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Archdiocesan School of

Byzantine Music

Byzantine Music:

Theory and Practice Guide

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Archdiocesan School of

Byzantine Music

Byzantine Music:Theory and Practice Guide

First Edition

Copyright © 2011 by Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America 8 East 79th Street, New York,

Copyright © 2011 by Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America 8 East 79th Street, New York, NY 10075 www.goarch.org

All Rights Reserved

Printed in the United States of America

Byzantine Music: Theory and Practice Guide

This book is made possible with the blessing and spiritual guidance of

His Eminence Archbishop Demetrios of America

Publication Overseer Reverend Archdeacon Panteleimon Papadopoulos

Authors Reverend Deacon Aristidis Garinis Dr. Demetrios Kehagias

Transcription & Audio Antonios Kehagias Georgios Giavris

Academic Oversight Grammenos Karanos, Ph.D.

Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America New York, NY

commend the Archdiocesan School of Byzantine Music for the publication of the Byzantine Music: Theory
commend the Archdiocesan School of Byzantine Music for the publication of the Byzantine Music: Theory

commend the Archdiocesan School of Byzantine Music for the publication of the Byzantine Music: Theory and Practice Guide, and for their continuous effort to promote Orthodox ecclesiastical chant throughout the Archdiocese. The rising desire to uphold this ageless and superb musical tradition is indicative of its effectiveness to inspire the faithful in prayer through the intelligible and proper rendering of our Orthodox hymnology. Through this publication, a new generation of stewards will be educated who will strive to uphold our rich liturgical inheritance known as Byzantine music. A music that helps in applying in the best way, the instructions of Saint Paul to the Ephesians when he tells them to address one another in

psalms and hymns and spiritual songs, singing and making melody to the Lord with all their heart

(Ephesians 5:19). Thus this book will prove to be a vital educational tool for the teaching of such a music following the tradition of our Ecumenical Patriarchate. It is my prayer that the Lord bless this book, and the school which produced it, and secure the future of Byzantine music as an integral part of the Orthodox identity and expression of faith.

With paternal love,

as an integral part of the Orthodox identity and expression of faith. With paternal love, +DEMETRIOS

+DEMETRIOS Archbishop of America

This book is dedicated to the countless teachers who have preserved the art of byzantine music in the tradition of the ecumenical patriarchate. We continue, through their efforts, to offer up prayer with one voice and one heart, glorifying our Almighty God.

Table of Contents
Table of Contents
Table of Contents Acknowledgments i Archdeacon Panteleimon Papadopoulos, ASBM Director Foreword ii Dr.

Acknowledgments

i

Archdeacon Panteleimon Papadopoulos, ASBM Director

Foreword

ii

Dr. Demetrios Kehagias, ASBM Instructor

Introduction: A Brief Overview of the Psaltic Art

iii

Grammenos Karanos, Ph.D. in Byzantine Musicology Assistant Professor of Byzantine Music, Holy Cross Greek Orthodox School of Theology

Byzantine Music: Theory and Practice

1

Chanting with Melos

35

Definition of Terms

40

A Synoptic Theory Chart & Reference

41

Sing praise with all your heart and voice, and bless the name of the Lord.

Sing praise with all your heart and voice, and bless the name of the Lord.

Sirach 39:35

and voice, and bless the name of the Lord. Sirach 39:35 Acknowledgments n this spirit of

Acknowledgments

n this spirit of praise and with thanks to the Lord, I enthusiastically welcome the publica- tion of the ASBM Byzantine Music:Theory and Practice Guide. It is my sincere hope that this book will prove to be the first step in decisively assisting students of Byzantine music throughout the Archdiocese and will help share the beauty of our Byzantine liturgical heritage by training a new generation of church musicians. It was apparent to the administration and faculty of the Archdiocesan School of Byzantine Music (ASBM) that the need to produce an English textbook for the students of our school was paramount. From the beginning of ASBM in October of 2010, the textbook that we used was ineffective in fully communicating the intricacies of Byzantine music in a clear manner and in a language that was under- standable to a majority of the students. The first year of the school’s operation afforded us the opportu- nity to re-evaluate the teaching methodology being used and whether the resources given to the students were indeed helpful. The results of our study showed that a theory book in English was needed to keep the students engaged both theoretically and practically. Thus a committee was formed to oversee the publication of such a book, produced and written specifically for students enrolled in ASBM. While the scope of this book is focused on serving the needs of the students enrolled in ASBM, it is by no means considered limited to them and could be used as a resource by anyone interested in learning Byzantine music.

I offer my sincerest thanks to Rev. Dn. Aristidis Garinis and Dr. Demetrios Kehagias for the co-authoring, layout, and publication of this book. Their tireless commitment to produce this book was a true labor of love. Additionally, I offer my gratitude to Mr. Georgios Giavris for typing out all the ex- ercises and to Mr. Antonios Kehagias for recording them onto audio CDs. I also thank Dr. Grammenos Karanos for his contribution and academic oversight of this book. Finally, I would like to express my heartfelt thanks to His Eminence Archbishop Demetrios of America for his continuous encouragement and support not only for ASBM but for our efforts to expand this musical ministry of our Archdiocese for the edification of God’s people and the glory of His Name.

With my warmest prayers for a fruitful study of Byzantine music, I remain

Sincerely yours,
Sincerely yours,

Archdeacon Panteleimon Papadopoulos

Director, Archdiocesan School of Byzantine Music

i

Foreword s we are now preparing to begin our second academic year of ASBM this
Foreword s we are now preparing to begin our second academic year of ASBM this

Foreword

s we are now preparing to begin our second academic year of ASBM this book, the Byzantine Music: Theory and Practice Guide, should prove to be a most useful educational tool. The study of Byzantine music, as with any language or art, is filled with many practical complexities. For one, the student must be equipped with the sort of natural tools, what we call ‘God-given’ in colloquial language. In addition, the secondary factor, and even more important, is the ability of the teacher to communicate with the students in a way that will convey not only music as an art, but a tradition deeply rooted in the faith of Orthodox Christianity known as Byzantine chant. This book is an effort to preserve and pass on the beauty of proper liturgical music in the tradition of the Ecumenical Patriarchate, with the overall aim to inspire people into prayer. ASBM has the good fortune of having an increased participation of individuals wanting to learn Byzantine music. These individuals become students of music for reasons of personal enrichment of faith as well as communal. Our faculty is increasingly encouraging these students to serve the local parish as educated chanters and faithful Orthodox Christians. In this way, students of Byzantine music should be informed by the content of their study and able to inspire others through the proper rendering of our hymnology. I am personally thankful to God for allowing me this great opportunity and responsibility to train future chanters of our Greek Orthodox Church in the Direct Archdiocesan District. I am also thankful to be involved in the creative process of this book. It is my desire that prospective students of Byzantine music will emerge and acquire this book as a useful learning resource. Regretfully, many individuals have expressed their desire to learn how to chant but are unable to, due to a lack of resources in their area. I

pray that the Archdiocesan School of Byzantine Music: Theory Book and Practice Guide will find its

place in each local metropolis and religious education department across the Archdiocese. This ambitious project would not be possible without the diligent spiritual guidance of His Eminence Archbishop Demetrios of America. On behalf of, the entire ASBM faculty I would like to express to him our deep sense of gratitude and reverence.

Sincerely,
Sincerely,

Dr. Demetrios Kehagias

Instructor, Archdiocesan School of Byzantine Music

sense of gratitude and reverence. Sincerely, Dr. Demetrios Kehagias Instructor, Archdiocesan School of Byzantine Music ii

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A Brief Overview of the Psaltic Art
A Brief Overview of the Psaltic Art

“Is any among you afflicted? Let him pray. Is any merry? Let him sing psalms.” (James 5:13 KJV)

As is evident from St. James the Brother of the Lord’s exhortation, the history of the Christian Church has always been not only a history of prayer, but also a history of song. If in some contemporary Christian denominations music plays a secondary role, it would be no exaggeration to state that in the Greek Orthodox Church almost all of worship is musical. And how could it be otherwise if “chanting is an angelic ministry for [it] gives joy, but it is also prayer? 1 ” Following the ancient Greek philosophers Plato and Aristotle, the Fathers of the Church recognized the beneficial impact music can have on souls and adopted it as an important pedagogical tool to lead humans to eternal salvation. St. Basil the Great expresses the Church’s attitude in very clear terms:

For when the Holy Spirit saw that mankind was ill-inclined toward virtue and that we were heedless of the righteous life because of our inclination to pleasure, what did he do? He blended the delight of melody with doctrine in order that through the pleasantness and softness of the sound we might unawares receive what was useful in the words, according to the practice of the physicians, who, when they give the more bitter draughts to the sick, often smear the rip of the cup with honey.2

Music then is the “sweet honey” with which the Church mixes the doctrines of the faith, in order to heal the sick souls of the faithful. It is through these lenses that the Psaltic Art of the Greek Orthodox Church ought to be viewed. In the present article, whose aim is to highlight the significance of the present publication, I will give a brief overview of this fine art, focusing on its essential characteristics, its composers and practitioners, its notational system, and the didactic methodology used by its teachers throughout history.

I. Definition - Characteristics

An American reader will naturally ask what exactly is the Psaltic Art. A very simple albeit limited definition is that it is the art of chanting 3 . More broadly, it can be defined as the strictly vocal, strictly monophonic music used in the worship of the Greek Orthodox Church 4 . Before looking at this definition more closely, let’s consider an alternative term, namely “Byzantine music.” Despite its common usage since the 19 th century, it should not be the preferred term for three reasons. First, the inhabitants of the

1 «Όμως είναι και η ψαλμωδία διακονία αγγελική, διότι χαρίζεις χαράν εις τους άλλους, αλλά είναι επίσης και προσευχή.» Αρχιμανδρίτου Αιμιλιανού Σιμωνοπετρίτου, «Περί λατρείας και ευχής», Κατηχήσεις και Λόγοι 4, Θεία Λατρεία, Προσδοκία και Όρασις Θεού, Εκδόσεις Ορμύλια, Ορμύλια 2001, p. 160.

2 Basil of Caesarea, “Homily on the First Psalm,” ch. 1, in Strunk, Olliver, Source Readings in Music History, W. W. Norton & Company, Inc., New York 1998, p. 121.

3 The word “psaltic” is derived from the Greek verb “ψάλλω,” which originally meant “to pluck the strings of an instrument,” but eventually came to signify chanting, i.e. singing ecclesiastical hymns. 4 It should be noted, however, that the same musical art is also used in non-Greek-speaking Orthodox Churches (Patriarchate of Antioch, Patriarchate of Romania, et al.).

