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Appendix I. A9 Simulation of a dehumidifier used for industrial drying

A traditional method of drying many materials (food products, grain paper, etc.) has been to been to
heat ambient air and pass it over the material to be dried. Some industries have been forced to shift
from heat obtained from natural gas and oil to the use of electricity. Instea of using the electricity in the
resistance heater, some applicaton have employed a heat pump, as shown in gambar 1. The evaporator
of the heat pump cools and dehumifies the air and then reheats the air with the refrigerant condenser.
Next the air passes over the material to be dried. Energy is added to the air by the heat pump and also
by virtue of the water entering the airstream as vapor and leaving as liquid. A water cooled heat
exchanger removes this energy.

Data

 Air flow rate, 10 kg/s

 Rate of addition of water vapor, 0.02 kg/s

 Temperature of water entering water-cooled heat exchanger, 20 oC

 Flow rate of water entering heat exchanger, 4 kg/s

 UA of water cooled heat exchanger, 10.5 kW/K

 UA of condenser, 15.3 kW/K

Compressor performance. The pumping capacity of the compressor expressed in terms of heat-transfer
rate at the evaporator is
qe = 126.9 + 7.683te – 1.134tc – 0.05516tetc kW

and the power requirement of the compressor is

P = 15.05 – 1.266te + 0.283tc +0.0299tetc kW

Where te = evaporating temperature, oC

tc = condensing temperature, oC

Evaporator. The evaporator is a heat exchanger where both sensible heat and mass are transferred from
the air to the surface of the heat exchanger, which is wet because of dehumidification. The heat then
flows through the metal and thence to the refrigerant. Data on the evaporator are :

 Refrigerant side area Ar, 15 m2

 Refrigerant side heat transfer coefficient hr, 2.2 kW/(m2.K)

 Neglect the heat transfer resistance of the metal

 Air side area Aa, 120 m2

 Air side convection heat transfer coefficient, ha = 0.09 kW/(m2.K)

Heat and mass transfer in the evaporator. The process ocuring in the evaporator coil can be visualized as
shown under. The driving force for the transfer of sensible heat is the difference in dry bulb
temperatures of the air and the wetted surface. If the arithmetic-mean difference is assumed to be
sufficiently accurate,

Where qs is the rate of sensible heat transfer in kilowatts. The rate of latent het transfer is
Where W3,W4 = humidity ratio of air , (kg water)/(kg dry air)

Wws3,Wws4 = humidity ratio of saturated air at wetted surface temperature, (kg water)/(kg
of dry air)

Cp = specific heat of air, kJ/(kg.K)

Hfg = latent heat of water (suggest using a constant value of 2450 kJ/kg)

On the refrigerant side this combination of qL and qs equals the rate of heat absorbed by the refrigerant
qe, and

The temperature of the wetted surface, tws3 for example, must adjust itself so that the combined rate
flow of sensible plus latent heat equals the rate flow of heat to the refrigerant at that position.

Assignment

Simulate this system in the sense of computing all pertinent operating variables, including the conditions
of the air throughout the cycle; heat exchanger; and the power required by the compressor.

Discussion

The specification of the rate of moisture removal (0.02 kg/s) permits a simplification in this simulation in
that the humidity ratios of the air throughout the cycle can be left free to float until the remainder of
the variables are simulated. An extenson of this problem is to express the rate of moisture removal as a
function of the mass transfer of water from he product to the air. The humidity ratios of the air must
then adjust to provide a water balance.

Solution
1. Water cooled heat exchanger

Data :
 Air flow rate 10 kg/s
 Rate of addition of water vapor 0.02 kg/s
 UA of water-cooled heat exchanger 10.5 kW/K
 Temperature of water entering water cooled heat exchanger (tc = 20°C)
 Flow rate of water entering heat exchanger (w = 4 kg/s)
dengan asumsi ti = t1 = 300 K
maka diperoleh
to = t3 = 316.8 K
melalui substitusi, diperoleh
q = 139.58 kW

2. Evaporator

 Refrigerant side area Ar, 15 m2


 Refrigerant side heat transfer coefficient hr, 2.2 kW/(m2.K)
 Neglect the heat transfer resistance of the metal
 Air side area Aa, 120 m2
 Air side convection heat transfer coefficient, ha = 0.09 kW/(m2.K)
q evaporator = q water cooled heat exchanger

Dengan mengasumsikan nilai sensible heat (qs) = q evap, maka dari perhitungan didapat nilai
t4 = 280 K
tws3 = 284.56 K
tws4 = 282.56 K
3. Condenser

UA of water-cooled heat exchanger 15.3 kW/K


UA of condenser 15.3 kW/K

Dengan mengasumsikan nilai q yang sama pada setiap alat heat exchanger, maka diperoleh variabel
lain yaitu
te = 280 K
tc = 320 K

4. Compressor

Compressor performance :
qe = 126.9 + 7.683te – 1.134tc – 0.05516tetc kW
Power Requirement :
P = 15.05 – 1.266te + 0.283tc + 0.0299tetc kW
Where :
te = evaporating temperature, oC
tc = condensing temperature, oC
Compressor performance :
qe = 126.9 + 7.683te – 1.134tc – 0.05516tetc kW

dengan te = 280 K dan tc = 320 K maka diperoleh nilai compressor performance (qe) = -3027.07 kW

Power Requirement :
P = 15.05 – 1.266te + 0.283tc + 0.0299tetc kW

dengan te = 280 K dan tc =320 K maka diperoleh power requirement (P) = 3139.13 kW