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Appendix F-1

Ancillary Request #1 Heat Exchanger #1

For heat exchanger #1, the design that proved to have the smallest heat transfer area was the 2-
shell pass and 4-tube pass design. The ancillary request required a plot of total surface area as a function
of tube side velocity for the optimum heat exchanger, while maintaining the same amount of heat
transfer. The velocities range from 0.15m/s to 15m/s.
As the velocity increases the mass flow rate per tube will increase and consequently the internal
heat transfer coefficient will increase causing an increase in the overall heat transfer coefficient. This
change in overall heat transfer coefficient was calculated using equations (5), (6), and (7).
𝜋 4𝑚 ̇ 𝑐 𝜇
𝑚̇𝑡𝑢𝑏𝑒 = 𝐷𝑖2 𝑣𝜌 (5) ℎ̅𝑖 = 0.023( 𝜋 𝜇𝑡𝑢𝑏𝑒
𝐷
)4/5 ( 𝑘𝑝 )0.4 𝑘𝑓 ⁄𝐷𝑖 (6)
4 𝑖 𝑓

1 𝑁𝐷𝑖 ln⁡(𝐷𝑜 ⁄𝐷𝑖 ) 𝐷 −1

𝑈𝑖 = ⌊ℎ + 2𝑘𝑡
+ ℎ 𝐷𝑖 ⌋ ⁡ (7) 𝐴𝑖 = 𝑈𝐴/𝑈𝑖 (8)
𝑖 𝑜 𝑜

Since the total heat transfer must remain constant, so too will UA, thus based off equation (8) the
heat transfer area will decrease with increasing velocity. These effects were calculated for 10 different
velocities across the requested range and the resulting heat transfer area were plotted against velocity in
Figure 7.
Figure 7:

Area vs Velocity
2,000

1,800

1,600
Area (m^2)

1,400

1,200

1,000

800
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16
Velocity (m/s)

Based off the plotted trend in Figure 7, the heat transfer area decreases exponentially as velocity
increases. This can be particularly useful information since larger heat exchangers are not only less
practical to preform maintenance on, but cost more to construct and ship. Ways to minimize the heat
transfer surface area without effecting the heat transfer rate would be increasing the tube side velocity by
decreasing pipe diameter or decreasing the number of overall tubes.
Appendix F-2

Ancillary Request #2 Heat Exchanger #2

For heat exchanger #2, the design that proved to have the smallest heat transfer area was the 2-
shell pass and 4-tube pass design. The ancillary request required a plot of the outlet temperature as a
function of tube side flow rate for the optimum heat exchanger design. The flow rates range from
4.8kg/s to 8m/s.
As the mass flow rate increases we can expect the heat transfer to go down since the hot fluid
would have less time to exchange heat with the cold fluid. The effects of increasing tube side mass flow
on the overall heat transfer coefficient will be the same as the effect in ancillary request #1 (see
Appendix F-1). Using the method laid out in ancillary request #2 the overall heat transfer coefficient
was obtain for each mass flow rate. To obtain the heat transfer rate, NTU and effectiveness were found
with equations (9), (10), (11), and (12). Then, the heat transfer rate can be obtained with equations (13)
and (14).
−1
1+exp[−(𝑁𝑇𝑈) (1+𝐶 2 )1/2 ]
𝑁𝑇𝑈 = 𝑈𝐴⁄𝐶𝑚𝑖𝑛 (9) 𝜖1 = 2 {1 + 𝐶𝑟 + (1 + 𝐶𝑟2 )1/2 ∙ 1−exp[−(𝑁𝑇𝑈)1 (1+𝐶𝑟2 )1/2 ]} ⁡⁡⁡ (11)
1 𝑟

𝑚̇𝐻 𝑐𝑝,𝐻 1−𝜖1 𝐶𝑟 𝑛 1−𝜖1 𝐶𝑟 𝑛 −1

𝐶𝑟 = (10) 𝜖 = [( ) − 1] [( ) − 𝐶𝑟 ] (12)
𝑚̇𝐶 𝑐𝑝,𝐶 1−𝜖1 1−𝜖1

𝑞̇
𝑞̇ 𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 𝑚̇𝐻 𝑐𝑝,𝐻 (𝑇𝐻,𝑖𝑛 − 𝑇𝐶,𝑖𝑛 ) (13) 𝑞̇ = 𝜀 ∙ 𝑞̇ 𝑚𝑎𝑥 (14) 𝑇𝐻,𝑜𝑢𝑡 = 𝑇𝐻,𝑖𝑛 − (15)
𝑚̇𝐻 𝑐𝑝,𝐻

Finally, the outlet temperatures can be obtained with equation (15). The resulting temperature
were then plotted against the respective mass flow rate in Figure 8. As expected, the heat transfers and
temperature changes decreased with increasing mass flow, resulting in higher outlet temperatures.
Figure 8:

Light Stream Outlet Temp. vs Flow Rate

16.50
Light Stream Outlet Temp. (°C)

16.30
16.10
15.90
15.70
15.50
15.30
15.10
14.90
14.70
4.800 5.300 5.800 6.300 6.800 7.300 7.800
Tube Side Flow Rate (kg/sec)

Based off the plotted trend in Figure 8, the outlet temperature will increase logarithmically as
flow rate increases. The logarithmic slop is not too dramatic (nearly linear). The implications of this
trend indicates that greater heat transfer and fluid temperature changes can be achieved at lower flow
rates. This information can be useful if a heat exchanger is fouled and the outlet fluid properties are not
on spec; the flow rate could be dropped until the heat exchanger can be cleaned.