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Marking the Way: The Significance of Eugene

Ormandy's Score Annotations


Bewley, John . Notes - Quarterly Journal of the Music Library Association ; Ann Arbor, Mich., etc.
 Vol. 59, Ed. 4,  (Jun 2003): 828-853.

Link para o documento do ProQuest

RESUMO (ABSTRACT)
Although few people see the process involved in preparing musical scores for performance, score annotation is a
very important aspect in the art of conducting. Many conductors leave behind a written legacy in the form of
markings entered on the scores they use for study or performance. The collection of score annotations by 20th
century conductor Eugene Ormandy is examined in an effort to better understand the art of conducting in general
and the specific techniques of individual conductors. Ormandy was the renowned music director of the
Philadelphia Orchestra for 42 years, succeeding the legendary conductor Leopold Stokowski. Ormandy's collection
consists of approximately 1,186 scores, 183 sets of scores and parts, and 46 sets of parts without scores.

TEXTO COMPLETO
John Bewley

The art of conducting consists in large measure of elements hidden from the general audience. Other than
participating musicians, few people get to witness the rehearsal technique of conductors and understand how
their musical goals are communicated. Even fewer see the process involved in preparing musical scores for
performance. Fortunately, many conductors leave behind a written legacy in the form of markings entered on the
scores they use for study or performance. While the entire realm of mental preparation cannot possibly be revealed
through these annotations, such markings can offer substantial information about many aspects of a conductor's
preparation process. Therefore, a study of conductor score markings has the potential to increase our
understanding of the art of conducting in general and the specific techniques of individual conductors.
One conductor whose collection of scores is remarkably intact and well-preserved is Eugene Ormandy (1899-
1985). Ormandy was the renowned music director of the Philadelphia Orchestra for forty-two years (1938-80), not
counting the two years (1936-38) he spent as codirector with his predecessor Leopold Stokowski (1882-1977), and
his work as conductor laureate until his final performance with the orchestra at Carnegie Hall in 1984. Ormandy's
extraordinarily long association with a major orchestra is unheard of by today's standards. Faced with the
daunting task of succeeding Stokowski in Philadelphia, Ormandy managed to improve the playing of the orchestra
and brought it to world acclaim. The critical reception of Ormandy's body of work has never been unanimously
favorable, but the duration of his tenure with the Philadelphia

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Orchestra and the extent of his conducting repertoire both stand as testaments to an outstanding career. 1.
The Eugene Ormandy Collection of Scores, housed in the Walter H. &Leonore Annenberg Rare Book and
Manuscript Library of the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia, offers a wealth of revealing examples of how
score markings can provide insight into a conductor's practices. The collection totals approximately 1,186 scores,

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183 sets of scores and parts, and 46 sets of parts without scores. Almost all of the scores in the collection are
either marked by Ormandy or bear inscriptions from composers to Ormandy.
Ormandy's collection of scores was donated to the University of Pennsylvania in 1987 by his widow, Gretel
Ormandy (1909-1998). The major part of the collection was originally housed in the library of the Philadelphia
Orchestra. 2. These scores were deaccessioned by the orchestra and transferred to the University of Pennsylvania.
A smaller part of the collection is comprised of scores that were kept in the Ormandy home. Some of the latter
contain markings and inscriptions but most are unmarked.
The Eugene Ormandy Collection of Scores is neatly complemented by the Eugene Ormandy Oral History Collection,
also at the University of Pennsylvania. It contains interviews with orchestra members, soloists, conductors,
administrators, and others. Ormandy's personal and professional papers, as well as a collection of his sound
recordings, are also housed at the library.
A closely related collection at the library is the Leopold Stokowski Collection of Scores. This collection of more
than nine hundred scores was given to the university in 1997 by the Curtis Institute of Music. Its present location
at the University of Pennsylvania allows for side-by-side comparisons of the markings of Ormandy and Stokowski.
Future comparative studies of conductor score markings might also be expanded to include the marked scores of
George Szell (Cleveland Orchestra's George Szell Memorial Library), Arturo Toscanini (Toscanini Legacy Collection
at the New York Public Library), Serge Koussevitzky (Boston Public Library), Fritz Reiner (Chicago Symphony
Orchestra's Samuel R. and Marie Louise Rosenthal Archives), and Leonard Bernstein (New York Philharmonic
Archives).
1.
Ormandy recorded more than twelve hundred works with the Philadelphia Orchestra, according to the
discography in The Philadelphia Orchestra: A Century of Music, ed. John Ardoin (Philadelphia: Temple University
Press, 1999), 233-47. This includes incidental works, parts of works, and multiple recordings of single pieces.
2.
The fact that these scores and parts were housed in the Philadelphia Orchestra library means that they may also
have been marked by guest or assistant conductors. The large body of markings authenticated as being by
Ormandy, however, make it possible to easily distinguish his markings.

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Every conductor develops a singular approach to marking scores. What may be common practice for one
conductor might never appear in another conductor's scores. Comparison of this sort requires a standardized
approach to the analysis of markings. Categorizing markings by type is one step that can be taken; capturing such
information within catalog records is a second step that can make the information available to a wider audience.
For the purposes of this article, Ormandy's markings have been categorized as indicated in the following outline:
• *Marks of Secondary Interest

• Reinforcement

• Analysis

• Durations

• *Editing

• Tempos

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• Dynamics

• Bowings

• Conducting Solutions

• *Alterations to Musical Content

• Cuts

• Changes to Orchestration

MARKS OF SECONDARY INTERESTReinforcement


The most common type of marking, and of least significance musically, is that of reinforcement. Ormandy's score
markings of this type followed the norm, with most of his markings in colored pencil or crayon. These are typically
enlargements made of markings already present on the score: tempos, instrument names, time signatures, and
dynamics, often enlarged by conductors for enhanced visibility during rehearsal or performance. Markings of this
type may also be a tool used by conductors during the process of learning or memorizing a score. The markings
may also note critical points in a work that warrant special attention.
Analysis
While some conductors learn a new piece by "experiencing" it (either through rehearsal or by mentally conducting
the piece), others utilize various analytical tools to digest a new work. These tools can run the gamut from
harmonic analysis to analysis of structural features. There

