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HIRAD Hotel MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

A Research Paper

Submitted for the partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of the
Degree in

Information Communication Technology (ICT)

Under the Guidance of Mr. Tesfalem R.

By

Khaddar jama Ali 786/08


Mawliid mahad kasim 868/08

DEPARTMENT OF ICT

Admas University College


Hargeisa Main Campus

July – 2011

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Admas
Adm University
as Univ er sit y ColCollege
l ege HarHargeisa Main
geissa Main Campus
HMC
Campus d ª “ "U þ e
› É T e ¿’ >y` e+ ¢K?Ï N ` Ñ@
mail :___________________________
Tel :-________ ____________Fax:-____________________P.o .Box:-_____________e:

Certificate

This is to certify that the project titled “ ” is a bona-fide work done by

Khaddar jama Ali 786/08


Mawliid mahad kasim 868/08

In partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of BSc. (ICT)


During the period 2008-2011

Mr. Tesfalem R Mr. Tesfalem R.


Advisor Head of the Department

Ahmed Hassan Haji


Academic Vice president

DECLARATION

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We, (khaddar and mawliid) , hereby declare that this thesis is our original work and has not been
presented for the award of any degree/diploma in any other college or university.

Signatures…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..…

Date…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..…

This thesis has been submitted with my approval as supervisor:

Mr. Tesfalem Rezene,

Instructor of ICT,

Admas University College, Hargeisa. Somaliland.

Signature……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

Date…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….…

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Chapters………………………………………………………………………………page NO
Acknowledgement………………………………………………………………………….…1
1. Pre analysis stage………………………………………………………………………………………………………………2
1.1 introduction………………………………………………………………………………………………………..3
1.2 objectives……………………………………………………………………………………………………………4
1.3 hotel profile ………………………………………………………………………………………………………..5
1.4 Early conceptual model…………………………………………………………………………………….….6
2 system study…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….....7
2.1 Existing system………………………………………………………………………………………………….…8
2.2 proposed system…………………………………………………………………………………………….…..9
2.3 data collection methodology……………………………………………………………………………...10
3 feasibility study……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….…11
3.1 Economic feasibility…………………………………………………………………………………………...12
3.2 political feasibility……………………………………………………………………………………….……13
3.3 legal and contractual feasibility………………………………………………………..…………….…14
3.4 technical feasibility…………………………………………………………………………..…………………15
3.5 operational feasibility…………………………………………………………………………………………16
3.6 schedule feasibility…………………………………………………………………………..…………………17
4 system analysis…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..18
4.1 definition of system analysis……………………………………………………..……………….…………19
4.2 process modeling………………………………………………………………………………………………...20
4.3 hotel management process…………………………………………………………………………………..21
4.4 logical modeling………………………………………………………………………………..…………………22
4.5 structured English……………………………………………………………………………………………..…23
5 system design……………………………………………………………………………………….24
5.1 logical design……………………………………………………………………………………………………..…25
5.2 transforming entities into relation…………………………………………………………………..……26
5.3 data dictionary…………………………………………………………………………………………..….………27
5.4 physical design……………………………………………………………………………………..……….………28
5.5 special language features…………………………………………………………….………….……..………29
5.6 front end …………………………………………………………………………………….….……………..………30
5.7 back end………………………………………………………………………………………………………………...31
5.8 designing forms……………………………………………………………………….……………………….……32
5.9 crystal report……………………………………………………………………………..………….………….……33
5.10 system requirement……………………………………………………………………….……………………34
6 implementation ………………………………………………………………………………….………………………………..35
6.1 system testing…………………………………………………………………………………………………….…...36
6.2 types of testing………………………………………………………………………………………………………….37
7 conclusion……………………………………………………………………………………...38
7.1 Bibliography………………………………………………….……………………………………………………………39

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Acknowledgement

First of ALL thanks and praise to Allah who allow us to complete our graduation of
higher education and to reach these places, second we are deeply obliged to our
supervisors and advisors for their patient academic (and personal) guidance over the
years .

there passion for doing communicating and creating science has and always will be a
big source of inspiration .we feel very great to have worked with them

We wish to thank the members of our thesis committee professor tesflan, for having
accepted to take the time out of their busy environment and schedule to read our
project and provide us precious explanation exciting remarks

We would like to thank all members of our classmates group for their fabulous
support and mutual aid

Also we like to thank mr.ahmed mahamed wayd who is title is the head of hirad hotel
management system for his giving big hand to get general information of hotel
management system

Finally we want to thank our parents who have exteremely understood carring of
studies we also are thanking every person who gave us to finish our graduation.

