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0 visualizzazioni39 pagineStudy material, 6th Grade Math....Statistics/Data Handling

Feb 10, 2019

Data Handling

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Study material, 6th Grade Math....Statistics/Data Handling

© All Rights Reserved

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Data Handling

Study material, 6th Grade Math....Statistics/Data Handling

© All Rights Reserved

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REPRESENTATION

(STATISTICS)

TEACHER: JOSE ARTURO GONZALEZ

THINKING PROBLEM

Manuel and Santiago play for the same basketball team. Unfortunately, during practice Manuel

suffered an injury and could only play half the season. The points scored by both boys in each

match were:

Manuel: 17,21,15,23,18,12,27,15,22,31,28,25

Santiago: 19,19,13,10,15,15,24,18,26,27,23,13,20,24,18,26,19,25,8,26,21,23,26,19

• Would it be fair to simply total the points each player scored for the season?

• How could we display the data in a meaningful way?

• What would be the “best” way to solve the problem?

INTRODUCTION

Statistics deals with the collection, organization, display, analysis and interpretation of data.

Individuals and many groups such as businesses and government agencies collect data. This data is then

transformed into information that will later be used to determine whether changes are needed, or if

changes that have been made were successful.

For example, governments every so often perform what is known as a census. A census is conducted to

gather data from all of the country’s population. Once this data is transformed into information it is

used to help make decisions which will affect that country’s future. The government might have to

consider how much money it needs to be provided for health care in the years ahead because the

number of elderly people has increased.

Thinking exercise:

• What might a government decide needs to be done if the country’s birth rate has increased?

• What might a government decide needs to be done if the country’s birth rate has decreased and

it’s elderly population is increasing?

Usually the results of the collection and interpretation of data is displayed by using graphs, tables and

diagrams.

SAMPLES AND POPULATIONS

Important words used in statistics:

Population: Refers to the whole group of people or objects from where we are collecting data.

Sample: A representative group chosen from the population to take part in the survey, be measured,

or be tested.

Random Sample: A sample selected so that any person or object has the same possibility of being

selected than any other.

Inference: A conclusion we can make based on the information that was collected and interpreted.

Consider the following example, suppose we want to determine how many students at CCB like vanilla

ice cream. What could the population be? How could we select a sample? What might an inference be?

SAMPLES AND POPULATIONS

Special Cases:

When a government carries out a CENSUS it involves gathering information from everyone in the

population. This process is very expensive and takes lots of time.

Because of the previous statement many governments may decide to gather the required information

from a sample of the population. To do this, and to make any inference real it is critical that the results

be as typical of the whole population as possible. To ensure this, it is important to randomly select the

sample and to make the sample as large as is practical.

1. Discuss why would:

a. Apparel manufacturers like to know the body measurements of people in different age groups.

b. CCB’s restaurant be interested in the types and quantities of food consumed.

c. Meteorologists be interested in temperature, rainfall and atmospheric pressure measurements

throughout the country and throughout the world.

2. For each of the three situations given in question 1, discuss how information could be collected.

SAMPLES AND POPULATIONS

Example:

SAMPLES AND POPULATIONS

Exercises:

SAMPLES AND POPULATIONS

Exercises:

SAMPLES AND POPULATIONS

Exercises:

5 Scientist in the jungle want to find the best estimate for the lion population. They

tagged and released 20 lions as part of a research project. Later, they found 160

lions, 8 of which where tagged. Find the nearest whole number that best estimates

the lion population?

6 Juanita works in an Ornithology Department. Students asked her to find out the

best estimate of the local bird population. So she tied a belt around the legs of 40

birds. A few days later, he observed 520 birds, 34 of which had belts. To the

nearest whole number, what is the best estimate for the bird population?

CATEGORICAL DATA

When we talk about categorical data we refer to data which can be placed in categories.

An example could be if we stand at a street intersection and record the color of the different cars driving

past the intersection. In this case we could use the following code for the colors; R for Red, B for blue, G

for green, W for white and O for all other colors.

We could then obtain the following results after observing a 50 car sample:

BGWWR OGWRW OOBBG OGRWR WWWGB

BBGGW WWWOG WOBWW RWWRB OOBWR

Once we have our categorical data, we first organize it in groups. To do this we can either use a:

a. a dot plot or

b. a tally and frequency table.

At this point we can identify key features of the data. For example, the mode. The mode is the most

frequently occurring category.

A dot plot is a graph used to display data, each dot represents one data value. They can be horizontal

or vertical.

CATEGORICAL DATA

Example:

CATEGORICAL DATA

(DOT PLOT)

Exercises:

CATEGORICAL DATA

(DOT PLOT)

Exercises:

CATEGORICAL DATA

(TALLY & FREQUENCY TABLES)

If the problem we are studying has lots of data, it might be easier to use a tally and frequency table. This

tool will help us in the data collection process.