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are few indications that Ormandy approached music analytically; markings of harmonic or structural analysis are
extremely rare in his scores. Occasionally, he marked his scores to reveal phrase structures by marking groups of
measures with the number of measures in the group. One can presume that if Ormandy engaged in any sort of
detailed analysis it was either done on a separate score or intuitively.
Comments from interviewees in the Eugene Ormandy Oral History Collection predominantly support the conclusion
that Ormandy did not use an analytical approach in preparing a piece of music for performance. Composer George
Rochberg noted that Ormandy "was not a sufficiently intellectual enough conductor to know exactly how to
approach getting at the structure of a work and at the core of a work." 3. Rochberg went on to state that Ormandy
"learned my scores not by studying them and coming into the hall knowing them; he learned them during
rehearsal." 4. Robert Page, a choral conductor who often worked with Ormandy, noted that "In my experience he
was not one who could analyze and prepare ahead that much. He had to hear it and work from that standpoint." 5.
Isaac Stern noted that Ormandy "had an innate sense of the inside of a phrase." 6.
Durations
Conductors often mark their scores with durations for a variety of purposes: programming, measuring the effect of
choices of tempos, and for use in the recording studio. Several interviewees 7. in the Eugene Ormandy Oral History
Collection commented upon Ormandy's precise sense of time, and speculated that it was developed in part during
the 1920s when he worked in the Capitol Theater Orchestra in New York City. 8. This work

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3.
George Rochberg, oral history conducted by Sharon Eisenhour, 29 October 1990, Eugene Ormandy Oral History
Collection, 1989-96, Walter H. &Leonore Annenberg Rare Book &Manuscript Library, University of Pennsylvania,
Philadelphia, transcript, 4.
4.
Ibid., 15.
5.
Robert Page, oral history conducted by Sharon Eisenhour, 18 June 1993, Ormandy Oral History Collection,
transcript, 9.
6.
Isaac Stern, oral history conducted by Sharon Eisenhour, 27 January 1992, Ormandy Oral History Collection,
transcript, 21.
7.
These include choral conductor Robert Page, percussionist Michael Bookspan, and cellist Harry Gorodetzer.
8.
Ormandy was a child prodigy as a violinist. He entered the Royal Academy of Music in Budapest at the age of five
and began violin studies with Jeno Hubay at age seven. By age fourteen Ormandy had already earned his master's
degree from the Royal Academy. He came to the United States at the request of two concert promoters in 1921.
When the promoters failed to successfully arrange for the promised concert tour, Ormandy was forced to find work
elsewhere. He began work with the Capitol Theater Orchestra in the back of the second violin section, but his talent
was immediately recognized and he was named concertmaster only a week after beginning with the orchestra. By
1924 he had made his debut as conductor of the orchestra and was named associate conductor in 1926.

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environment demanded a practical approach to musicmaking, including a very tight control of durations, especially
when it came to the orchestra's participation in radio broadcasts.
Later in his career Ormandy was said to have been able to repeat performances of a work within an extremely
narrow range of durational variation. This aspect of his ability was commented upon by William Smith (assistant
conductor and keyboard player with the Philadelphia Orchestra, 1952-92) in one of his interviews in the Eugene
Ormandy Oral History Collection. Talking about Ormandy's performances of Mahler's Symphony no. 2, Smith
pointed out: "there wasn't more than five seconds variance between those four performances and this is a work
that lasts ninety minutes." 9.
So it is not surprising to find Ormandy's scores heavily marked with durations. These include timings for entire
works, individual movements, and sections within movements. His markings are also noteworthy because they
include durations for performances by other conductors, including Bernstein, Jochum, Karajan, Leinsdorf, Mehta,
Mengelberg, Mitropoulos, Muti, Stokowski, Swoboda, Szell, Toscanini, Walter, Weingartner, and Weisbach. The
sources of the timings, whether from live performances or recordings, are not noted.
Some of the durational markings in Ormandy's scores were clearly the result of the recording process. One
example is a score of Sibelius's First Symphony that was fully marked by sound engineers to show durations,
recording balances, and instrumental entrances. The score is also marked with changes made to the score by
Ormandy. 10.
EDITING
Conductors frequently edit scores, making changes to dynamics, expression marks, tempos, and bowings. While
these markings do not radically alter the musical substance of a work, they certainly can have an audible effect in
performance. Today's conductors may be less apt to make wholesale changes to a score, but conductors of

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Ormandy's era had a much different view of how to authentically represent a composer's musical intentions.
9.
Gretel Ormandy and William Smith, oral history conducted by Sharon Eisenhour, 9 February 1990, Ormandy Oral
History Collection, transcript, 21.
10.
Jean Sibelius, Symphony no. 1, op. 39 (New York: E. F. Kalmus, [197-]), Eugene Ormandy Collection of Scores,
Walter H. &Leonore Annenberg Rare Book &Manuscript Library, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Ms. Coll.
60, box 287. The work was recorded on Ormandy Conducts Sibelius, Philadelphia Orchestra/Eugene Ormandy, RCA
Red Seal ARL1-4901 [rec. 1978, rel. 1984], LP.