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Eastern Roman Empire never referred to themselves as Byzantines, but as Romans (Ρωμαίοι-Ρωμηοί). The term “Byzantine Empire” itself was invented in the 16 th century by the German historian Hieronymus Wolf and later took on derogatory connotations 5 . Second, “Byzantine music” can be interpreted in an overly restrictive fashion if it is considered in topological or chronological terms. In other words, it may be taken to mean the music produced only in Byzantium or the music produced strictly from the foundation of the Byzantine Empire in 330 AD until its fall in 1453 AD. On the other hand, the term “Byzantine music” might more appropriately be applied to the entire musical output of the Eastern Roman Empire, both religious and secular. Nevertheless, secular music is generally excluded from the contemporary usage of the term. Third, the musicians of this once glorious Greek-Roman-Christian empire did not call their art “Byzantine music,” but rather Psaltic Art (Ψαλτική Τέχνη), Musical Art (Μουσική Τέχνη), Musical Science (Μουσική Επιστήμη) or Papadic Art (Παπαδική Τέχνη) 6 . Let’s move on to dissect the definition given above. The Psaltic Art is strictly vocal. This means that it is a form of music always performed a capella. Instruments were excluded from worship since early Christian times because they were associated with pagan rites, but also because the voice was regarded as the most pure and perfect instrument. Additionally, instrumental music was believed to excite the senses and was consequently considered unsuitable for worship. The Psaltic Art is also strictly monophonic. In other words, it is performed by a single cantor or a choir singing one melody in unison. A few qualifying remarks should be made here. Polyphony was introduced in Greek Orthodox worship as early as the 15 th century, but its usage remained very limited except in the Ionian Islands. In the mid-19 th century polyphonic settings of ecclesiastical melodies appeared in Greek diaspora communities in Western Europe, despite an official promulgation by the Ecumenical Patriarchate in 1848 of an encyclical banning four-part harmony 7 . In the 20 th century harmonized settings of hymns were adopted in the Divine Liturgy in the Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America. Nonetheless, the original monophonic version of the Psaltic Art, which is almost exclusively used in other Greek-speaking Orthodox Churches (Patriarchate of Jerusalem, Church of Cyprus, Church of Greece, et al.), has remained the norm in the rest of the liturgical services. It should also be noted that psaltic melodies are frequently accompanied by the ison (drone), which is a constant humming of a single note (the root of the main tetrachord in which the melody is moving). This century-old practice 8 is sometimes considered a form of proto-polyphony. However, its primary function seems to be tonal stability rather than “harmonic” enrichment of the melody. Thus, even though it may enhance the aesthetic satisfaction of a performance, ison accompaniment is not an indispensable element of a psaltic composition. In addition to vocal performance and monophony, the Psaltic Art has the following fundamental characteristics:

5 See Μεταλληνού Γεωργίου, Ελληνισμός μετέωρος, Η Ρωμαίικη Ιδέα και το όραμα της Ευρώπης, εκδ. Αποστολικής Διακονίας της Εκκλησίας της Ελλάδος, Αθήναι 1992, pp. 18-19.

6 See Στάθη Γρηγορίου, Τα χειρόγραφα βυζαντινής μουσικής, Άγιον Όρος, Κατάλογος περιγραφικός των χειρογράφων κωδίκων

βυζαντινής μουσικής των αποκειμένων εν ταις βιβλιοθήκαις των Ιερών Μονών και Σκητών του Αγίου Όρους, Ίδρυμα Βυζαντινής

Μουσικολογίας, τόμος Α΄, Αθήναι 1975, p. 21 (κα΄) of the Introduction. The term “Papadic Art” should be interpreted as the art of the priests, where among the “priests” are included the lower-ranking members of the clergy, such as readers and cantors. Cantors (ψάλται) are ordained by bishops, they have the right to wear a rasson (black robe) during the performance of their ministry, and they are expected to live an exemplary Christian life.

7 See the text of the encyclical at http://www.stanthonysmonastery.org/music/encyclical.pdf.

8 Evidence of ison accompaniment can be found as early as the 14 th century. For instance, see MS. Koutloumousion 457 (2 nd half of the 14 th c.), fol. 6r: “Ενταύθα άρχεται ο δεξιός χορός, ί σ α και αργά, οι όλοι ομού· πλ. δ΄ Πάντα εν σοφία.

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· Primacy of the word versus the music. Music is used as a means to express and illuminate the meaning of the text. Even though it is certainly meant to provide a degree of aesthetic pleasure to the listener, its primary role is to contribute to a prayerful atmosphere in worship. Therefore, excessive musical embellishment is seen as detrimental and distractive.

· Microtonal intervals. Intervals that are smaller than the western semitone are frequently used. In fact, it is primarily this microtonal quality that makes the Psaltic Art sound foreign and exotic, hence strangely attractive to the modern American ear. The existence of microtones is closely related to the tendency of the structural notes of a scale (generally, the root and upper note of a tetrachord) to attract the non-structural ones, which consequently display a tonal instability.

· Modality. Psaltic compositions do not conform to the western major and minor scales, but rather to the eight Byzantine authentic and plagal modes and their numerous variants. A mode is defined by the

tonic, the scale, the genus (i.e. the intervallic internal structure of the tetrachords and pentachords), and the melodic formulae and cadences, and can easily be identified by the intonation formula that precedes any hymn.

· Formulaic composition. All psaltic compositions are built from pre-existing melodic formulae, called theseis, which are combined with short transitional bridges. Theseis can be short, long and even very elaborate and melismatic, depending on the particular compositional genre to which a hymn belongs. One might wonder how there can be any originality in the Psaltic Art if a hymn cannot be composed out of entirely new material. The answer lies in the very large number (thousands)

of theseis, the difference in their particular musical content depending on the mode and the starting

note on which they are placed, and the infinite number of ways in which they can be combined to produce a new acoustic experience. Additionally, throughout the history of the Psaltic Art composers kept composing new theseis, thereby renewing and enriching the material that later composers would have at their disposal 9 .

II. Composers – Cantors

A quick glance into the manuscript tradition of the Psaltic Art immediately reveals that its history is

full of eponymous and anonymous personalities from all walks of life: saints and sinners (or self-proclaimed sinners out of humility), hymnographers, composers and scribes, teachers and disciples, patriarchs and bishops, priests and deacons, cantors and readers, monks and nuns, jewellers and merchants, fishermen, painters, schoolmasters, tailors. Among them all the most prominent position belongs to the over 1,000 composers who almost always were also cantors and to the tens of thousands of cantors who often were also composers. Let’s look at some of them.

St. Romanos the Melodist (6 th c.)

Romanos was born in Syria and flourished in the 6 th century. He served as a deacon in Beirut and Constantinople. He is considered the greatest Orthodox hymnographer of all time and has often been called

9 See Καράνου Γραμμένου, Το Καλοφωνικόν Ειρμολόγιον, Διδακτορική διατριβή κατατεθείσα στο Τμήμα Μουσικών Σπουδών του Εθνικού και Καποδιστριακού Πανεπιστημίου Αθηνών, Αθήνα 2011, p. 431.

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“the Christian Pindar.” Some 85 surviving kontakia 10 are attributed to him. The title “melodist” indicates that he not only wrote the hymns, but also composed their music. The Orthodox Church celebrates his memory on October 1.

St. John of Damascus (ca. 676 – 749)

A Syrian hieromonk and a brilliant theologian and defender of the veneration of icons, John is also regarded

as the “Father of Byzantine Music” and patron saint of cantors. He was a prolific composer and was largely responsible for the codification and standardization of the system of eight modes (Octoechos), according

to which the yearly cycle of liturgical services of the Orthodox Church is arranged. The Orthodox Church

celebrates his memory on December 4.

St. Ioannis Papadopoulos Koukouzelis (ca. 1270 – ca. 1340)

Once an imperial musician and later an Athonite monk, Ioannis is perhaps the greatest figure of the Psaltic Art. He was the disciple of Ioannis Protopsaltis the Sweet and a fellow student of Xenos of Koroni. These three composers along with Nikeforos Ethikos constitute the “tetrandria” that solidified the new kalophonic style

of ecclesiastical music 11 . The defining characteristics of this highly ornate style, which had its beginnings in

the late 13 th century, are (i) long, melismatic melodies, (ii) restructuring of the poetic text, and (iii) insertion

of kratimata, i.e. free compositions using meaningless syllables (e.g. terirem, tenena, tototo, etc.) as “text.”

Koukouzelis’ name first makes its appearance in MS. Leningrad 121 written in 1302. The admiration of contemporary and later musicians for the great composer is shown by the title “Maistor” (i.e. Master) that almost unfailingly follows his name. It was probably under his guidance that one of the most significant manuscripts in the history of the Psaltic Art, namely MS. Athens 2458, was composed in 1336. The Orthodox Church celebrates his memory on October 1.

Manuel Doukas Chrysaphes (15 th c.)

Manuel Chrysaphes was the last Lampadarios 12 of the imperial palace prior to the Fall of Constantinople in

1453. His autograph, MS. Iviron 1120, written in 1458, is a monumental anthology of works marking the

transition from the Byzantine to the post-Byzantine period of the Psaltic Art. His theoretical treatise “On the theory of the art of chanting and on certain erroneous views that some hold about it” is a primary source for the modern study of the Byzantine repertory.

Petros Bereketis (17 th – 18 th c.)

Petros Kouspazoglou the Sweet, more widely known as Bereketis, was a member of the second “tetrandria” of composers (the other three were Panagiotis Protopsaltis the new Chrysaphes, Germanos Bishop of New Patras, and Balasios the Priest) who contributed greatly to the flourishing of the Psaltic Art in the 17 th and

10 A kontakion is a long, poetic sermon that consists of 18-30 stanzas, which are metrically and structurally alike.

11 See ΣτάθηΣτάθη ΓΓρηγορίου,ρηγορίου, Οι αναγραμματισμοί και τα μαθήματα της βυζαντινής μελοποιίας, Ίδρυμα Βυζαντινής Μουσικολογίας,

Αθήνα 1998, pp. 126-127.

12 Leader of the left choir of cantors.

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th centuries. He was the greatest composer of the newly developed para-liturgical genre of kalophonic

heirmos, which was not intended for official worship ceremonies, but rather for soloistic performance after the end of the Divine Liturgy as well as at banquets, visits of eminent secular or religious figures, and other festive occasions. Many regard his famous eight-mode setting of Θεοτόκε Παρθένε (O Theotokos and Virgin), a work that lasts about 40 minutes, as the greatest psaltic composition ever written.

Petros the Peloponnesian (ca. 1735 – 1778)

Petros was the greatest Greek Orthodox ecclesiastical musician of post-Byzantine times. He served as Lampadarios at the patriarchal church of St. George in the Phanar district of Constantinople. He transcribed the oral tradition of hymns, which formed the core of the repertoire chanted in Greek churches to this day. Among his numerous compositions special mention must be made to his settings of the Anastasimatarion 13 and Doxastarion 14 . Petros was also a teacher and composer of Ottoman classical music.

Thrasyvoulos Stanisas (1910 - 1987)

While his activity as a composer was limited, Stanitsas is widely regarded as the greatest performer of chant of the 20 th century. His unparalleled virtuosity in all psaltic genres earned him the title of “greatest cantor of the Balkans 15 .” He served as Protopsaltis 16 of the patriarchal church of St. George between 1960 and 1964. Other great cantors of the 20 th century include Stanitsas’ predecessors Iakovos Nafpliotis and Konstantinos Pringos, Leonidas Asteris (the current Archon Protopsaltis of the Ecumenical Patriarchate), Chrysanthos Theodosopoulos, Athanasios Karamanis, Athanasios Panagiotidis, Harilaos Taliadoros, Spyridon Peristeris, Photios Ketsetzis, Theodoros Vasilikos, Emmanuel Hatzimarkos, Deacon Dionysios Firfiris, et al.

