0 Voti positivi0 Voti negativi

6 visualizzazioni8 paginex

Feb 08, 2019

© © All Rights Reserved

- Hidden Figures: The American Dream and the Untold Story of the Black Women Mathematicians Who Helped Win the Space Race
- Hidden Figures Young Readers' Edition
- The Law of Explosive Growth: Lesson 20 from The 21 Irrefutable Laws of Leadership
- The E-Myth Revisited: Why Most Small Businesses Don't Work and
- The Wright Brothers
- The Power of Discipline: 7 Ways it Can Change Your Life
- The Other Einstein: A Novel
- The Kiss Quotient: A Novel
- State of Fear
- State of Fear
- The 10X Rule: The Only Difference Between Success and Failure
- Being Wrong: Adventures in the Margin of Error
- Algorithms to Live By: The Computer Science of Human Decisions
- The Black Swan
- Prince Caspian
- The Art of Thinking Clearly
- A Mind for Numbers: How to Excel at Math and Science Even If You Flunked Algebra
- The Last Battle
- The 6th Extinction
- HBR's 10 Must Reads on Strategy (including featured article "What Is Strategy?" by Michael E. Porter)

Sei sulla pagina 1di 8

Magnetic Fields

Introduction

In this experiment, we study magnetic fields of several electrical configurations and their

dependence on variables such as position, and electric current. We start by observing the

magnetic field in a long straight conductor (as a class), how to measure the magnetic field,

and how it changes as a function of distance. Here we will use the results evaluate the

permeability of air.

The magnetic field of a single, then two coil systems will be studied; in particular a

specific two coil configuration defined as a Helmholtz coil. This is the condition where two

coils of wire form a (spatially) broader magnetic field in the volume between the two coils.

The equation for each configuration is derived by integrating the Biot-Savart Law differ-

ential:

µ0 I(dL~ × r̂)

~ =

dB (1)

4π r2

Measuring magnetic fields can be achieved by using a Hall-effect transducer. The sensor

measures only the component of the magnetic field that is perpendicular to the end of the

sensor. A positive value indicates that the sensor is pointing to magnetic south.

The power supply used in this lab can generate electric currents above 100 mA which

can be dangerous to humans. Care must be taken when using the power supply by ensuring

the dials are turned to a minimum (counter clockwise) when connecting or disconnecting

any configuration of the apparatus. The red (+) and black (-) terminals are to be used. For

safety, turn off the power supply when connecting/disconnecting components.

Apparatus

• Power supply • Electric cables

• Retort stand + ruler holder

• Clamps

• Magnetic field coil [200 turns, 10.5 cm

radius] (2) + base • Elastic Bands

Page 1 of 8

Ryerson University - PCS 130

Pre-Lab Questions

Please complete the following questions prior to coming to lab. Completing these questions

will greatly assist with understanding the concepts covered during the lab.

2.) Starting from Biot-Savart Law (Eqn. 1), show that the function for the magnetic

field for a single wire (of infinite length) as a function of distance r (away from the

conductor) and electric current I is:

~ wire (I, r) = µ0 I 1 θ̂

B (2)

2π r

3.) Starting from Biot-Savart Law (Eqn. 1), show that the function for the magnetic field

for a coil of wire of radius R and N turns along the central (perpendicular) axis z and

electric current I is:

~ coil (I, z) = µ0 N I R2

B ẑ (3)

2 (z 2 + R2 )3/2

4.) Using Eqn. 3, write the function for the magnetic field along the central (perpendicular)

axis of two identical coils spaced R apart. Show that the magnetic field at the midpoint

between the two coils is:

~ helmholtz,max (I) = 8µ

B √0

NI

ẑ (4)

125

Page 2 of 8

Ryerson University - PCS 130

Part I -Analysis of a Magnetic Field of a Long Straight Conductor

This part of the lab will help familiarize oneself with the LoggerPro interface and how to

extract useful information from plots.