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Tempos
Ormandy's tempo markings, almost always marked in terms of metronome settings, are another reflection of his
concern for time and pacing in performance. The majority of the scores to which he added or changed metronome
markings fall into the baroque, classical, and romantic repertoires. In these cases his markings show his concern
for precision of tempos, replacing general terms for tempos with specific metronome settings. Yet there are also
cases where Ormandy changed metronome markings of twentieth-century composers, such as Stravinsky and
Schoenberg, possibly out of concern for clear articulation of certain passages.
Dynamics
Ormandy's concern for orchestral balance is reflected in his frequent changes and additions to original dynamic
markings. The majority of Ormandy's changes to dynamics served to insure that the principal melody would be
heard. The effectiveness of the changes, however, is difficult to evaluate due to several factors, including the
subjective nature of dynamic markings, the variance that may occur from one performance to the next (either by
the players or through adjustments made by Ormandy from the podium), the differences in acoustics from hall to
hall, and adjustments made by sound engineers during the recording process. In Ormandy's case, the issue of
dynamic markings and their effect on orchestral balance is further clouded by his frequent practice of altering
orchestrations, to be considered in more detail later in this paper.
Ormandy's markings in some works of the classical and preclassical repertoire are so extensive, and the original
dynamic and tempo markings so sparse, that his markings virtually constitute a performance edition. 11. Examples
of this type in the collection include scores to Corelli's Concerto grosso, op. 6, no. 8; J. C. Bach's Symphony in B-
flat major, op. 18, no. 2; and Haydn symphonies 80, 94, and 101. 12.
11.
For an excellent discussion of Ormandy's concept and realization of orchestral balance and sound, the reader is
referred to William David Gregory, "The Philadelphia Sound: An Examination of the Creation of the Sound of the
Philadelphia Orchestra under Eugene Ormandy" (D.M.A. thesis, University of Cincinnati, College-Conservatory of
Music, degree in progress).
12.
Arcangelo Corelli, Concerto Grosso, op. 6, no. 8 (New York: Broude Bros., [195-?]), Ormandy Collection of Scores,
box 320. Johann Christian Bach, Sinfonia in B-dur (Leipzig: C. F. Peters, 1925), box 1. Joseph Haydn, Sinfonia no.
80 (Salzburg: Haydn-Mozart Presse, 1965), box 238; Sinfonia no. 94: Paukenschlag (Salzburg: Haydn-Mozart
Presse, 1965), box 238; Symphony no. 101: The Clock: London Symphony no. 11 (Leipzig: Breitkopf &Härtel; New
York: Associated Music Pub., [195-]), box 337.

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Bowings
The sound of the string section arguably forms the basis for any conductor's concept of orchestral sound. This
was especially true for Eugene Ormandy. The lush sound of the strings of the Philadelphia Orchestra, already
famous under the tenure of Ormandy's predecessor, Leopold Stokowski, was further refined under Ormandy. In
speaking of the sound of the Philadelphia Orchestra, composer Ezra Laderman singled out "the string sound ... the
warmth of it, the glow of it, the intensity of it, that made it ... unique." 13. Irving Segall, violist with the orchestra
1963-94, spoke about the rich string sonority in an interview, saying "The string sound was ... famous in the
country, if not the world, in the Ormandy years. He liked using a great deal of bow, he liked having a rich vibrato,
and it was something he caused to happen...." 14.
Trained as a violinist, Ormandy meticulously marked approximately half the scores in his collection with string
bowings. The effect of his bowings was remarked upon by several players interviewed for the oral history,
including Norman Carol, concertmaster 1966-94: "He would have us change bowings to sustain the sound,
because he had almost an obsession with the sound being there, this intensity of sound being there all the time."
15.
Gabriel Braverman, violist with the orchestra 1938-73, supports Carol's statement in his own interview,
emphasizing that Ormandy wanted "Vibrato. More bow. Instead of putting eight notes on a bow, it would be only
four notes to give it a more heightened sound." 16.
The remarks by Carol and Braverman are borne out by an examination of Ormandy's bowings in Samuel Barber's
Adagio for Strings, 17. a work that is extraordinarily well matched to the sound of the Philadelphia string section.
Barber's bowings, as printed on the violin I part ( fig. 1 ),
13.
Ezra Laderman, oral history conducted by Sharon Eisenhour, 12 February 1990, Ormandy Oral History Collection,
transcript, 19.
14.
Irving Segall, oral history conducted by Sharon Eisenhour, 22 October 1991, Ormandy Oral History Collection,
transcript, 14.
15.
Norman Carol, oral history conducted by Sharon Eisenhour, 25 November 1991, Ormandy Oral History Collection,
transcript, 10.
16.
Gabriel Braverman, oral history conducted by John Bewley, 5 November 1993, Ormandy Oral History Collection,
transcript, 10. Braverman also worked as assistant librarian and copyist for the orchestra. In discussing the extent
of markings that he and orchestra librarian Jesse Taynton had to enter into the orchestral parts for the players,
Braverman had the following comments: "It included doubling, it included removing certain instruments to thin out
certain areas. It involved bowing. All the strings had to bow alike, and it had to be put into the parts so that each
part, each stand, would have these bowings. He would add or subtract dynamic markings--piano here, forte there,
and so forth. In order to enrich the sound, he would say, 'Have the basses play what the cellos are playing,' so the
bottom part of the sound was enhanced, or he would say, 'Put the first violins an octave higher and put the second
violins where the first violins were.' That would make it more brilliant--he always looked for more brilliance and
more heightened color from the orchestra."
17.
Samuel Barber, Adagio for Strings (New York: G. Schirmer, 1939), Ormandy Collection of Scores, box 17. The
violin I part is marked "N. C." for Norman Carol; the score is marked "Parts are bowed July 1980." The bowings, if
entered by Carol, presumably reflect the style of bowing favored by Ormandy.

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Ampliar esta imagem.
fig. 1. samuel barber, adagio for strings, violin i, mm. 1-12, ormandy collection of scores, box 17: bowing revisions

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have been altered in fourteen places through the first twelve measures. Additional changes of the bow (as
opposed to changes to Barber's original bowing) are marked in mm. 1, 5, 6, and 9, supporting the comments of
both Norman Carol and Gabriel Braverman about increasing the number of bow changes to insure a constant
intensity of sound.
Bowings alone do not tell the entire story of the Philadelphia string sound. Clinton Nieweg, the orchestra's librarian
since 1975, felt that performances of the orchestra under Ormandy's successor, Riccardo Muti, sounded
completely different even though the same Ormandy bowings were still being used. 18. The quality of the string
instruments, the skill of the players, and Ormandy's conducting technique must all be taken into account in any
discussion of the sound of the Philadelphia string section. 19.
Conducting Solutions
Conductors are often confronted with musical notation that is ambiguous or even illogical. Conductors strive to
eliminate, or at least minimize such ambiguity, attempting to find the best method for maintaining control of the
orchestra. This may be true even when a composer's intent may have been to loosen the control of the conductor.
18.
Clinton Nieweg, oral history conducted by Sharon Eisenhour, 19 April 1991, Ormandy Oral History Collection,
transcript, 43.
19.
William David Gregory's discussion of these issues is again recommended to the reader (see n. 11).