III. Byzantine neume notation

While Christian hymns were in all probability notated in the first millennium AD, surviving samples of music from this period are extremely scarce. The destruction by Iconoclasts of manuscripts that were adorned with miniature images of Christ and saints may have been a contributing factor. Byzantine musical manuscripts have survived from around 950 AD. The number of extant manuscripts is approximately 7,500. The majority of them are held at monastic libraries on Mount Athos and elsewhere. In these manuscripts we can study the history and development of the various compositional genres and the psaltic notational system. Unlike western staff notation, Byzantine neume notation does not indicate absolute pitches on a scale, but rather the movement of the melodic line in relation to the preceding notes. The origins of this notation can be traced back to the alphabetic notations of the ancient Greeks. Most of the symbols are derived from the Greek letters and prosodic signs (vareia, oxeia, etc.), while some are stylistic representations of the melodic movement they signify or the hand gesture (χειρονομία or νεύμα, hence the term “neume notation”) which a

13 A collection of resurrectional hymns chanted in the services of Saturday evening Vespers and Sunday morning Orthros.

14 An anthology of moderately embellished settings of hymns chanted throughout the ecclesiastical year. Most are preceded by

the Small Doxology (Glory to the Father and to the Son and to the Holy Spirit), while some are inserted between psalmic verses.

15 See ΤσιούνηΤσιούνη ��ρήστου,ρήστου, Θρασύβουλος Στανίτσας, Άρχων Πρωτοψάλτης της Μ.Χ.Ε. (1910-1987), Αναμνήσεις και αφηγήσεις, Εκδόσεις Φανάριον, Αθήνα 2003, p. 54.

16 Chief cantor and leader of the right choir of cantors.

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choir director used to indicate the melodic motion. Furthermore, Byzantine notation is more stenographic and descriptive rather than prescriptive, as it outlines the overall shape of the melody, but often omits more nuanced details, which are executed according to rules transmitted by the oral tradition 17 . From its earliest appearance in the mid-10 th century until today Byzantine neume notation has undergone a number of gradual developments, which were generally an outgrowth of organic developments in the compositional process itself. The basic “rule” can be summed up as follows: as the notation was improved, composers could use it to express new musical ideas more effectively and to create new, more elaborate styles and genres. And vice versa, as composers developed new musical styles, they needed a more refined notation to write down their more elaborate melodies, which led to improvements in the notation 18 . The history of the notational system can be divided into four distinct periods, based on (i) the number of symbols and the appearance of new ones, (ii) the function of each symbol, (iii) the obsolescence or disappearance of certain symbols, and (iv) the conversion of the older repertory into newer versions of the notation 19 .

First Period: Early Byzantine Notation (ca. 950 – 1177)

In this period there are still few signs and their function is unstable and ambiguous. There are two main subdivisions of the notation, namely Chartres or Athonite notation, and Coislin or Hagiopolite notation.

Second Period: Middle Byzantine (Round) Notation (1177 – ca. 1670)

There are over 40 signs whose function is quite clearly defined. Most signs indicate specific diastematic movements, while some indicate time. A special category of signs, the Great Hypostases of Cheironomia (Μεγάλαι Υποστάσεις Χειρονομίας), has been interpreted as signifying vocal expression or, alternatively, as mnemonic devices that denote entire melodic formulae (theseis). Some very elaborate theseis are notated with very few signs, which necessitates a great deal of memorization by the cantor. A vast repertory of Byzantine and post-Byzantine chants is written in this notation. Despite our relatively extensive knowledge about this period, the correct and accurate transcription of this repertory into the New Method or western staff notation is a hotly debated subject among contemporary musicologists 20 .

Third Period: Transitional Exegetical Notation (ca. 1670 – 1814)

This period commences with the exegesis (conversion) of the Athenian Trisagion (a melismatic setting of the text “Holy God, Holy Mighty, Holy Immortal, have mercy on us” in plagal second nenano mode, which

17 If we were to utilize Ter Ellingson’s terminology, we would characterize Byzantine notation as an analog (rather than digital)

encoding of musical information. See Ellingson, Ter, “Notation,” Ethnomusicology, An Introduction, Norton/Grove Handbooks in Music, ed. Helen Myers, London 1992, p. 159.

18 According tototo GregoriosGregoriosGregoriosGregoriosGregorios Stathis,Stathis,Stathis,Stathis,Stathis,Stathis,Stathis,, “η“η“η“η“η“η“η“η αναζήτησιςαναζήτησιςαναζήτησιςαναζήτησιςαναζήτησιςαναζήτησιςαναζήτησιςαναζήτησις τελείαςτελείαςτελείαςτελείαςτελείαςτελείαςτελείαςτελείας εκεκεκεκεκεκεκεκ��������ράσεωςράσεωςράσεωςράσεωςράσεωςράσεωςράσεωςράσεως τηςτηςτηςτηςτηςτηςτηςτης μελοποιίαςμελοποιίαςμελοποιίαςμελοποιίαςμελοποιίαςμελοποιίαςμελοποιίαςμελοποιίας βοηθείβοηθείβοηθείβοηθείβοηθείβοηθείβοηθείβοηθεί ειςειςειςειςειςειςειςεις τηντηντηντηντηντηντηντην εξέλιξινεξέλιξινεξέλιξινεξέλιξινεξέλιξινεξέλιξινεξέλιξινεξέλιξιν καικαικαικαικαικαικαικαι τελειοτέραντελειοτέραντελειοτέραντελειοτέραντελειοτέραντελειοτέραντελειοτέραντελειοτέραν

συμπλοκήν και ενέργειαν των στοιχείων της σημειογρα�ίας. Και τανάπαλιν· όταν η σημειογρα�ία έχη �θάσει εις τέλειον σύστημα με απείρους δυνατότητας εκ�ράσεως, η μελοποιία κινείται ανετώτερον εις αυτόν τον ωκεανόν και ανοίγεται προς

κατάκτησιν θαυμαστών επιτηδεύσεων, στοιχείων α�οριστικών μιας υψηλής τέχνης, της Ψαλτικής Τέχνης”. See Στάθη Γρηγορίου, Οι αναγραμματισμοί και τα μαθήματα της βυζαντινής μελοποιίας, Ίδρυμα Βυζαντινής Μουσικολογίας, Αθήνα 1998, p. 47.

19 Ibid., pp. 47-59

20 For a good overview of this subject see Αλεξάνδρου Μαρίας, Εξηγήσεις και μεταγραφές της βυζαντινής μουσικής, Σύντομη

εισαγωγή στον προβληματισμό τους, University Studio Press, Θεσσαλονίκη 2010.

viii

is chanted during funeral processions) by Balasios the Priest 21 . Several scribes rewrite the older repertory, using more signs and in different combinations. Less memorization is now needed to perform a piece, as the content of its melodic formulae is more analytically written.

Fourth Period: New Method of Analytical Notation (1814 – present)

In 1814 Archimandrite Chrysanthos of Madytos (who was later ordained a bishop), Gregory Levitides (then Lampadarios and later Protopsaltis of the Ecumenical Patriarchate) and Chourmouzios the Archivist, collectively known as the Three Teachers, invented the New Method, which is the current official notation of the Psaltic Art. In this system, which is essentially the last stage of development of the previous Exegetical Notation, only 15 signs remain and they are assigned very clearly defined functions. Students no longer have to memorize entire melodic phrases. Rather they can read the notation “note by note,” much like in western staff notation. The Three Teachers also developed a system of solfeggio based on the first seven letters of the Greek alphabet. Additionally, in 1832 Chrysanthos’ Great Theory of Music (Θεωρητικόν μέγα της μουσικής), which is the first systematic exposition of the revised notational system as well as the overall theoretical framework of ecclesiastical chant, was published in Trieste. The New Method was rapidly disseminated and was used to transcribe almost 75% of the Byzantine and post-Byzantine repertory, but also new compositions and secular Greek and Ottoman works. Moreover, in 1820 the first printed books of Psaltic Art appeared. Very soon the composition of manuscripts would become a thing of the past, as press publications began to abound.

IV. The teaching and transmission of the Psaltic Art; the present publication

For hundreds of years the transmission of the Psaltic Art has been achieved primarily through three media: live liturgical performance, study of musical scores, theoretical treatises and didactic pieces 22 , and systematic training involving a teacher-disciple relationship. The latter has historically received the greatest emphasis by church musicians, as can be deduced from the thousands of references to teacher-disciple relationships in the manuscript tradition 23 as well as the establishment and operation of seven – most of them unfortunately short-lived – “Patriarchal Musical Schools” in Constantinople from 1727 to 1882. Even though the importance of training under the guidance of a master as well as frequent attendance of church ceremonies cannot be underestimated, these two media of transmission of ecclesiastical chant may become secondary in the near future, due to modern technological advances and especially the all-pervasive and life-changing influence of the Internet. A student can nowadays find hundreds of excellent recordings 24 and even attend online classes of Byzantine chant 25 . Yet the role of musical scores and teaching manuals remains

21 See Balasios’ autograph, MS. Iviron 1250, fols. 211v-212v.

22 E.g. Nikolaos Kampanis’ Method of Metrophonia (late 13 th or early 14 th c.), Ioannis Koukouzelis’ Mega Ison (14 th c.), Gregory

Bounis Alyatis’ Method of Metrophonia (15 th c.), etc.

23 For instance, see MS. Xiropotamou 324, fol. 267v: “Το παρόν εγρά�η παρ’ εμού Σταυράκη, και μαθητού κυρ Δανιήλ λαμπαδαρίου.”

24 Websites devoted exclusively to the Psaltic art include www.psaltologion.com, www.ieropsaltis.com, www.cmkon.org, and many

others.

