tons of steel or number of cars produced by the plant
o Also called plant capacity