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Penderecki's To the Victims of Hiroshima: Threnody (1961) is an example of a contemporary composition with
notation that is purposely ambiguous. 20. Penderecki notated the score in sections defined not by meter but just
indicated in seconds. Conductors must decide whether or not to supply a constant pattern of conducting beats
and how to provide cues for points of attack within the sections. Ormandy's solution was to subdivide the sections
into patterns of conducting beats, thus superimposing an implicit meter onto the music. For example, the first
section of the piece is marked as being 15 seconds duration. Ormandy marked the score with divisions of 4, 4, and
6, treating the initial downbeat as 1, to add up to 15. The ensuing section of 11 seconds Ormandy marked "in 3, in
3, in 5." It is clear that Ormandy was uncomfortable without some sense of pulse, and felt the need to give the
players a visible cue as to where they were within each durational section.
Ormandy was by all accounts a very practical musician. If he found something that he felt did not work in
performance he did not hesitate to try to fix it. A rather extreme example of this approach is evident in his
reworking of the time signatures in Stravinsky's "Danse sacrale" from Le sacre du printemps . 21. Ormandy rewrote
the time signatures, incorporating measures into larger metric units to reduce the number of changes in time
signature ( fig. 2 ). The documentation of Ormandy's changes extends to the parts he had written out in the new
meters. 22.
While this rewriting reduced the number of time signature changes, it also obscured the placement of accents
essential to the nature of the passage. Michael Bookspan, percussionist with the orchestra from 1953 to 2002,
bluntly stated of the performance with the rewritten meters, "It didn't work. It was not a good performance." 23.
Another example of an alteration by Ormandy to reduce rhythmic complexity can be seen in his changes to the
score of "The Housatonic

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20.
Krzysztof Penderecki, Ofiarom Hiroszimy: tren = To the Victims of Hiroshima: Threnody (Cracow: Polskie
Wydawn. Muzyczne, 1961), Ormandy Collection of Scores, box 265.
21.
Igor Stravinsky, Le sacre du printemps: Danse sacrale, rev. version 1943 (New York: Associated Music Pub.,
1945), Ormandy Collection of Scores, box 294. This 1943 revision of the "Danse sacrale" was issued separately.
22.
Leopold Stokowski (who conducted the U.S. premiere of the work on 3 March 1922) also marked his score (1921
edition) of this passage with metrical indications. The score is in the University of Pennsylvania's Leopold
Stokowski Collection of Scores, Ms. Coll. 350, box 197, and the passage in question is visible online at
http://(accessed 20 February 2003). Unlike Ormandy, who attempted to simplify the score's metrical changes by
incorporating them into larger metrical units, Stokowski's markings never violate the barlines as written by
Stravinsky. In fact, the subdivisions marked by Stokowski are in alliance with the changes Stravinsky made to the
meters in the 1929 miniature score. It is quite likely that Stokowski's markings were made sometime after 1929,
and that he simply transferred the meters from the newer edition to the 1921 edition already in his possession.
23.
Michael Bookspan, oral history conducted by Sharon Eisenhour, 10 July 1992, Ormandy Oral History Collection,
transcript, 31.

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Ampliar esta imagem.
fig. 2. igor stravinsky, "danse sacrale" in le sacre du printemps, mm. 6-13: top line of each pair of staves shows

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stravinsky's original metric notation; bottom line of each pair shows ormandy's new time signatures for the same
passage at Stockbridge," the third movement of Three Places in New England by Charles Ives. 24. Ives wrote the
violin I parts in groups of ten and nine sixteenth notes. Recognizing the difficulty of conceptualizing and
performing groups of ten, especially when they are set against duple and triple groupings in the other string parts,
Ormandy rewrote the passage using triplet sixteenth notes along with straight sixteenth and thirty-second notes (
fig. 3 ). The passage, especially within the context of the rest of the orchestral texture, does not seem to suffer
from this change, though purists may argue to the contrary. 25. ALTERATIONS TO MUSICAL CONTENT
All of the markings discussed above have more effect on the musical presentation of works than on their musical
content. Ormandy, however, frequently made substantial alterations to scores that changed the musical substance
of the works, including cuts and changes in instrumentation. These are some of the most interesting and
controversial markings found in his scores.
24.
Charles Ives, Three Places in New England (U.S.: copyright by Charles Ives, [c1935]), Ormandy Collection of
Scores, box 244.
25.
Recorded on Charles Ives, Symphony no. 1 in D minor; Three Places in New England, Philadelphia
Orchestra/Eugene Ormandy, Columbia MS7111 [1968], LP. The listener may also note that the English horn solos
sound suspiciously like a French horn.

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Ampliar esta imagem.
fig. 3. charles ives, "housatonic at stockbridge" (third movement) in three places in new england, violin i, mm. 1-2,

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ormandy collection of scores, box 244: regroupings of sixteenth notes Cuts
The issue of cuts, or deletions, in scores involves different motivations depending upon the type of musical work.
In the case of operatic repertoire adapted to orchestral performance, whether with vocal part or without, it may be
expected that cuts would be necessary to shape an acceptable musical presentation into a concert format. So it is
not surprising that there are numerous examples from the operatic repertoire in the Ormandy collection that are
marked with cuts.
Outside the operatic repertoire, Ormandy's cuts extend across the orchestral literature, from baroque to
contemporary music. No composer's work was sacrosanct: cuts are marked in the music of Bach, Beethoven,
Brahms, Haydn, Lutoslawski, Mozart, Prokofiev, Rachmaninoff, Sessions, Sibelius, and others. Each example must
be evaluated on its own terms. Many of the cuts seem to be a simple means of reducing duration in order to
prevent a concert program from running too long, either for a recording or specific performance. Other cuts were
possibly the result of some other musical motivation. Ormandy may have felt that a deleted section of music
contained repetition that did not serve the structure or flow of the music well, or that a section did not work well in
performance for some other reason having to do with its compositional components.
An interesting aspect of Ormandy's cuts is the fact that they are not always represented in his recordings. For
instance, Ormandy made seven cuts in the score of the first, second, and fourth movements of Prokofiev's Fourth
Symphony, but the cuts were restored in the recording he made of the symphony. 26.
26.
Sergey Prokofiev, Fourth Symphony: for Big Orchestra, op. 47/112 (New York: Leeds Music, [195-]), Ormandy
Collection of Scores, box 269. Recording, Philadelphia Orchestra/Eugene Ormandy, Columbia MS6154 [1960], LP.