25 The American Society of Byzantine Music and Hymnology recently established an online program of chant instruction called

“Multimodal School of Byzantine Chant, Practice and Theory” (http://www.asbmh.pitt.edu/Educational/Videos/Live/Live.html).

ix

primary. Since the invention of the New Method several manuals providing instruction in the Psaltic Art 26 have been published and used in conservatories as well as church, state and private schools of Byzantine music in Greece. Besides a book by the late Savas Savas 27 , these same manuals or poorly made translations of selections from them have generally been used in the United States as well. At the same time, interest in the Psaltic Art has been increasing in the western hemisphere at a very fast pace during the past two decades. Scholarly works are being published, concerts given, studio recordings made, schools of Byzantine music founded, websites created, etc. Hence the need for a teaching manual that can help bridge the gap between American-born, English-speaking church musicians and the sacred art of chanting is paramount. It is this need that the present publication is coming to fulfill. Byzantine Music Theory and Practice Guide is the first manual in English produced for use in the recently established Archdiocesan School of Byzantine Music in New York City. It is a clearly written introduction with multiple exercises and a concise explanation of the notational and modal system of the Psaltic Art. As such, it will serve the purpose of providing solid training to the future generations of American church musicians and preserving the tradition of patriarchal chanting in posterity. I enthusiastically embrace it and recommend it to all teachers and students of Byzantine music throughout the Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America, but also to the entire academic community. The introduction of the Greek Psaltic Art in the curriculum of American conservatories and institutions of higher learning is long overdue. This manual can be a first step in this direction. In conclusion, I wish to thank His Eminence Archbishop Demetrios for his godly zeal and unceasing efforts to preserve the liturgical and musical riches of our Church. I also commend the book editors, the Reverend Archdeacon Panteleimon Papadopoulos, the Reverend Deacon Aristidis Garinis, Demetrios Kehagias, Antonios Kehagias, and Georgios Giavris, for their enviable vision and their outstanding accomplishment. Through their work it is now easier for Greek Americans to “sing unto the Lord a new song, and his praise from the end of the earth” (Isaiah 42:10 KJV)!

his praise from the end of the earth ” (Isaiah 42:10 KJV)! Grammenos Karanos, Ph.D. Assistant

Grammenos Karanos, Ph.D. Assistant Professor of Byzantine Liturgical Music Holy Cross Greek Orthodox School of Theology

���� ρυσάνθουρυσάνθουρυσάνθουρυσάνθου ΜητροπολίτουΜητροπολίτουΜητροπολίτουΜητροπολίτου Δυρραχίου,Δυρραχίου,Δυρραχίου,Δυρραχίου, Εισαγωγή εις το θεωρητικόν και πρακτικόν της εκκλησιαστικής μουσικής , Παρίσι 1821;

Αγαθοκλέους Παναγιώτου, Θεωρητικόν της εκκλησιαστικής μουσικής, Αθήναι 1855; Στοιχειώδης διδασκαλία της εκκλησιαστικής μουσικής, Κωνσταντινούπολις 1888; Ευθυμιάδου Αβραάμ, Μαθήματα βυζαντινής εκκλησιαστικής μουσικής, Θεσσαλονίκη 1972; Μαργαζιώτου Ιωάννου, Θεωρητικό βυζαντινής εκκλησιαστικής μουσικής, Αθήνα 1974; Καρά Σίμωνος, Μέθοδος της ελληνικής

26 E .g g.g

μουσικής, Αθήνα 1982, et al. 27 Savas Savas, Byzantine Music: Theory and Practice, Holy Cross Orthodox Press, Boston 1975.

x

Works Cited

Ellingson, Ter, “Notation,” Ethnomusicology, An Introduction, Norton/Grove Handbooks in Music, ed. Helen Myers, London 1992. Savas Savas, Byzantine Music: Theory and Practice, Holy Cross Orthodox Press, Boston 1975. Strunk, Olliver, Source Readings in Music History, W. W. Norton & Company, Inc., New York 1998. Αγαθοκλέους Παναγιώτου, Θεωρητικόν της εκκλησιαστικής μουσικής, Αθήναι 1855. Αιμιλιανού Σιμωνοπετρίτου, «Περί λατρείας και ευχής», Κατηχήσεις και Λόγοι 4, Θεία Λατρεία, Προσδοκία και Όρασις Θεού, Εκδόσεις Ορμύλια, Ορμύλια 2001. Αλεξάνδρου Μαρίας, Εξηγήσεις και μεταγραφές της βυζαντινής μουσικής, Σύντομη εισαγωγή στον προβληματισμό τους, University Studio Press, Θεσσαλονίκη 2010. Ευθυμιάδου Αβραάμ, Μαθήματα βυζαντινής εκκλησιαστικής μουσικής, Θεσσαλονίκη 1972. Καρά Σίμωνος, Μέθοδος της ελληνικής μουσικής, Σύλλογος προς Διάδοσιν της Εθνικής Μουσικής, Αθήναι 1982. Καράνου Γραμμένου, Το Καλοφωνικόν Ειρμολόγιον, Διδακτορική διατριβή κατατεθείσα στο Τμήμα Μουσικών Σπουδών του Εθνικού και Καποδιστριακού Πανεπιστημίου Αθηνών, Αθήνα 2011. Μαργαζιώτου Ιωάννου, Θεωρητικό βυζαντινής εκκλησιαστικής μουσικής, Αθήνα 1974. Μεταλληνού Γεωργίου, Ελληνισμός μετέωρος, Η Ρωμαίικη Ιδέα και το όραμα της Ευρώπης, εκδ. Αποστολικής Διακονίας της Εκκλησίας της Ελλάδος, Αθήναι 1992. Στάθη Γρηγορίου, Οι αναγραμματισμοί και τα μαθήματα της βυζαντινής μελοποιίας, Ίδρυμα Βυζαντινής Μουσικολογίας, Αθήνα 1998. ---, Τα χειρόγραφα βυζαντινής μουσικής, Άγιον Όρος, Κατάλογος περιγραφικός των χειρογράφων κωδίκων βυζαντινής μουσικής των αποκειμένων εν ταις βιβλιοθήκαις των Ιερών Μονών και Σκητών του Αγίου Όρους, τόμος Α΄, Ίδρυμα Βυζαντινής Μουσικολογίας, Αθήναι 1975. Στοιχειώδης διδασκαλία της εκκλησιαστικής μουσικής εκπονηθείσα επί τη βάσει του ψαλτηρίου υπό της Μουσικής Επιτροπής του Οικουμενικού Πατριαρχείου εν έτει 1883, Κωνσταντινούπολις 1888. Τσιούνη Χρήστου, Θρασύβουλος Στανίτσας, Άρχων Πρωτοψάλτης της Μ.Χ.Ε. (1910-1987), Αναμνήσεις και αφηγήσεις, Εκδόσεις Φανάριον, Αθήνα 2003. Χρυσάνθου Μητροπολίτου Δυρραχίου, Εισαγωγή εις το θεωρητικόν και πρακτικόν της εκκλησιαστικής μουσικής, Παρίσι 1821.

και πρακτικόν της εκκλησιαστικής μουσικής , Παρίσι 1821. xi
και πρακτικόν της εκκλησιαστικής μουσικής , Παρίσι 1821. xi

xi

και πρακτικόν της εκκλησιαστικής μουσικής , Παρίσι 1821. xi
Theory and Practice
Theory and Practice

What is Music?

The art or science of combining sounds to produce beauty of form, harmony, and expression of emotion.

What is a Musical Note?

A musical note is a specific sound or pitch identified by a symbol used in musical notation.

The Names of the Notes

- - - Ne Pa Vou Ga De Ke Zo Ne p[]\’P{}’p’
-
-
-
Ne
Pa
Vou Ga
De
Ke
Zo
Ne
p[]\’P{}’p’

The Eight Modes

The names of the eight modes are as follows:

(Πρώτος) First Mode (Δεύτερος) Second Mode (Τρίτος) Third Mode (Τέταρτος) Fourth Mode (Πλάγιος του Πρώτου) Plagal of the First Mode (Πλάγιος του Δευτέρου) Plagal of the Second Mode (Βαρύς) Grave Mode (Πλάγιος του Τετάρτου) Plagal of the Fourth Mode

1

Theory and Practice
Theory and Practice
Νη´ Ζω ´ Ζω ´ Κε Κε Nη´ Δι Δι 8 Ζω ´ Γα Γα
Νη´
Ζω
´
Ζω
´
Κε
Κε
Nη´
Δι
Δι
8
Ζω
´
Γα
Γα
10
Κε
Βου
Upper
Βου
12
Δι
Tetrachord
Πα
(Separating/Disjunctive)
Πα
12
Tone
Γα
Νη
Νη
8
Βου
10
Πα
Lower
12
Tetrachord
(Base Note)
Νη
Instructions:

Practice memorizing the scale by ascending and descending the pyramid in parallage. The numbers in the center scale (Μόρια - Moria/Microtones) indicate the distances between any two notes.

-

WHAT IS A TETRACHORD?

The Tetrachord (Το Τετράχορδο) translated from Greek means four-chords or notes. Each scale is comprised of eight notes with two equal parts adding up to 72 total moria. A tetrachord is one part of the scale and has an identical internal intervallic structure as its opposite tetrachord.

WHAT IS A Disjunctive Tone?

The Disjunctive Tone (Ο Διαζευκτικός Τόνος), separates the lower tetrachord from the upper tetra- chord. This note is actually a distance/interval (sum of moria between two notes).

2

Theory and Practice
Theory and Practice

Diatonic Marterees - - (Διατονικές Μαρτυρίες)

ς

ς

΄ςςςς7 &

1 !

2 ΄΄@

3 #

4

6

5

7

´ ´

6 ΄ςςςς7

@

#

How to Count time in Byzantine Music

This process is called Χρόνος meaning ‘time’. One counts time with simple hand ges- tures, down/up and left/right.

Δίσημος (Desemos)

-

-

Θέση

Θέση Άρση
Θέση Άρση

Άρση

Downbeat

Upbeat

Time is counted in this case with two motions (down and up), each motion equal to one full beat.

Η Διαστολή (Deastole) - -

O

O

Groups notes together creating a measure of time for 2, 3 or 4 beats.

-

What is Parallage and Melos?

Parallage (Η Παραλλαγή) is what we call in Western music Solfege. It is a sort of musical exercise, chanting a hymn note by note before applying the Μέλος (melos-words in melody). There is a saying among chanting teachers: “Practice Parallage 100 times and melos once.” Practicing this technique is the secret to learning Byzantine music.

-

-

-

Το ίσον (Eson)

a

Keep same pitch as previous note.