1.) Locate (on the website) and open the LoggerPro file PCS130 Magnetic Fields.cmbl

and ensure that Page 1 Straight Wire Current is selected on the navigation bar at the

top.

2.) The table on the left contains data taken of the magnetic field of a long straight

conductor at the specified distances away from the conductor. The data is taken in

the direction of the magnetic field.

3.) Based on the data presented, was the probe facing magnetic north or magnetic south?

1

4.) Calculate the inverse distance r

using the provided distances from the conductor r.

5.) Apply a linear fit to the graph by selecting Analyze → Linear Fit.

6.) What does the slope of the linear fitted line represent? How does it relate to Eqn. (2);

the equation for a long straight conductor?

7.) Using the results, calculate the permeability of vacuum. Are we expecting to mea-

sure the permeability of vacuum? What might cause the result to be different from

expected? Assume that the experiment was done in a reasonable environment.

8.) Briefly comment on the y-intercept value and what you expect it to be.

Page 3 of 8

Ryerson University - PCS 130

Part II - Magnetic Field at the Centre of a Single Coil

Procedure II

1.) Navigate to Page 2 Single Coil Current.

2.) With the power supply off, connect a single coil using the white plugs to the power

supply.

3.) Using Right Hand Rule, determine the direction of the magnetic field generated by the

coil. Hint: Observe the wiring diagram near the plugs of the coil.

4.) Ensure that the sensor is set to the 6.4mT range via the toggle switch on the body

of the probe. When changing ranges, LoggerPro will prompt an indication that the

sensor settings have changed; Click Use Sensor Settings to continue.

5.) To the best of your ability, position the probe (which should be attached to the end of

the meter stick) so it is perpendicular to, and along the central axis of the coil.

6.) Position the probe so that is in the same plane as the coil. The probe will stay in this

position for this part of the lab.

7.) With the power supply Off, remove the effect of any local magnetic sources that may

contribute to the measurement by zeroing the sensor. This is done by clicking the ∅

button on the LoggerPro interface.

8.) Turn on the power supply and set the electric current to 0.4A. Note that prolonged

energization can and will affect the electric current value due to self-heating of the

wires. To avoid this, do not leave the system energized (power supply on) for longer

than necessary.

9.) Take a measurement by clicking the I button on the LoggerPro interface. Data will

collect over 3 seconds.

10.) In the LoggerPro interface, the top graph displays the magnetic field vs. time. Select

an adequate region on the graph that best represents the measurement. If the whole

measurement is adequate, you can skip highlighting a region and use the full measured

data set.

11.) With the top graph selected, select Analyze → Statistics to obtain a time averaged

magnetic field and corresponding standard deviation of the selected (or full) region.

12.) Record the magnetic field results, standard deviation, as well as the electrical current

in the table adjacent to the graphs.

13.) Measure the magnetic field every 0.4 A up to a maximum of 2 A. Record the results

and electric current, I, each time in the table adjacent to the graphs.

Page 4 of 8

Ryerson University - PCS 130

14.) Determine the relationship between the magnetic field of a single coil, Bcoil , and electric

current, I by selecting the magnetic field vs. electric current graph (bottom) and

selecting Analyze → Linear Fit.

Analysis II

1.) Compare the relationship between I and BCoil with the expected value.

2.) Check your measurement accuracy by comparing your result to the permeability of

vacuum and calculating the percent error.

3.) Comment on the precision of your measurement, whether or not the result is within

an acceptable range (ie within the uncertainty) and discuss possible sources of error.

4.) What would you expect to happen if you performed the same experiment slightly out

of the plane of the coil?

Page 5 of 8

Ryerson University - PCS 130

Part III - Magnetic Field along the Central Axis of a Single Coil

Procedure III

1.) Navigate to Page 3 Single Coil Distance on the LoggerPro interface.

2.) With the power supply Off, zero the magnetic field sensor while it is still at the centre

of the coil.