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Ormandy's cuts were used for his Columbia recording of Tchaikovsky's Serenade for Strings; the performance runs
twenty-one minutes and fifty-four seconds, well below the twenty-eight to thirty minute range most conductors
clock for the full version. 27. Given that this was recorded in the days of the LP record with its inherent limitations of
duration, this would seem to be an example where Ormandy wanted to reduce the duration of the piece in order to
leave free time to include more works on a recording.
Although Ormandy was best known for his performances of music from the late romantic period, he also
performed more than 140 United States or world premieres. 28. Ormandy was not inhibited from suggesting
changes to the composers with whom he worked during rehearsals. Thus, composer compliance is an issue to be
considered in alterations to the scores of these composers.
Ormandy performed the world premiere of Leslie Bassett's Echoes from an Invisible World in February 1976. The
score is marked with two cuts sanctioned by Bassett. In a letter of 16 August 1976 to the conductor (in response
to Ormandy's interest in further performances of the piece), Bassett stated "While I hate to give up some of the
fantasy, these excisions do result in a tighter piece." 29. The cuts were restored, however, when the score was
published, an indication that Bassett did not feel they were warranted.
The reverse of this situation can be seen in scores of David Diamond and William Schuman. Ormandy's copy of the
score to Diamond's Symphony no. 4 was marked with several cuts in the last movement, all of which were later
incorporated into the published score. 30. The score of William Schuman's Symphony no. 6 was marked with

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changes by Ormandy or the composer during rehearsals. 31. Here, too, the changes were later included in the
published score. These examples raise an issue that could easily be overlooked: collections of this type have value
as a resource
27.
Recorded by Ormandy on Serenade for Strings, Strings of the Philadelphia Orchestra/Eugene Ormandy,
Columbia MS6224 [1961], LP (21 min. 54 sec.). A selection of recordings by other conductors bears out the
differences in duration: Nederlands Kamerorkester/David Zinman, Philips 6580 102 [1974], LP (29 min. 36 sec.);
Berliner Philharmoniker/Herbert von Karajan, Deutsche Grammophon 415 855-2 [rec. 1967, rel. 1986], CD (28 min.
36 sec); Chamber Orchestra of Europe/Gerard Korsten, Deutsche Grammophon 437 541-2 [rec. 1992, tel. 1993], CD
(30 min. 36 sec.).
28.
The Philadelphia Orchestra, ed. Ardoin, 228-32.
29.
Leslie Bassett to Eugene Ormandy, 16 August 1976, typewritten note attached to score of Echoes from an
Invisible World: Three Movements for Orchestra (New York: C. F. Peters, 1976), Ormandy Collection of Scores, box
173.
30.
David Diamond, "Fourth Symphony, 1945," reproduction of manuscript score, Ormandy Collection of Scores, box
222.
31.
William Schuman, Symphony no. VI in One Movement (New York: Schirmer, 1948), Ormandy Collection of Scores,
box 282.

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for study of individual composers and the genesis of their works from fair copy through first publications.
The Philadelphia Orchestra toured and recorded extensively during Ormandy's forty-four year tenure as director
and codirector with the orchestra. The combination of both activities formed the basis of a very successful
marketing campaign for the orchestra and its sound, often described as the "Philadelphia" or "Ormandy" sound. 32.
The lush orchestral sound was readily identifiable to listeners and critics of the period. When applied to works of
the romantic period, this sound was usually praised by critics; when the same lush sound was inappropriately
applied to classical and baroque music, Ormandy was derided by critics.
Several factors contributed to the creation of Ormandy's sound. People have attributed the sound in varying parts
to his approach to string playing, the high quality of string instruments in the orchestra, and his conducting
technique, especially the inexact placement of his downbeat. Players noted that this lack of precision led them to
listen more closely to one another, and that it was responsible for a softer, less pointed attack.
Changes to Orchestration
While all of these factors contributed to the "Ormandy" sound, there is another component that is documented in
his score markings: his frequent practice of altering the orchestration of scores to thicken the orchestral texture. It
must be acknowledged in any discussion of this topic that many of these changes are sensed rather than really
heard in the recordings that now document his performances. While it may have been possible to "see" these
changes at a live performance, given a listener with either a thorough knowledge of the score or with a score in
hand, it is difficult to hear the changes to orchestration that are absorbed into the existing texture of a work. There
are other changes, however, that are clearly audible, even in recordings.
The quantity of the alterations is noteworthy in itself. Almost one quarter of the scores in the collection contain

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markings for doublings in the orchestration, and this does not account for the "normal" doubling of wind parts not
documented in the scores (see below for explanation of this practice).
32.
For a discussion of Ormandy's part in the successful marketing of the Philadelphia Orchestra, see Edward Arian,
Bach, Beethoven, and Bureaucracy: The Case of the Philadelphia Orchestra (University, Ale.: University of Alabama
Press, 1971).