΄ςςςς7&

O

a a O
a
a
O

a

Example 1

O

a

a

O

a

3

a

O

a

a

O

a

a

O

a

΄ςςςς7&

Theory and Practice
Theory and Practice

Quantitative Characters

Characters Ascending and Descending

s

Το ολίγον (Olegon) -

Ascend one note straight

M

Η κορώνα (Korona)

Note held discretionally

M Η κορώνα (Korona) Note held discretionally Example 2 M 7&asoasoasos4&` j Η

Example 2

M

7&asoasoasos4&`

j

Η απόστροφος (Apostrophos)

Descend one note straight

(Apostrophos) Descend one note straight Example 3 7&asossossossO7#~ajojjojjo Νη Πα Βου

Example 3

(Apostrophos) Descend one note straight Example 3 7&asossossossO7#~ajojjojjo Νη Πα Βου Γα Δι

7&asossossossO7#~ajojjojjo

Νη

Πα

Βου

Γα

Δι

Κε

Ζω

Νη

Νη

Ζω

Κε

Δι

Γα Βου

M

M

j j7&

Πα Νη

Example 4

Κε Δι Γα Β ου M M j j7& Πα Νη Example 4 Νη 7&aaoaaosaoaaosaoaaos aoaaosaoaaojaoaaojaoa

Νη

Δι Γα Β ου M M j j7& Πα Νη Example 4 Νη 7&aaoaaosaoaaosaoaaos aoaaosaoaaojaoaaojaoa Πα

7&aaoaaosaoaaosaoaaos

aoaaosaoaaojaoaaojaoa

Πα

Βου

Γα

Δι

Γα

Βου

M

aojaoaaojaoaaoa7&

Πα

Νη

Example 5

Δι Γα Βου M aojaoaaojaoaaoa7& Πα Νη Example 5 7&aaosaosaosaosaosaos Νη Νη Πα Πα Βου Βου
Δι Γα Βου M aojaoaaojaoaaoa7& Πα Νη Example 5 7&aaosaosaosaosaosaos Νη Νη Πα Πα Βου Βου

7&aaosaosaosaosaosaos

Νη

Νη

Πα

Πα

Βου

5 7&aaosaosaosaosaosaos Νη Νη Πα Πα Βου Βου Γα Γα Δι Δι Κε Κε Ζω M

Βου

Γα

Γα

Δι

Δι

Κε

Κε

Ζω

M

aosaO7#~aaojaojaojaojaojaoj

Ζω

Νη

Νη

M

aoja7&

Πα

Νη

Νη

Νη

Νη

Ζω

Ζω

Κε

Κε

Δι

Δι

Γα

Γα

Βου

Βου

Πα

4

Theory and Practice
Theory and Practice
Theory and Practice Example 6 7&asossosjojjoasosso sjoj joasossosjojjoasossosao aO7#~ajojjojsosaosjojjojsosa
Theory and Practice Example 6 7&asossosjojjoasosso sjoj joasossosjojjoasossosao aO7#~ajojjojsosaosjojjojsosa

Example 6

7&asossosjojjoasosso

sjoj

joasossosjojjoasossosao

6 7&asossosjojjoasosso sjoj joasossosjojjoasossosao aO7#~ajojjojsosaosjojjojsosa osjojjojsosaosjojjojsosaos M M

aO7#~ajojjojsosaosjojjojsosa

osjojjojsosaosjojjojsosaos

M

M

jojjojsosaoj7&

x

Τα κεντήματα (Kentemata) -

Ascend one note by dragging up

(Kentemata) - Ascend one note by dragging up Example 7 7&aaoaxoaaoaxoaaoaxoa Νη Νη Νη Πα Πα
(Kentemata) - Ascend one note by dragging up Example 7 7&aaoaxoaaoaxoaaoaxoa Νη Νη Νη Πα Πα

Example 7

7&aaoaxoaaoaxoaaoaxoa

Νη

Νη

Νη

Πα

Πα

Πα

Πα

Βου

Γα

ao

axoaaoaxoaaoaxoaaoaxo

Δι

Πα Πα Πα Βου Γα ao axoaaoaxoaaoaxoaaoaxo Δι M Κε Ζω aO7#~aaoajoaaoajoaaoajoa Νη Ζω Κε Δι

M

Κε

Ζω

aO7#~aaoajoaaoajoaaoajoa

Νη

Ζω

Κε

Δι

aoajoaaoajoaaoajoaaoaj

Γα Βου Πα oa7& Νη M Example 8 7&axoasoaxoasoaxoasoaxo Νη Βου Γα Κε
Γα
Βου
Πα
oa7&
Νη
M
Example 8
7&axoasoaxoasoaxoasoaxo
Νη
Βου
Γα
Κε
aoajoajoajoajoajoajoaj7&
Νη
Ζω
Κε
Δι
Γα
Βου
Πα
M
Νη
M

5

Theory and Practice
Theory and Practice

'

-

Η υπορροή (Eporroe)

-

Descend two notes consecutively: Each descending note is one full beat.

or
'

=

= j

+ j

S

Η πεταστή (Petaste)

-

Ascend one note with a slight vocal flutter

Example 9

- Ascend one note with a slight vocal flutter Example 9 7&axosaojxosaojxosaojxos a o Πα Βου

7&axosaojxosaojxosaojxos a o

Πα

Βου

Πα

Γα

Δι

Κε

o

jxosaojxosaoaO7#~a'

M

o

Ζω

aoSjojaoS

Κε

Κε

Δι

Κε

M

7&

Ζω

Γα

o

Νη

o

'aos'aos'aoS'josaaςςςςς

Βου

Γα

Πα

Βου

Ζω

Βου

o

Example 10

7&axosaoajojaO7&sxosaoajoj

aO1!sxosaoaς'

o

o

aosxosaoa'

M

ςaO3#

o

sxosaoa'aosxoSjosaoaO7#~a

' ς josaoaaoS ς 'josaoaaos ς 'jos

o

o

o

o

o

aoaaoS' ςjosaoaaos ς'josaoa

o

M

aoS'ςjosaoa7&

Example 11

ς'josaoa o M aoS'ςjosaoa7& Example 11 7&asoSsoj' ς aoSxoSxoj' ς aO1!sxo s o o

7&asoSsoj' ς aoSxoSxoj' ς aO1!sxo s

o

o

soj' ς aO2@Ssosxoj' ς aO3#S' ς aos' ς a o

o

o

o

o

o

M

S'ςjosaoa7&

6

Theory and Practice
Theory and Practice

Characters that Add Duration

=

i 8 =

+

Beat

9 = 0 =

+

+

+

1 Beat

2 Beats

3 Beats

1 Το κλάσμα (Klasma)

Η απλή (Aple)

Η διπλή(Deple) - -

Η τριπλή (Treple) - -

-

These symbols add duration

to the note on which they are

placed and on the last note of

-

(

-

the Eporoe

)

' 8

Example 12

of - ( - the Eporoe ) ' 8 Example 12 7&aaoauosaoauO1!saoauos Νη Νη Νη -
of - ( - the Eporoe ) ' 8 Example 12 7&aaoauosaoauO1!saoauos Νη Νη Νη -
of - ( - the Eporoe ) ' 8 Example 12 7&aaoauosaoauO1!saoauos Νη Νη Νη -
of - ( - the Eporoe ) ' 8 Example 12 7&aaoauosaoauO1!saoauos Νη Νη Νη -
of - ( - the Eporoe ) ' 8 Example 12 7&aaoauosaoauO1!saoauos Νη Νη Νη -
of - ( - the Eporoe ) ' 8 Example 12 7&aaoauosaoauO1!saoauos Νη Νη Νη -
of - ( - the Eporoe ) ' 8 Example 12 7&aaoauosaoauO1!saoauos Νη Νη Νη -

7&aaoauosaoauO1!saoauos

Νη

Νη

Νη - η

Πα

Πα

Πα - α

Βου

Νη Νη Νη - η Πα Πα Πα - α Βου Βου Βου - ου Γα

Βου

Βου - ου

Νη - η Πα Πα Πα - α Βου Βου Βου - ου Γα aoauosaoauoaaoj*oaaoj*O2@ Γα

Γα

- η Πα Πα Πα - α Βου Βου Βου - ου Γα aoauosaoauoaaoj*oaaoj*O2@ Γα Γα
- η Πα Πα Πα - α Βου Βου Βου - ου Γα aoauosaoauoaaoj*oaaoj*O2@ Γα Γα

aoauosaoauoaaoj*oaaoj*O2@

Γα

Γα - α

Δι

Δι

Δι - ι

Δι

Δι

Γα Γα - α Δι Δι Δι - ι Δι Δι aaoj*oaaoj*oaaoau7& example 13 Γα
Γα Γα - α Δι Δι Δι - ι Δι Δι aaoj*oaaoj*oaaoau7& example 13 Γα
Γα Γα - α Δι Δι Δι - ι Δι Δι aaoj*oaaoj*oaaoau7& example 13 Γα
Γα Γα - α Δι Δι Δι - ι Δι Δι aaoj*oaaoj*oaaoau7& example 13 Γα
Γα Γα - α Δι Δι Δι - ι Δι Δι aaoj*oaaoj*oaaoau7& example 13 Γα

aaoj*oaaoj*oaaoau7&

example 13

Γα

Δι - ι Δι Δι aaoj*oaaoj*oaaoau7& example 13 Γα 7&auosuoSjoj*O7&suosuoSjoj*O1!suosuoSjoj**
Δι - ι Δι Δι aaoj*oaaoj*oaaoau7& example 13 Γα 7&auosuoSjoj*O7&suosuoSjoj*O1!suosuoSjoj**
Δι - ι Δι Δι aaoj*oaaoj*oaaoau7& example 13 Γα 7&auosuoSjoj*O7&suosuoSjoj*O1!suosuoSjoj**
Δι - ι Δι Δι aaoj*oaaoj*oaaoau7& example 13 Γα 7&auosuoSjoj*O7&suosuoSjoj*O1!suosuoSjoj**
Δι - ι Δι Δι aaoj*oaaoj*oaaoau7& example 13 Γα 7&auosuoSjoj*O7&suosuoSjoj*O1!suosuoSjoj**
Δι - ι Δι Δι aaoj*oaaoj*oaaoau7& example 13 Γα 7&auosuoSjoj*O7&suosuoSjoj*O1!suosuoSjoj**
Δι - ι Δι Δι aaoj*oaaoj*oaaoau7& example 13 Γα 7&auosuoSjoj*O7&suosuoSjoj*O1!suosuoSjoj**

7&auosuoSjoj*O7&suosuoSjoj*O1!suosuoSjoj**

2@suosuoSjoj*O3#suosuoSjoj*O4`&suosuosao

auO7~#ajoajoauoauO5`!SjoajoauoauO4`&Sj

oajoauoauO3#SjoajoauoauO2@Sjoajoauo

auO1!Sjoajoauoj*osaoau7&

Example 14

auO1!Sjoajoauoj*osaoau7& Example 14 7 & a s o s u o a j o j *o
auO1!Sjoajoauoj*osaoau7& Example 14 7 & a s o s u o a j o j *o
auO1!Sjoajoauoj*osaoau7& Example 14 7 & a s o s u o a j o j *o
auO1!Sjoajoauoj*osaoau7& Example 14 7 & a s o s u o a j o j *o
auO1!Sjoajoauoj*osaoau7& Example 14 7 & a s o s u o a j o j *o
auO1!Sjoajoauoj*osaoau7& Example 14 7 & a s o s u o a j o j *o
auO1!Sjoajoauoj*osaoau7& Example 14 7 & a s o s u o a j o j *o

7 & a s o s u o a j o j *o s x o S u o a j o j *o s x o s u o o

o

o
o
o s u o a j o j *o s x o S u o a

aς'*O2@ssosuoaς'*ς*ς*oSς'*oS'*oS'*oaaoau7&

o

o

7

Theory and Practice
Theory and Practice

Example 15

7&axos9josuO2@jxos9josuO3#jsos9josuO4&`

Example 15 7&axos9josuO2@jxos9josuO3#jsos9josuO4&`
Example 15 7&axos9josuO2@jxos9josuO3#jsos9josuO4&`

S'ς(josuO3#S'ς(josuO2@S'ς(josuO1!S'ς(josuO7&S'(jo

suosaoajosu7& Example 16

suosaoajosu7&

Example 16

suosaoajosu7& Example 16 7&a9jos9xos9joj*oauO7&s9jos9xos9joj*oauO1!