3.) With a single coil still connected, set the power supply so that the current is 2 A when

it is on.

4.) With the power supply on, move the probe and ruler (as a single entity) away from

the coil until it reaches approximately 20% of the maximum magnetic field strength.

Aside: Where would you expect the maximum magnetic strength value to be?

5.) Starting from the position determined above, take and record measurements of the

magnetic field strength and position along the central axis in increments of 3 cm until

you reach approximtely the same magnetic field strength on the opposite side of the

coil. Remember, in general, the more data points obtained, the greater the fit will

likely be when fitting the data.

6.) With the bottom graph (Magnetic Field in a Coil vs. Distance) selected, apply a curve

fit by selecting Analyze → Curve Fit. Scroll down the list of General Equations

and choose Single Coil from the list of functions. Press the Try Fit button to see

observe the fit and click OK to finish fitting the data.

Analysis III

1.) Comment on what each fitting coefficient means and compare the relevant ones to the

expected values. Calculate a percent error for these coefficients and discuss sources of

error.

2.) Determine the Full Width Half Maximum (FWHM) using the single coil equation and

fitting parameters. The FWHM is the measure of how broad (wide) a signal is before it

loses half of its intensity. In this case, its a measure of the distance spanned (spatially)

before the magnetic field magnitude is halved.

Page 6 of 8

Ryerson University - PCS 130

Part IV - Magnetic Field of a Two Coils

Procedure IV

1.) Navigate to Page 4 Helmholtz Coil Distance on the LoggerPro interface.

2.) Position two coils such that they are within the rectangular outlines on the base.

Ensure that the coils are parallel with one another. If the coils are loose from the base,

tighten them using the thumb screw underneath.

3.) Connect two coils in series using the white plugs such that the magnetic fields of each

coil point in the same direction. Verify that the coils are correctly configured to one

another by right hand rule for coils.

5.) In a similar fashion to Part III, measure the magnetic field across the Helmholtz coil

in steps of 3 cm all the way through the two coil system.

6.) Similar to Part III, apply a curve fit to the bottom graph (Magnetic Field in a

Helmholtz Coil vs. Distance) but selecting Helmholtz Coil in the list of General

Equations.

Analysis IV

1.) Compare the maximum value measured to the calculated maximum value obtained by

using Eqn. 3.

2.) Comment on what each fitting coefficient means and compare the relevant ones to the

expected values. Calculate the percent error for these coefficients and discuss sources

of error.

3.) Calculate the FWHM for the Helmholtz coil and compare it to the FWHM of the single

coil in Part III.

4.) Discuss what would happen if the magnetic coils were moved closer together or further

apart.

5.) Describe the magnetic field you would observe if the coils were connected with magnetic

fields pointing in opposite directions.

Page 7 of 8

Ryerson University - PCS 130

Last Few Steps

1.) Be sure to record relevant values such as the radius of the loops, number of turns, and

distance between the two coils (for Part IV) as they will be needed to complete the

lab.

2.) Save your LoggerPro file with an easily identifiable name such as

PCS130 Magnetic Fields YOURNAME.cmbl.

3.) You can view your LoggerPro file at a later time using the software. You can download

a copy here. Note: You can only download these while on a Ryerson network.

4.) Alternatively, you can save your data (tables) by going to File → Export As and

selecting a preferred format (.csv is recommended). The file will contain all the tables

made during this experiment.

5.) Submit the .cmbl file to your group submission folder on D2L.

6.) Once this is complete and are certain that the data is saved, restart the computer when

all experiments are completed.

7.) Lastly, tidy up your work station and turn off the power supply (after setting values

to 0) for your fellow students in other sections.