p.840

Ormandy applied doublings to the whole range of his repertoire. 33. One might expect to find alterations to works
such as the symphonies of Robert Schumann, frequently altered by other conductors and extensively changed by
Ormandy. But Ormandy also applied this practice to works by composers (like Debussy and Ravel) known as
master orchestrators, as well as to works by contemporary composers. 34.
It is clear that when faced with a musical passage that could not be satisfactorily realized into his concept of
sound, Ormandy had no hesitation in changing the passage. The evidence seems to refute Ormandy's own
description about his practice of altering scores, in which he asserted:
When conducting older composers, the conductor must sometimes compensate for the technical inadequacies of
the composers' times by delicately rewriting certain passages in terms of today's more complete orchestras and
more highly skilled players. Present-day performances of such works as the Fifth Symphony of Beethoven, the
"Great" C Major Symphony of Schubert, the symphonies of Schumann, to mention but a few, are rarely given
without many instrumental changes. Even so "pure" a conductor as Toscanini did not deny the composer the
benefit of today's heightened instrumental resources. 35.
The variety of Ormandy's doublings and additions to the instrumentation is also remarkable. 36. The most basic
type of doubling is the simple expansion of a woodwind section from two to four players. This is often
substantiated only by the number of parts in the folders and not by indications in the scores. This doubling of
woodwind parts was necessitated in part by the volume of sound produced by the string section of the
Philadelphia Orchestra. 37. Obviously, this practice enlarges the sound while trying to maintain the balance between
winds and strings, but does not substantially alter the basic texture of the sound.
Doubling within an instrumental family was also a technique that Ormandy applied to the string section. There are
many examples of this
33.
It is interesting to note that one type of work Ormandy left relatively untouched was concertos. Only twelve
concertos in the collection contain any doublings or changes to the orchestration. We can infer from this that he
recognized the need to maintain the balance between the solo instrument and the orchestra as written by the
composer.
34.
A partial list includes works by Barber, Bartók, Copland, Dello Joio, Finney, Hanson, Harris, Hindemith, Holst,
Mahler, Persichetti, Prokofiev, Respighi, Rorem, Roussel, Schuman, Sessions, Shostakovich, Sibelius, Stravinsky,
and Thomson.
35.
Eugene Ormandy, interview in The Music Makers, ed. Deena and Bernard Rosenberg (New York: Columbia
University Press, 1979), 157-58.
36.
William David Gregory includes an appendix with his dissertation in which he itemizes Ormandy's changes to

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close to three dozen works (see n. 11).
37.
This is substantiated by remarks by Gabriel Braverman in his 5 November 1993 interview (see n. 19): "Ormandy's
style produced highly charged string playing, especially in the strings--highly charged. And if he added an octave
higher and more brilliance to the strings, he had to balance it with adding a third flute where there was no third
flute before, or a second oboe where there was none. He would add certain instruments like that in order to
balance out the heightened sound of the strings."

p.841

type in his scores: he would add part or all of one string section (violin II) to another (violin I) to add weight to a
line, either at the same pitch or at a different octave. This type of change often created a domino effect, requiring
alterations in the remaining string sections to cover whatever other section was moved off its part.
One example of this technique is in the fourth movement of Robert Schumann's Symphony no. 4. 38. Ormandy alters
the scoring in the string section in mm. 196-200 by having the second violins double the first violins, the violas
double the second violins down one octave, and the cellos double the violas ( fig. 4 ). As is often the case with
Ormandy's doublings, he reinforced the principal melody at an important point in the movement. The
accompanying harmonic and rhythmic content that was originally contained in the viola and cello parts was
deemed secondary to the momentum provided by the melodic line, and was left to be played by the double bass,
brasses, and bassoons.
Three examples from Symphonie fantastique by Berlioz demonstrate the practicality of some of Ormandy's
alterations. 39. Ormandy made changes to a single measure in the fifth movement in order to insure that the
melodic line in the first violins would be heard. It occurs in m. 495. The first violin part has been doubled by the
second violin, by the flute and piccolo, and by the oboes ( fig. 5 ). 40.
In the second Berlioz example (mvt. 5, beginning m. 480), Ormandy's markings indicate extensive rescoring to
reinforce the sound of the ascending line originally played only by the two tubas. He changed the orchestration to
include the trombones, bassoons, and horns on this line, with the loss of the syncopated attacks that were
originally in their parts ( fig. 6 ). 41.
In the fourth movement, m. 90, Berlioz divides a sixteenth-note figure between the first and second violins ( fig. 7 ).
He may have done this because he imagined performance with first and second violins seated on opposite sides of
the stage, giving the passage an antiphonal effect. Perhaps Ormandy, who seated his violins together on the same
side of the
38.
Robert Schumann, Symphonie No. 4 D moll, op. 120 (Leipzig: E. Eulenburg, [191-?]), Ormandy Collection of
Scores, box 466.
39.
Hector Berlioz, Phantastische Symphonie = Symphonie fantastique: in 5 Sätzen, op. 14 (Leipzig: Breitkopf
&Härtel, 1900), Eugene Ormandy Collection of Scores, box 36.
40.
Audible on the 1960 recording, Columbia Masterworks ML5638 (mono.) and MS6248 (stereo.) [rel. 1961], LP;
reissue, Sony Classical SBK 46329 [rel. 1990], CD.
41.
It is interesting to note that Leopold Stokowski also reinforced the tuba part in this section by doubling the part
in trombone III. Stokowski, however, left the syncopations in the other trombone parts. This passage of the score
with Stokowski's markings can be seen on the Web at: http://(accessed 20 February 2003). The score is in the

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University of Pennsylvania's Leopold Stokowski Collection of Scores, Ms. Coll. 350, box 32.

p.842

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Ampliar esta imagem.
fig. 4. robert schumann, symphony no. 4, fourth movement, strings, mm. 195-200, ormandy collection of scores,

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box 466: beginning m. 196 violin ii doubles violin i, viola doubles violin ii an octave lower, cello doubles viola

Ampliar esta imagem.


fig. 5. hector berlioz, symphonie fantastique, fifth movement, mm. 493-96, ormandy collection of scores, box 36:
m. 495 violin i doubled by violin ii, flute and piccolo, and oboes

p.843

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Ampliar esta imagem.
fig. 6. hector berlioz, symphonie fantastique, fifth movement, mm. 474-82, ormandy collection of scores, box 36:
beginning at m. 480 trombones, bassoons, and horns double tubas

p.844

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Ampliar esta imagem.
fig. 7. hector berlioz, symphonie fantastique, fourth movement, original scoring of violins and viola, m. 90,

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ormandy collection of scores, box 36: violins i and ii to play all figures in unison stage, felt that splitting the figures
diminished their impact. He rewrote the passage so that all the figures are played in unison by both violin sections.