7&a9jos9xos9joj*oauO7&s9jos9xos9joj*oauO1!

s9jos9xos9jojioauO2@s9jos9xos9jojioauO3#

s9jojioauO2@s9jojioauO1!s9jojiojiosuoau7&

Example 17

s9jojioauO2@s9jojioauO1!s9jojiojiosuoau7& Example 17 7&aaoaaos0oaaoaaos0oaao aaos0oj)oj)oj)7& Example 18

7&aaoaaos0oaaoaaos0oaao

aaos0oj)oj)oj)7&

Example 18

7&asossojiojioj)O7&suosuO2@

asosso

jiojioj)O2@ajojjosuosuoj)7&

8

Theory and Practice
Theory and Practice

\

\

\

8 e

8

9

0

\

= Rest for 1/2 beat

= Rest for 1 beat

= Rest for 2 beats

= Rest for 3 beats

Οι παύσεις (Rests) Rests are symbols which tell us where to be silent while still counting time.

Example 19 7&aaa\|saa\|saa\|saa\|
Example 19
7&aaa\|saa\|saa\|saa\|

saa\| aaj\| aaj\|aaj\|aa

j\|7&

Example 20

7&a\|s\|s\|s\|3#a\|j\|j\|j\|7&

Example 21

7&\|as\|s\| s \|3#ajj\|sjj\|7&

21 7&\ | as\ | s\ | s \ | 3#ajj\ | sjj\ | 7& Example

Example 22

7&\|a\|a\|s\|a\|s\|a\|j\|a\|j\|

a\|7&

Example 23

7&auojxos\oauojxos\oauojxos\oauojxo

\

oauojjos

\

auojjos

s

auojjos\aaoau7&

9

\

oauojjos

\

Theory and Practice
Theory and Practice
Theory and Practice Example 24 7&aao \| osao \| osao \| O2@sao \| osao \| O4`&ajo
Theory and Practice Example 24 7&aao \| osao \| osao \| O2@sao \| osao \| O4`&ajo

Example 24

7&aao\|osao\|osao\|O2@sao\|osao

\|O4`&ajo\|oajo\|oajo\|oajo\|oaao\|7&

\| O4`&ajo \| oajo \| oajo \| oajo \| oaao \| 7& 7&a \ | jos

7&a

\ | jos
\
|
jos

\

|

Example 25

sos

\

|

joji

\

|

o

s

\

|

jos

\

|

s

o

s \ | j oji \ | o s \ | jos \ | sos \ | joji \ | o s \ | joji

\|os\|joji\|oa\|josu\|7&

Example 26

\ | joji \| os \| joji \| oa \| josu \| 7& Example 26 7&a

7&a\||os\||os\||oj\||oj\||oj\||os\||7&

'

Ο σταυρός (Stavros)

Το κόμμα (Comma)

These symbols are placed between mu- sical phrases for a brief breath. They hold no quantitative value.

Example 27

7&axsa'ς

jxsaς

M

jxsa

jxsaς'j

jx

xsa'ςjssaa7~#ajjiς'jxauς'Sςς'*

auς

jxau7&

Sjjiς'jxau'ςSςς'*jxau'ς

jxa'uςSjjiς

S'*ςς

10

Theory and Practice
Theory and Practice

What is Meter?

Until now we have practiced examples using 2-beat meter

Δίσημος (Desemos)

-

-

Θέση

Θέση Άρση
Θέση Άρση

Άρση

Downbeat

Upbeat

There is also a 3-beat meter called:

- - Τρίσημος (Tresemos) (3) (1) (2)
-
-
Τρίσημος (Tresemos)
(3)
(1)
(2)

3

oaaao

There is also a 4-beat meter called:

- Τετράσημος (Tetrasemos) (4) (2) (3) (1)
-
Τετράσημος (Tetrasemos)
(4)
(2)
(3)
(1)

4

oaaaao

Theory and Practice
Theory and Practice
Τρίσημος (Tresemos) - - (3) (1) (2)
Τρίσημος (Tresemos) - -
(3)
(1)
(2)

Example 28

Τρίσημος (Tresemos) - - (3) (1) (2) Example 28 3 3 3 3 7&oaaaosaaosaaojaaoja a7& Example
Τρίσημος (Tresemos) - - (3) (1) (2) Example 28 3 3 3 3 7&oaaaosaaosaaojaaoja a7& Example

3

3

3

3

7&oaaaosaaosaaojaaoja

a7&

Example 29

7&aaaosaaosaaosaaos

aaojaaojaaojaaojaaoa97&

Example 30

7&o\|aosuaosuaosuaosuaoj*aoj*ao

j*aoj(o7&

Example 31

7&assojssojssojssojsso

jssoa9O7& ajjosjjosjjosjjosjjo

sjjoa9o7&

Example 32

7&asuosjiosjiojauossuosj*osj*ojau

o ssuosj*osj*ojauossuosj*osj*ojauo

sj*ojauosj*ojauosj*ojauoaj*osauo7&

12

Theory and Practice
Theory and Practice
- Τετράσημος (Tetrasemos) (4) (2) (3) (1)
-
Τετράσημος (Tetrasemos)
(4)
(2)
(3)
(1)
- Τετράσημος (Tetrasemos) (4) (2) (3) (1) Example 33 4 4 7&aaaaosaaaosaaaos 4 4 4 4
- Τετράσημος (Tetrasemos) (4) (2) (3) (1) Example 33 4 4 7&aaaaosaaaosaaaos 4 4 4 4
- Τετράσημος (Tetrasemos) (4) (2) (3) (1) Example 33 4 4 7&aaaaosaaaosaaaos 4 4 4 4
- Τετράσημος (Tetrasemos) (4) (2) (3) (1) Example 33 4 4 7&aaaaosaaaosaaaos 4 4 4 4

Example 33

4

4

7&aaaaosaaaosaaaos

4

4

4

4

aaaojaaaojaaaojaaao

4

auauO7&

Example 34

7&ausuosujiojijiosuauosusuosujiojijiosuauo

susuosujiojijiosuauosujiojijiosujiosuauosu

jiojijiiosujiosuauo7&

7&a

\||

o

s

\||

o

Example 35

s

\||

s

\||

o

o\|j\o\|j\o\|j\oa0o7&

Example 36

s

\||

O4`&

\

|

a

\

o

\

|

j

\

7&auaaosuaaosuaaosuaaos

auaojauaojauaojauaojauaoau

auo7&

13

Theory and Practice
Theory and Practice

Synthesis of Characters

These characters are read from bottom to top, left to right and one note at a time. In other words,

in the first example, the Olegon is chanted before the Kentemata. In the second example, the Ken-

-

-

-

temata are chanted before the Olegon. In the third example, the Eporroe is chanted before the

Kentemata and the Olegon acts as a neutral support (or stirigma)adding no quantitative value, and so on. In examples 3-8 the bottom character adds no quantitative value. Its purpose and placement is to add a slight qualitative emphasis to the character written above it.

-

-

-

-

-

1)

 

v

2)

 

c

3)

 

-

4)

 

t

5)

 

_

6)

 

0

7)

 

A

8)

 

J

Ολίγον

+ Κεντήματα

(Olegon)

-

-

(Kentemata)

Κεντήματα + Ολίγον

-

(Kentemata)

(Olegon)

-

Ολίγον, Απόστροφος + Κεντήματα -

(Olegon) - (Apostrophos)

(Kentemata)

Ολίγον, Υπορροή + Κεντήματα

(Olegon)

-

(Eporoe)

-

-

(Kentemata)

Ολίγον, Ίσον + Κεντήματα

-

(Olegon) (Eson)

-

-

(Kentemata)

Ολίγον με Ίσον

 

-

(Olegon)

-

(Eson)

Πεταστή με Ίσον

 

-

(Petaste)

-

(Eson)

Πεταστή με Απόστροφο

(Petaste)

-

(Apostropho)

14

= + s x v = + x s c + (No value) s j
=
+
s
x
v
=
+
x
s
c
+
(No value)
s
j
x
-
+
(No value)
s '
x
t
=
+
(No value)
s a
x
_
=
(No value)
s a
0
=
(No value)
S a
A
=
J
(No value)
S
j
=
=

o

Theory and Practice
Theory and Practice

Example 37

(2)

o Theory and Practice Example 37 (2) (1) 7&auovojiovojiovojiovojioS'ς*oS'ς*oS'ς*oS'ς*7& o
o Theory and Practice Example 37 (2) (1) 7&auovojiovojiovojiovojioS'ς*oS'ς*oS'ς*oS'ς*7& o
o Theory and Practice Example 37 (2) (1) 7&auovojiovojiovojiovojioS'ς*oS'ς*oS'ς*oS'ς*7& o

(1)

7&auovojiovojiovojiovojioS'ς*oS'ς*oS'ς*oS'ς*7& o o o o

Example 38 (1) (3) (4) 7&acjoSjjaoscjoS'ςaoscjoS'ς (2)
Example 38
(1)
(3)
(4)
7&acjoSjjaoscjoS'ςaoscjoS'ς
(2)

aoscjoS ς 'aoscaojcaoa < O7~&a

jjjojxsaO5`!Sς'jojcaoSjjjojca3#

S

au7&

'jojcaO2@S

ς

'jojcaoS

ς

'jojxsao

ς

(1)

(3)

Example 39

ς 'jojcaoS ς 'jojxsao ς (1) (3) Example 39 3 7&acojcojcojcojcojcojcoj(O7#~ (2) aj

3

7&acojcojcojcojcojcojcoj(O7#~

(2)

aj

joSς'oS'ςoS'ςoS'ςoS'ςoS'ςos9O7&

Example 40 7&_jiosusjosu-o-sjosu3#-ojisuo

Example 40

7&_jiosusjosu-o-sjosu3#-ojisuo

sjsuo--osjsuojjoAjsuo_

jjoAjsuo_jjoAjsuo_jjoAjsuO7&

15

Theory and Practice
Theory and Practice

4

7&aa

0

4

Example 41

0

4

aosa

aosa

0

aos

a0aosa0aO4`&aj)aoSjjaO1!

sj)aoajs7Ou

&

Example 42

7&acjoacjoacjoacjoacjoa

caO7~#atoa'*O4`&stoaς'*O2@stoaς'*7&

s'*osjsuO7&

o

Example 43

7&acuoAjjioO7&scuoAjjioscuoAjj

i

O2

@

scuoAjjioscuoAjjiO4`&scuoajsuO7~#

ajAjoAjsaO5`!SjAjoAjsaO4`&S

jAjoAjsaO3#SjAjoAjsaO2@

SjAjoAjsou

j\(

7&

Example 44

7&acOcaauoJjJjosaauoacOc

aauO5`!JjJjosaauO2@acOcaauO6~@

M

JjJjosaauO3#acOcaauO7~#A''ςςjsu

o

oSς'josjsuO2@S'ςjosjsuoSς'josjsu7&

16

Theory and Practice
Theory and Practice

Το ελα�kρόν (Elafron)