The tally part is used to keep a count of data in each category. The frequency simply summarizes the

tally, meaning it lets us know the total number of each category.

This type of table is sometimes called a frequency distribution table or simply a frequency table.

Example:

CATEGORICAL DATA

(TALLY & FREQUENCY TABLES)

Example:

CATEGORICAL DATA

(TALLY & FREQUENCY TABLES)

Exercises:

CATEGORICAL DATA

(TALLY & FREQUENCY TABLES)

Exercises:

GRAPHS OF CATEGORICAL DATA

Bar Graphs

Bar Graphs consist of rectangular shaped columns of equal width. The height of each column represents

the number of observations (frequency) of the different categories.

Example:

GRAPHS OF CATEGORICAL DATA

Bar Graphs

Exercises:

GRAPHS OF CATEGORICAL DATA

Bar Graphs

Exercises:

GRAPHS OF CATEGORICAL DATA

Pie Chart

Pie Charts are a useful of showing how a quantity is divided up. A full pie/circle represents the whole

quantity. We can then divide the pie into wedges or slices to show the frequency of each category.

The table opposite shows the results when 8th grade students were asked

“What is your favorite fruit?”

!

There are 60 kids in the sample, so each person is entitled to "# 𝑡ℎ of the

!

pie chart. "# 𝑡ℎ of 360ª is 6ª, so we can determine the angles of the

different wedges in the pie chart.

21 x 6ª = 126ª for apple

10 x 6ª = 60ª for banana

7x 6ª = 42ª for pineapple

9x 6ª = 54ª for pear

GRAPHS OF CATEGORICAL DATA

Example:

GRAPHS OF CATEGORICAL DATA

Pie Chart

Exercises:

GRAPHS OF CATEGORICAL DATA

Pie Chart

Exercises:

NUMERICAL DATA

When we talk about NUMERICAL DATA, we refer to data which is in number form.

Numerical data can be arranged using either a stem-and-leaf plot or a tally and frequency table. As in

the case of categorical data, numerical data can also be presented by a bar/column graph.

STEM-AND-LEAF PLOTS

101, 91, 83, 84, 72, 93, 67, 85, 79, 87, 78, 89, 68, 80, 107, 70, 85, 64, 95, 76, 87, 74, 68, 59, 82, 77

For each data value, the units digit will be the leaf, and the digits before it determines the stem on which

the leaf is placed.

For this example the stem labels are 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10. These will be written under one another in

Ascending order.

NUMERICAL DATA

Once the stems have been recorded we start to look at each dada value. The first value is 101, here 10

is the stem and 1 is the leaf. So we record a 1to the right of the stem label 10. The next value we see is

91. Here its stem label is 9 and its leaf would be 1. Again we record a 1 to the right of the stem label 9.

We proceed to record all the data in an un ordered stem-and-leaf plot.

NUMERICAL DATA

Example:

NUMERICAL DATA

Exercises:

NUMERICAL DATA

Exercises:

WORKING WITH NUMERICAL DATA

Example:

WORKING WITH NUMERICAL DATA

Exercises:

WORKING WITH NUMERICAL DATA

Exercises:

MEASURES OF CENTRAL TENDENCY

The mean or average of a set of numbers is an important measure of their middle (central tendency). We

Talk about averages all the time. For example:

MEAN OR AVERAGE

• Average height or weight

• The average score of an exam

• The average income for a country.

The mean or average is the total sum of all numbers in the data set divided by the number of observations.

Example:

MEASURES OF CENTRAL TENDENCY

Exercises:

MEAN OR AVERAGE

MEASURES OF CENTRAL TENDENCY

Exercises:

MEAN OR AVERAGE

MEASURES OF CENTRAL TENDENCY

The Median of a data set is dependent on whether the number of observations in the data set is odd or

even. To determine the median, first reorder the data set from the smallest to the largest then if the

MEDIAN & MODE

number of observations is odd, then the median is the observation in the middle of the data set. If the

number of observations is even, then the median is the average of the two middle observations.

MEASURES OF CENTRAL TENDENCY

The Mode for a data set is the observation that occurs the most often. It is not uncommon for a data set

to have more than one mode. This happens when two or more observation occur with equal frequency in

the data set. A data set with two modes is called bimodal. A data set with three modes is called

MEDIAN & MODE

trimodal.

MEASURE OF VARIABILITY

The Range for a data set is the difference between the largest value and smallest value contained in the

data set. First reorder the data set from smallest to largest then subtract the first observation from the

last observation.

RANGE

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