Another example of practical reinforcement is Ormandy's treatment of the descending lines toward the end of the
final movement of Symphony no. 2 by Brahms. 42. Originally scored for second trombone and clarinets in mm. 399-
400, and first trombone and clarinets in mm. 401-2, Ormandy added four horns to the second trombone line (mm.
399-400), and trumpet to the first trombone line (mm. 401-2). 43. This latter addition is also a matter of
reinforcement for the first trombone, which must begin its line on an exposed, high D ( fig. 8 ). The addition of the
trumpet insures that this line will be heard.
The previous examples of Ormandy's practice of doublings are relatively straightforward; however, his changes to
the orchestration in the final six measures (mm. 136-41) of the first movement of Debussy's La mer are less
discreet and perhaps less in keeping with the composer's intent. The most visible change to the passage is the
rescoring of the woodwind parts (the bassoon parts in Ormandy's score are hidden beneath the manuscript insert).
44.
The piccolo was added to mm. 136-37; the second clarinet part, formerly playing in unison with the first clarinet,
was given
42.
Johannes Brahms, Symphonie Nr. 2, D dur, op. 73, für grosses Orchester (Leipzig: Breitkopf &Härtel, [191-?]),
Ormandy Collection of Scores, box 47.
43.
These changes, especially the addition of the trumpet, are audible on the recording: Johannes Brahms, The Four
Symphonies, Philadelphia Orchestra/Eugene Ormandy, Columbia D3M 31636, [1972], LP.
44.
Claude Debussy, La mer: trois esquisses symphoniques (Paris: A. Durand, 1905), Ormandy Collection of Scores,
box 219. Figure 9 shows an example of Debussy's original woodwind parts; figure 10 shows Ormandy's rescoring
of those measures.

p.845

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Ampliar esta imagem.
fig. 8. johannes brahms, symphony no. 2, fourth movement, mm. 395-403, ormandy collection of scores, box 47:

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horns double trombone ii (mm. 399-400), trumpet doubles trombone i (mm. 401-2)

p.846

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Ampliar esta imagem.
fig. 9. woodwind parts in mm. 135-40 of the first mvt. of debussy's la mer. claude debussy, la mer: trois esquisses

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symphoniques (paris: durand, 1905, 1938), 31

p.847

its own line in parallel motion with the first clarinet ( fig. 10 ). The most critical change to the woodwind parts
occurs in m. 138 (four bars before the end) where Ormandy removed the contrary, ascending motion that was in
the clarinets and English horn. These parts were changed to move in parallel, descending motion with the upper
woodwind parts. The score was also marked (bottom of fig. 10 ) with parts for an additional two B-flat cornets to
double the motion and pitches in the woodwind parts. The net effect of these changes, with the addition of
instruments and the extension of range, is a larger, more brilliant sound.
The other, very audible change 45. to the passage occurs in m. 138 where Ormandy added parts for the violins and
violas. The second violin and the viola parts partially restore some of the contrary, ascending motion eliminated
from the woodwind parts. 46. The first violin doubles the descending C-B[flat ] motion in the woodwinds.
This alteration strongly raises the question of Debussy's intent in the passage and whether Ormandy's changes
serve that purpose. Debussy begins the final section of the movement at m. 132 ( Tres lent ) at pp , and five
measures later at m. 136 has already built up to f in the entire orchestra. One measure later (and five measures
from the end of the movement) all parts are marked ff . His decision to score the next measure (m. 138) without
strings is telling. Known for his sense of orchestral color, Debussy is clearly reaching here for an abrupt change of
timbre rather than continuing to an uninterrupted, climactic finish to the movement. This can also be understood
as Debussy's way of reserving a fuller, more complete climax for the ending of the entire composition. 47.
Ormandy's changes clearly negate the change of timbre that Debussy wrote in favor of assuring a higher volume of
sound and intensity throughout the final measures. 48.
The quantity of Ormandy's alterations throughout the collection makes it impossible to fully encompass all of
them in a single discussion. In order to provide some sense of how extensive these markings are, I
45.
Recorded on Debussy Album, Philadelphia Orchestra/Eugene Ormandy, Columbia MG30950, [rec. 1971; rel. n.d.],
LP.
46.
The viola part in the score is missing a change to treble clef for m. 138.
47.
By comparison, the final pages of the last movement build without interruption to the climax of the ending.
48.
Listening to several recordings of the passage in question by different conductors and orchestras reveals
varying degrees of success in performing the passage as written. When performed by orchestras with weaker
woodwind and brass sections (hardly the case with the Philadelphia Orchestra), the passage can indeed sound
anemic compared to the preceding measures. This is precisely what Ormandy attempted to avoid with his
markings. At least one recorded performance, however ( Boulez Conducts Debussy, New Philharmonia
Orchestra/Pierre Boulez, Columbia MS7361 [1969], LP), demonstrates how well the passage can work as written.

p.848

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Ampliar esta imagem.
fig. 10. claude debussy, la mer, mm. 136-41, ormandy collection of scores, box 219: rescoring by ormandy

p.849

have included here a partial list of changes found in the fourth movement of Dvorák's Symphony no. 7. 49.

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mm. 40-43 clarinet doubles oboe

mm. 78-79 trumpet doubles flute and violin, octave below

mm. 80-81 violin II doubles violin I

mm. 84-85 violin I doubles violin II

mm. 137-48 viola doubles violin II

mm. 288-301 horn doubles violin I, octave below; violin II (3 stands) doubles violin I

mm. 369-80 oboes double violin II

mm. 410-24 trumpet doubles violin I, octave below

These changes culminate in Ormandy's complete reworking of the final page of the symphony. The high pedal D
tremolo in the first violin part has been eliminated in order to allow the first violins to double the line in the second
violins (an octave above). Ormandy also doubled this line in the violas and by the trumpet an octave below. We can
speculate that Ormandy was not satisfied with the harmonic tension created by this high pedal, which is difficult to
hear in the register where Dvorák wrote it. Instead, Ormandy opted to put more weight behind the only moving line
in those measures ( fig. 11 ). 50.
CONCLUSION
All of the score markings mentioned here were made by Ormandy in response to different musical needs, and they
reveal different aspects of his preparation and treatment of scores. They range from marks of little or no musical
significance to radical changes of musical content. The markings lend credence to the observations of players and
critics interviewed for the Ormandy oral history, and provide physical evidence necessary to unravel questions
about alterations to scores audible in recordings, as in the works by Berlioz, Brahms, Debussy, and Dvorák cited as
examples.
The markings also form part of a larger picture: the art and practice of orchestral conducting during the twentieth
century. A record of the
49.
Antoniín Dvorák, VII. Symfonie d moll, op. 70 (Prague: Spolecnost Antoniín Dvorák; Export Artia, 1955),
Ormandy Collection of Scores, box 227.
50.
Audible on Ormandy Conducts Dvorák, Philadelphia Orchestra/Eugene Ormandy, RCA Red Seal ARL1-3555
[1980], LP.