Down two notes straight

sC

or

d

or

D

-

Olegon with Kentema or Petaste

-

-

Up two notes straight

Example 45

7&aςςς d kuO7&s d kuO1!sdkuO2sdkuO3#

SjsuO4`&akskoj(\O7& asCsCsos<CO7#~

Example 46

7&axoSIokuoduojxoSuokuoduO3#jxoSuokuoduO4`&

jxoSuokoduO5`!jxoSuokuoduO6~@jxoSIokuosCUO7~#

ajojioduokuO5`!sjojioduokuO4`&sjojioduo

kuO3#sjojioduokuO2@sjojioduokuO1!sjojio

duokuO7&sjojioduokuO6^sjojio

aoau7&

duokuosC

Example 47

aoau7& duokuosC Example 47 7 & \ aoDjodjosCjoDjodjosCUO7~#ako

7 & \ aoDjodjosCjoDjodjosCUO7~#ako

skoskoskoskoskoskosu7&

17

Theory and Practice
Theory and Practice

Example 48

7&asosuoajojioDkoDkoDjojiO7&sso

suoajojioDkoDkoDjojiO1!ssosuoaς'o

DkoDkoDjoj*O2@ssosuoajojioDkoD

koDjojiO3#ssosuoajojiO4`&DkoDkos

sosuO7~#akovokuoauO5`!skovokuoauO4`&

skovokuoauO3#skovokuauO2@

skovokuoauO1!sjojjosuoau7&

Example 49

o

8

7&aOckosOckosOckosOckosOc

kosOcuO7~#ajojdojjojdoj' o ς doj ς 'doj o ς ' o dojς'dojς'doji7& o

o

Example 50

7&adojjosdojjosdojjosdojj

o

M

sdojjosdojjosdojjosuO7~#akov

oj

kovoj

kovoj

kovoj

kovoj

kovo

j

kovoji7&

18

Theory and Practice
Theory and Practice

Example 51

7&auoDIojioduojioduojioDIojioduojiosCUO7~#auoku

osuokuosuokuO3#suokuosuokuosuoku7&

Elafron with Kentemata -

= p k

+ x

s

= (No value)

Example 52

7&auosCaojiosCaojiosCaojiosCaojio

sCaojiosCaoauO7~#ajojioduo poajojiO4`& duopoaς'*oduopoa'*ςO2@duopoajojiodu o

o

o

opoajojioduopoa'*ςosu7&

Example 53

7&asosuovo

p

o

p

osuovo

p

o

p

o

suovopoposuovopoposuovopo

posuO7~#ajojio_oajojio_oajojio_o

ajojio_oajojio_oajojioajosu7&

19

Theory and Practice
Theory and Practice

Characters Ascending and Descending

Ascending three notes

for F

7& af

1!af

Νη

Πα

Γα

Δι

2@ af

3#af

4`& af

Βου

Γα

Κε

Ζω

´

= aF

= aF

= aF

= aF

Four notes upwards

g or G

7&ag

1!ag

2@ ag

3#ag

Πα

Βου

Κε

Ζω

´

Γα

Νη´

= aG

= aG

= aG

= aG

Descending three notes

l

descent of 3 can also take the form of:

or
=

L

7~#al

Νη´

Δι

6~@al

5`!al

4`& al

Ζω ´

Κε

Δι

Γα

Βου

Πα

Four notes downwards

;

4`&a;

Δι

Νη

Νη´

5`!a;

6~@ a;

Κε

Ζω

´

Πα

Βου

3#a

Γα

;

Νη

Δι

Νη´

= aF

3#al

Γα

Νη

Δι Νη´ = aF 3#al Γα Νη

Νη

Δι

7~#a;

Δι

20

Theory and Practice
Theory and Practice

Example 54

7&aaossosuoluofaoauO3#aao a j

ojjofIoluO7&saossosuoluofaoauO4`&

aaojjojiofIoluO1!saossosuoluof

aoauO5`!aaojjojioFIoluO2@saossosuo

luofaoauO6~@aaojjojiofIoluO3#saos

sosuoluofaoauO7&ajojjofIoluO4`&djoj

jofIolu3#DjojjofIoluO2@djojjofIoluO1!D

jojjofIoluoaaoau7&

Example 55

7&aaovoaxoauO3#lfoauoluofIokuo

vo_oauolfoauoluofIO4`&kuovo_oauo

lfoauoluofIO5`!kuovo_oauolfoauoluo

fIO6~@kuovo_oauolfoauoluofIoaao

auO7~#ajojjofIoluoajoFIoluO3#a ς jofIoluo

sjojaofIoluςςO1!DjojjoFIoluoa9\7&

21

Theory and Practice
Theory and Practice

Example 56

7&auofIoluofIokuofIoluofIokuofIoluofoI

koufoIloufIokuofIoluofaoau\||O7~#auoluo

duoluoduoluoduoluoduolouduoluosu\||7&

|| O7~#auoluo duoluoduoluoduoluoduolouduoluosu\ || 7& Example 57 7 & \ aofkofkofkofkofIO7~# \ a o l

Example 57

7 & \ aofkofkofkofkofIO7~#\

a

o l

doldoldoldolaoau7&

Up 5 notes

Up 6 notes

Up 7 notes

Down 5 notes

Down 6 notes

Down 7 notes

s

d

f

x

c

v

Down 6 notes Down 7 notes s d f x c v Example 58 7& \

Example 58

7&\aosjodkoflog;osxodcof

voauO7&\fo-okdolfo;goxsoc

dovfoau7~#

22

Theory and Practice
Theory and Practice

Characters that divide duration

e

t

y

Γοργόν (Gorgon)

Δίγοργον (Degorgon)

Τρίγοργον (Tregorgon)

-

-

aae

aa2a

aa6aa

= a

=

a

=

a

Divide beat 1/2

Divide beat 1/3

Divide beat 1/4

See top of page 53 for more detail

(1/2)1/3 Divide beat 1/4 See top of page 53 for more detail (1/2) (1/2) (1/2) Example

Divide beat 1/4 See top of page 53 for more detail (1/2) (1/2) (1/2) (1/2) Example

(1/2)

beat 1/4 See top of page 53 for more detail (1/2) (1/2) (1/2) (1/2) Example 59

(1/2)

1/4 See top of page 53 for more detail (1/2) (1/2) (1/2) (1/2) Example 59 7&aaeaaeosaeaaeosaeaaeos

(1/2)

Example 59

7&aaeaaeosaeaaeosaeaaeos

aeaaeosaeaaeojaeaaeojaeaao

jaeaaeojaeaaeoau7&

(1/2)aeaaeosaeaaeojaeaaeojaeaao jaeaaeojaeaaeoau7& (1/2) (1/2) (1/2) Example 60 7&aaesaeosaesaeosaesaeos

aeaaeosaeaaeojaeaaeojaeaao jaeaaeojaeaaeoau7& (1/2) (1/2) (1/2) (1/2) Example 60 7&aaesaeosaesaeosaesaeos

(1/2)

jaeaaeojaeaaeoau7& (1/2) (1/2) (1/2) (1/2) Example 60 7&aaesaeosaesaeosaesaeos

(1/2)

jaeaaeojaeaaeoau7& (1/2) (1/2) (1/2) (1/2) Example 60 7&aaesaeosaesaeosaesaeos

(1/2)

Example 60

7&aaesaeosaesaeosaesaeos

aesaeoauO7~#jaejaeojaejaeojaejaeoj

aeaaeoau7&

aesaeoauO7~#jaejaeojaejaeojaejaeoj aeaaeoau7& (1/2) (1/2) Example 61 (1/2) (1/2)

(1/2)

(1/2)

Example 61

aeaaeoau7& (1/2) (1/2) Example 61 (1/2) (1/2) 7&asesseossesseoaaejaeojaej

(1/2)

aeaaeoau7& (1/2) (1/2) Example 61 (1/2) (1/2) 7&asesseossesseoaaejaeojaej

(1/2)

7&asesseossesseoaaejaeojaej

aeojaejaeojaejaeoau7&

23

Theory and Practice
Theory and Practice
Theory and Practice (1/2) ( 1 / 2 ) Example 62 7&asaeojiO7&ssaeojiO1!ssaeojiO2@ (1 beat)

(1/2)

Theory and Practice (1/2) ( 1 / 2 ) Example 62 7&asaeojiO7&ssaeojiO1!ssaeojiO2@ (1 beat)
Theory and Practice (1/2) ( 1 / 2 ) Example 62 7&asaeojiO7&ssaeojiO1!ssaeojiO2@ (1 beat)

(1/2)

Theory and Practice (1/2) ( 1 / 2 ) Example 62 7&asaeojiO7&ssaeojiO1!ssaeojiO2@ (1 beat)

Example 62

7&asaeojiO7&ssaeojiO1!ssaeojiO2@

(1 beat)

ssaeojiO3#ssaeojiO4`&sjaeojiO3#jsaeo

jiO2@sjaeojiO1!jsaeoji7&

example 63 (1/2) (1/2) (1 beat) 7&saejosuO1!saejosuO2@saejosuO3#s
example 63
(1/2)
(1/2)
(1 beat)
7&saejosuO1!saejosuO2@saejosuO3#s

aejosuO4`&sjrjoauO3#sjrjoauO2@sjrjoauO1!

sjrjoau7&

Example 64 (1/2) (1 beat) (1/2) (1/2) 7&acejioscejioscejioscejOi7~#_rjjio (1/2) (1/2) (1 beat ) (1/2)
Example 64
(1/2)
(1 beat)
(1/2)
(1/2)
7&acejioscejioscejioscejOi7~#_rjjio
(1/2)
(1/2)
(1 beat )
(1/2)
_rjjio_rjjioa:jios:au7&
Example 65
(1/2)
(1/2)
(1/2)
(1 beat )
(1 beat )
(1/2)
7&aVjiosVjiosVjiosVjiO7~#a:ce
(1/2)
(1/2)
aoj:cejoa:ceaoj:ceaO4`&a::a7&
(1 -1/2) (1/2)
(1 -1/2)
(1/2)

Example 66

7 & a u a e o s u a e o s u a e o s u a e o s u a e o j i a e o j i

aeojiaeojiaeoau7&

24

Theory and Practice
Theory and Practice

Example 67

Theory and Practice Example 67 (1 -1/2) (1/2) 7&auseosuseosuseosudeojiO7~#aujrojijrojijroji seoku7& (1 -1/2) (1/2)

(1 -1/2)

(1/2)

7&auseosuseosuseosudeojiO7~#aujrojijrojijroji

seoku7&

seoku7& (1 -1/2) (1/2) (1/2) (1/2) Example 68

(1 -1/2) (1/2)

seoku7& (1 -1/2) (1/2) (1/2) (1/2) Example 68

(1/2)

(1/2)

Example 68

7&du:*osu:*ossossosuO4`&jjr*oVjosuoS

(2 beats)

68 7&du:*osu:*ossossosuO4`&jjr*oVjosuoS (2 beats) (1 beat) jr*oajr*oajr*oau:*osu:*os9 \ 7& (1) (3) (3)
68 7&du:*osu:*ossossosuO4`&jjr*oVjosuoS (2 beats) (1 beat) jr*oajr*oajr*oau:*osu:*os9 \ 7& (1) (3) (3)