Page 8 of 8

- Build Your Own Transfomer Mar 10, 2015Caricato dacristian1961
- Physics Student WorkbookCaricato daR. K Gupta
- Helmholtz CoilCaricato daFieraru Ionut Radu
- physics theory notes.docxCaricato daishtiyaq
- Motor Circuit Analysis for Energy, Reliability and Production Cost ImprovementsCaricato damohamed Ibrah
- magnetism notesCaricato daapi-277818647
- 2 KS4 Electricty - ElectromagnetismCaricato daLava Sat
- 400 Kva,15 & 0.4 Kv PDF.docx Ts - CopyCaricato daSabboonaa Musa
- Emf and CircuitsCaricato daCandy Chocolate
- Electromech-3-new-2Caricato daHazem AlHumidan
- f38 Measuring InstrumentsCaricato daGammaKristian
- [Done]Networks 2 - Polarity TestCaricato daRyan Ɓoŋŋęr
- Magnetic Coupling Machine 13Caricato daCNEMW
- Transformers.odtCaricato darambabu_09cp037
- 03 electrical notesCaricato daizzazack
- Turbo C CodesCaricato daromeofatima
- ch4_part1.docCaricato daChristine
- Manual de Garantia Prada_Rev01Caricato daurias90
- maxwells lawsCaricato dateja
- EMF Two Marks PDFCaricato daGanesh Kumar C
- Analysis of DC Machines PerformancesCaricato daATS
- phy07.pdfCaricato daPrasad Yarra
- English.españolCaricato daING cruz
- Chapter 8 Electricity and MagnetismCaricato daPen Tura
- Transformers AndCaricato daMark Estrella
- Electrical_Engineering.pptCaricato daAnkit Sharma
- zoetrope-wind-turbineCaricato daStephen Lynch
- ccCaricato daJason Harrison
- teachinggp.pptCaricato dasukri arjuna
- EandMReview.pdfCaricato daChin Castillo

- SIS_PHY_9_75Caricato daAkhlak Hossain
- 306756-000 2002_February.pdfCaricato daduongpn
- adi masina spalat ewm 1000 tutorial top complet.pdfCaricato dabioteky
- Antenna Semi Vertical 7 BandasCaricato daTeodoro León
- Diamond LED Light Bulb Cross Reference Chart 2014Caricato dajeanyoper
- intrinsicCaricato daAnil Bonde
- 1N270Caricato daAle
- DRM020Caricato daBatuhan Izmırlı
- Assignment 1Caricato daOshani perera
- Sistemas Inductivos AIT y DIL(Full Permission)Caricato daSanPer86
- A Passive Radio-Frequency pH-Sensing Tag ForCaricato daersathis
- MESFET_FABRICATIONCaricato daAnonymous eoGtzU
- Digital Signal Processing UWO Lecture+1%2C+January+6thCaricato dagsolisre
- 26C93d01Caricato dah2006078
- Laser Printer 6 StepsCaricato daMoe B. Us
- REYQ-P8(9)Y1B_Databook.pdfCaricato daMourad
- MSEcE CurriculumCaricato daedsoneicc
- Modeling and Simulation of Electrical Prevention SystemCaricato dazaizam
- Datasheet - AX5312 12-bit ±10 12 15V DAC MAX5312Caricato dacarruba
- BJT CompleteCaricato daAamir Sohail
- [Elearnica.ir]-An Energy Transmission System for an Artificial Heart Using Leakage InductaCaricato dashizghul89b
- Ac BridgesCaricato daShashidhar Mangam
- is1.2.4Caricato daRamesh Epili
- GR00006900-54CCaricato daEduardo Enrique Rojas Valenzuela
- ArlonThermalMgmtGuideCaricato dawhy_struggle
- T4900Caricato dakylegaze
- Model PCB Thermals With Greater AccuracyCaricato daRichard Lo
- Tettex 2801Caricato daDimitar Markov
- Pintu Portal Otomatis Berbasis Teknologi ProgrammableCaricato daBobby
- L-1-Introduction.pptxCaricato daAllen Chandler

## Molto più che documenti.

Scopri tutto ciò che Scribd ha da offrire, inclusi libri e audiolibri dei maggiori editori.

Annulla in qualsiasi momento.