p.850

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Ampliar esta imagem.
fig. 11. antoniín dvorák, symphony no. 7, fourth movement, final measures, ormandy collection of scores, box
227: violin i doubles violin ii at octave above, trumpet and viola double violin ii at octave below

p.851

markings, such as is possible to create during cataloging, can serve researchers whose interest extends beyond

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the study of Ormandy to the craft as a whole. Sound and video recordings present a documentation that is both
vivid and to some degree illusory. Matched and supported by the marked score of a conductor, the total
documentation is deeply enriched. If the documentation of conductors' score markings is not captured and made
accessible in some way, how else will we be able to form an understanding of what exactly constitutes common
practice?
Concerns about this question were among those addressed when cataloging of the Eugene Ormandy Collection of
Scores commenced at the University of Pennsylvania in 1992. 51. Once it had been decided to adopt an archival
approach to the cataloging, 52. it was up to the cataloger to survey a selection of the scores, develop a consistent
language for the description of score markings, and apply this language to the description of the scores once they
had been analyzed. This vocabulary included bowings, cuts, doublings, durations, metronome markings, and other
alterations. In many cases the description of alterations also included information about what had been altered (a
specific instrumental part or a section of the work) or how extensive the alterations were. The addition of this
information to the cataloging records, subjective as some might argue it is, increases the accessibility of this
collection for a variety of research purposes.
This expansion of normal cataloging has already been accepted by the music cataloging community in the
treatment of sheet music, with expanded access for lithographers, illustrators, engravers, dedicatees, and
nonmusical subjects. Therefore, it would not be a quantum leap for cataloging practice to adopt an expansion of
description to record information represented by the score markings of conductors. Music catalogers
51.
Cataloging of this collection and the Eugene Ormandy Oral History was done 1992-94 by the author, funded by a
grant from the Presser Foundation. Decisions regarding the approach to cataloging the collection were reached by
consensus among the curator of manuscripts, Dr. Nancy Shawcross; the head of the Otto E. Albrecht Music
Library, Marjorie Hassen; and the music technical services librarian, J. Bradford Young.
52.
The archival approach to the cataloging is also evident in the following practices: (1) The application of the
related title, Eugene Ormandy Collection of Scores, to all cataloging records. This allows for a search that will
retrieve all items in the collection and perhaps more importantly, allows for searches upon the collection. For
example, it is possible to do searches that will retrieve only those scores marked with doublings, cuts, or bowings.
(2) The provenance of the Philadelphia Orchestra was respected in that sets of scores, or scores and parts
received from the orchestra together, were kept together and cataloged as units. This required careful analysis of
the sets to reflect contents that sometimes included scores (and parts) from different editions or by different
publishers. (3) Any additional materials found with the scores (letters, programs, rehearsal notes, etc.) were also
described in the cataloging. Catalog records for items in the Ormandy and Stokowski collections can be accessed
through the University of Pennsylvania Library online catalog: http://www.franklin.library.upenn.edu (accessed 20
February 2003).

p.852

need to include detailed descriptions of the score markings by influential conductors as part of the cataloging of
those conductors' scores held in their library collections. These markings have the unique and irreplaceable value
of revealing hidden nuances about the art of conducting that scholars and musicians cannot discover in any other
way.

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As the twentieth anniversary of Ormandy's death approaches, there is renewed interest in--and appreciation for--his
work. Born in the nineteenth century, he carried many of its musical traditions forward into the twentieth century.
Virtually all of his conducting and recording were done before the era of authentic performance practice had begun
to enter the orchestral world. It is fair to say that his utmost concern as a conductor was for the creation of
beautiful sound. The extent of the markings in his scores demonstrates how assiduously he pursued that goal,
whether or not critics of his approach agreed.
John Bewley is a cataloger and archivist at the Music Library of the University at Buffalo, the State University of
New York. His research on this project, begun while working as cataloger of the Ormandy score and oral history
collections at the University of Pennsylvania, was supported in part by MLA's Walter Gerboth Award and an
Individual Development Award from the University at Buffalo Center Chapter Professional Development
Committee. The author expresses gratitude to Dr. Nancy Shawcross, curator of manuscripts at the Walter H.
&Leonore Annenberg Rare Books and Manuscript Library at the University of Pennsylvania, for access to the
materials and permissions to quote from them here.

p.853

Top of Page

©Copyright 2003 Music Library Association.

DETALHES

Termo específico: Musical Scores, Music Collections, Musical Notation, Conductors, Conducting,
Historical Significance, 20th century

Assunto genérico: Musical Sound Sources, Theory/Analysis/Composition

Pessoas: Ormandy, Eugene

Empresa: Philadelphia Orchestra

URL: http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/notes/v059/59.4bewley.html

Título: Marking the Way: The Significance of Eugene Ormandy's Score Annotations

Autor: Bewley, John

Título da publicação: Notes - Quarterly Journal of the Music Library Association; Ann Arbor, Mich., etc.

Volume: 59

Edição: 4

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Páginas: 828-853

Ano de publicação: 2003

Data de publicação: Jun 2003

Editora: Music Library Association

Local de publicação: Ann Arbor, Mich., etc.

País de publicação: United States, Ann Arbor, Mich., etc.

Assunto da publicação: Bibliographies, Music History and Archives, Music, Education, Library And
Information Sciences, Music Theory/Analysis/Composition, Sound Recording And
Reproduction

ISSN: 0027-4380

Tipo de fonte: Scholarly Journals

Revisado por especialistas: Sim

Idioma de publicação: English

Tipo de documento: Research and Analysis

Artigo principal do Musica l Scores References


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ID do documento ProQuest: 1110343

URL do documento: https://search.proquest.com/docview/1110343?accountid=12829

Última atualização em: 2017-08-23

Base de dados: Music Periodicals Database

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