(1 beat)

(2 beats) (1 beat) jr*oajr*oajr*oau:*osu:*os9 \ 7& (1) (3) (3) Example 69

jr*oajr*oajr*oau:*osu:*os9\7&

(1)

(3)

(3) Example 69 (2) 3 (2 -1/2) (1/2) 7&a9seos9seos9aeoj(jroj(aeoj(7&
(3)
Example 69
(2)
3
(2 -1/2)
(1/2)
7&a9seos9seos9aeoj(jroj(aeoj(7&
(1) (4) (4) (2) (3) Example 70 (1/2) 4 (3 -1/2) 7&a0seos0seos0jroj)jroj)7&
(1)
(4)
(4)
(2)
(3)
Example 70
(1/2)
4
(3 -1/2)
7&a0seos0seos0jroj)jroj)7&
ΣΥΝΕ�ΕΣ ΕΛΑΦΡΟΝ (CONTINUOUS ELAFRON) h a j a or j a a H or j
ΣΥΝΕ�ΕΣ ΕΛΑΦΡΟΝ (CONTINUOUS ELAFRON)
h
a
j
a or
j
a
a H
or
j
J
The Continuous Elafron descends two notes with Gorgon.
The Gorgon is invisibly placed above the Elafron cutting the time of
the preceding Apostrophos in half. The Continuous Elafron often ap-
pears like an Apostrophos glued to an Elafron.
P
or
j
j
x
Example 71
(1/2)
(1/2)
(1 beat)
7&asCoshO1!ssoshO2@ssosh
o
3&ssoshoauO4`&shO3#shO2@shO1!
=
=
=

shoau7&

25

Theory and Practice
Theory and Practice

Example 72

7&shShoscesejaO1!sxRssho

shShofjjrjjraoahcea7&

Example 73

7&asosuoAjojiO7&ssosuoAjojiO1!sso
suoAjojiO2@ssosuoAjojiO3#sjosuO4`&Aj

housjojioAjosu7&

housjojioAjosu7& (1/3) Example 74 (1/3) (1/3) (1/3) (1/3) (1/3) 7&aa 2

(1/3)

housjojioAjosu7& (1/3) Example 74 (1/3) (1/3) (1/3) (1/3) (1/3) 7&aa 2 aaa 2

Example 74

housjojioAjosu7& (1/3) Example 74 (1/3) (1/3) (1/3) (1/3) (1/3) 7&aa 2 aaa 2 aosa 2

(1/3)

housjojioAjosu7& (1/3) Example 74 (1/3) (1/3) (1/3) (1/3) (1/3) 7&aa 2 aaa 2 aosa 2 aaa

(1/3)

housjojioAjosu7& (1/3) Example 74 (1/3) (1/3) (1/3) (1/3) (1/3) 7&aa 2 aaa 2 aosa 2 aaa

(1/3)

(1/3)housjojioAjosu7& (1/3) Example 74 (1/3) (1/3) (1/3) (1/3) 7&aa 2 aaa 2 aosa 2 aaa 2

(1/3)

7&aa 2 aaa 2 aosa 2 aaa 2 a o

a 2 aaa 2 aosa 2 aaa 2 a o

s

s

ja2a

aa2a7&

a 2 aaa 2 aoja 2 aaa 2 a o

aa2ao

ja2a

aa2ao

ja2a

Example 75 aaa 2 aoja 2 aaa 2 a o aa 2 ao ja 2 a aa 2

2

2 aaa 2 a o aa 2 ao ja 2 a aa 2 ao ja 2

(1/3)

(1/3)

2

a o aa 2 ao ja 2 a aa 2 ao ja 2 a Example 75

(1/3)

(1 beat )

2

7&aa

asosa

asosa

ja2ajo

aso

ja2ajo

sa2asO7~#aa2ajo

ja2aj7&

ja 2 ajo aso ja 2 ajo sa 2 asO7~#aa 2 ajo ja 2 aj7& Example

Example 76

2

(1/3)

(1/3)

sa 2 asO7~#aa 2 ajo ja 2 aj7& Example 76 2 (1/3) (1/3) (1/3) (1 beat)

(1/3)

(1 beat)

2

2

sosaa

7&aaa

sosaa

joa

aa2joa aa2joa aa2joau7&

26

Theory and Practice
Theory and Practice
Theory and Practice (1/4) (1/4) 6 7&aa Example 77 (1/4) (1/4) (1/4) (1/4) 6 aasa (1/4)
Theory and Practice (1/4) (1/4) 6 7&aa Example 77 (1/4) (1/4) (1/4) (1/4) 6 aasa (1/4)

(1/4)

(1/4)

6

7&aa

Example 77

Theory and Practice (1/4) (1/4) 6 7&aa Example 77 (1/4) (1/4) (1/4) (1/4) 6 aasa (1/4)
Theory and Practice (1/4) (1/4) 6 7&aa Example 77 (1/4) (1/4) (1/4) (1/4) 6 aasa (1/4)

(1/4)

Theory and Practice (1/4) (1/4) 6 7&aa Example 77 (1/4) (1/4) (1/4) (1/4) 6 aasa (1/4)

(1/4)

and Practice (1/4) (1/4) 6 7&aa Example 77 (1/4) (1/4) (1/4) (1/4) 6 aasa (1/4) (1/4)

(1/4)

(1/4)

6

aasa

(1/4) 6 7&aa Example 77 (1/4) (1/4) (1/4) (1/4) 6 aasa (1/4) (1/4) 6 aaosa a

(1/4)

6 7&aa Example 77 (1/4) (1/4) (1/4) (1/4) 6 aasa (1/4) (1/4) 6 aaosa a a

(1/4)

6

aaosa

a

a

sa6aaosa6aaaa6aaO4`&j a6

aaja6aaoja6aaj a6aaoau7&

Example 78 (1/4) (1/4) (1 beat ) aasosa 6
Example 78
(1/4)
(1/4)
(1 beat )
aasosa
6
6 aaoau7& Example 78 (1/4) (1/4) (1 beat ) aasosa 6 (1/4) (1/4) 6 6 aasosa
6 aaoau7& Example 78 (1/4) (1/4) (1 beat ) aasosa 6 (1/4) (1/4) 6 6 aasosa

(1/4)

(1/4)

6

6

aasosa

(1/4) (1/4) (1 beat ) aasosa 6 (1/4) (1/4) 6 6 aasosa 7&aa asosa 6 aas

7&aa

asosa6aasMO7~#arjsosrjso

(1 beat )

a

srjso srjso srjso srjsoau7& Example 79 (1 beat) (1/4) (1/4) (1/4) (1/4) 7&aaa6asosaa6asosaa6
srjso srjso srjso srjsoau7&
Example 79
(1 beat)
(1/4)
(1/4)
(1/4)
(1/4)
7&aaa6asosaa6asosaa6

asosaa6asoauO7~#aaa6ajoj

aa6ajojaa6ajojaa6ajoau7&

Characters that add and divide duration

w

W

q

Αργόν (Argon)

Δίαργον (Deargon)

Τρίαργον (Treargon)

-

-

These characters work like a Gorgon,

but they also add duration on the final

note affected. The Argon adds one

beat, the Deargon adds two beats and the Treargon adds three beats.

-

-

a a

s

i

W

e

a ax

c

=

s9

These examples show how the Argon or Deargon will be

used in a musical text. The phrases are read from left to right and bottom to top.

-

c w

=

e

x

27

Theory and Practice
Theory and Practice
(3) (2) (2 beats)
(3)
(2)
(2 beats)

Example 80

(1)

3

7&acwojcwojcwojcwojcwojcwO7~#

(1/2)

(1)

(1/2)

(1) (4) (3) 4 Example 81 (2 beats) (1 beat) (1/2) 7 & ςςςς j
(1)
(4)
(3)
4
Example 81
(2 beats)
(1 beat)
(1/2)
7 & ςςςς j ς jcwoajcwojscwokscwokscwoj
(2)
(1/2)
(2)

jhuoSjjrau7&

Example 82

4

7&acwjoscwwaof:*joD:*;og:*jofl

jfojjjjoajcw7&

(4)

(2) (3) (3 beats)
(2)
(3)
(3 beats)

Example 83

4

7&acWojcWojcWoj:*kojcW7&

(1/2)

(1/2)

Example 83 4 7&acWojcWojcWoj:*kojcW7& (1/2) (1/2) (1) (4) (2) (3) (4 beats) Example 84 4 7&assaOc

(1)

(4) (2) (3) (4 beats)
(4)
(2)
(3)
(4 beats)

Example 84

4

7&assaOc qO4`&jjjaOc qO3#jjjjOc qO1 !a

jjjOcqO7&

(1/2)

(1/2)

Qualitative Characters

/ x , m \ Η βαρεία Το ψη�ιστόν Το υ �έν Το ομαλόν Το
/
x ,
m
\
Η βαρεία
Το ψη�ιστόν
Το υ �έν
Το ομαλόν
Το αντικένωμα
Ο σύνδεσμος
-
-
-
-
-
(Varea)
(Psefeston) -
(Efen)
(Omalon)
(Antekenoma)
(Sendesmos)
These characters are subject to interpretation and are best learned through hearing them chanted and imitation.
(See character chart for more detail)

?

28

Theory and Practice
Theory and Practice

Example 85

7&ajsao\sjsao\sjsao\

s

j

sao\sjsaO4`&\aj\ajo\sjjao

\sjjso\jjsa7&

Example 86

7&assaos/jjaosssaod/jjiO4`&

s/jjos/jjos/jjos/jjos/jhsos9\7&

Example 87

7&aa,os<uofa,oja,oDIojiO4`&suosso

a<uoauO7~#sjojjoja,oflo;9\7&

Example 88

7&gsmojiojsmojiojsmojiojjosuO1!g smojios

sosuO1!~jjojioasmojjojios ?ojjojjos

smojjojiO1!sjo\jjosu7&

29

Theory and Practice
Theory and Practice

Example 89

7&asmojsCosCUO4`&ssmejojjoDjojsmejoj

ae9\O2@suossmojjhuO1!f;ossmejoja,o

au7&

Example 90

4

7 &am8jroVjosm8jroVjosudeojM*jroVCkojae9 \

O2@Zjrojiosm8jrojiojsmoji7&

Example 91

7&aa?ofa?ojFojiO4`&;Soja?ossosuO7#~

kdo;a?osloaa?oja?osjrs?oja?o

au7&

This character retains a slightly longer duration on the side of the Gorgon it is placed, thereby subtracting a bit from the opposite side.

.
e

Το παρεστιγμένον

Parestegmenon

-

n

t

Sharp & Flat

A flat lowers the tone by half a step and a sharp raises the tone by half a step.

Example 92

7&aj

nossosuoDjosuO4`&s

bsosuO7#~a

jyojioastokuO4`&d/tjojiostjoj

jojiO1!asosstosjotjjojiO1!js

n