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Chapter one

1. Pre analysis stage:

1.1 introductions:
Hotels offer the same rooms to different types of guests. While hotel managers would like to fill
their hotels with highly profitable guests as much as possible, it is generally necessary to allow for
less profitable guests in order to prevent rooms from remaining vacant.

An important decision to be made is whether to accept a booking request and generate revenue now,
or to reject it in anticipation of a more profitable booking request in the future. Because this
decision must be made at the time of the booking request and future demand is never certain, the
booking control problem contains both dynamic and stochastic elements. Finding the right
combination of guests in the hotel such that revenues are maximized is the topic of revenue
management. Revenue management originates from the airline industry, where the seats on a plane
can be sold to different types of passengers.

In comparison to this problem, hotel revenue management has the distinct feature that booking
requests can occur for different lengths of stay and can therefore overlap. Most models for hotel
revenue management consider a fixed set of target booking days over which to maximize

revenues. In general, such a fixed set of days cannot be determined without missing some of the
effects of the overlapping stays. In this paper, we study booking control policies based on a rolling
horizon of decision periods. For each optimization, all types of stays that span the current decision
period are considered. Because of the rolling nature of the decision periods, eventually no overlap
between the stays wills be left out.

The booking control policies we study in this paper, include nested booking limit and bid price
methods. A deterministic as well as a stochastic model is used to derive the booking control
policies. We assume that every guest has a strict preference for a specific type of stay. This means
that whenever a booking request is rejected, it is lost forever and is not turned into a booking
request for another type of stay. Further, we do not consider batch bookings or cancellations and
no-shows.

The organization of this paper is as follows: In Section 2 we give a short overview of the related
literature on hotel revenue management. The deterministic and stochastic mathematical
programming models are presented in Section 3. Booking control policies based on the
mathematical programming models and their application2over a rolling horizon are presented in
Section 4. In section 5 we sketch the environment of a test case. We use this environment as a basis
to simulate arrival processes by which we study the performances of the different booking control
policies.

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Project management in the modern sense began in the early 1960s, although it has its roots much
further back in the latter years of the 19th century. The need for project management was driven by
businesses that realized the benefits of organizing work around projects and the critical need to
communicate and co-ordinate work across departments and professions. One of the first major uses
of project management as we know it today was to manage the United States space programmer.
The government, military and corporate world have now adopted this practice.

Here is the main definition of what project management is:


 Project management is no small task.
 Project management has a definite beginning and end. It is not a continuous process.
 Project management uses various tools to measure accomplishments and track project tasks.
These include Work Breakdown Structures, Gantt charts and PERT charts.
 Projects frequently need resources on an ad-hoc basis as opposed to organizations that have
only dedicated full-time positions.
 Project management reduces risk and increases the chance of success.
Project management is often summarized in a triangle. The three most important factors are time,
cost and scope, commonly called the triple constraint.

These form the vertices with quality as a central theme.


 Projects must be delivered on time.
 Projects must be within cost.
 Projects must be within scope.
 Projects must meet customer quality requirements.
More recently, this has given way to a project management diamond, with time, cost, scope and
quality the four vertices and customer expectations as a central theme. No two customers'
expectations are the same so you must ask what their expectations are.

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1.2 objectives
Goals and objectives.
To provide the best community services, to improve the level of services for the customer and also
to provide
The highest quality services by delivering equal opportunity for the people.
Objectives:
 To enable the user to reserve his /her accommodation in a hotel anywhere in the world
sitting at home through the internet.
 To enable the user to look up his/her confirmed reservation or modify or cancel the
reservation if required.
 To allow the manager of the hotel to enlist his hotel with the system
 To allow the manager of the hotel to scrutinize the list of orders and their details.
 To allow the manager of the hotel to modify the hotel information from time to time.

Literature review:
Hotel revenue management has received attention in a number of papers. Bitran andMondschein
(1995) and Bitran and Gilbert (1996) concentrate on the room allocation problem at the targeted
booking day itself.

The hotel manager has to decide whether or not to accept a guest that requests a room on the target
day, taking into account the number of reservations made and the potential number of guests who
will show up without reservations (walk-ins). They formulate this problem as a stochastic and
dynamic programming model. Bit ran and Gilbert also provide three simple heuristics to construct
booking control policies that can be used during the booking period.

Weatherford (1995) concentrates completely on the booking control problem. He proposes a


heuristic which is called the nested by deterministic model shadow prices (NDSP) method. He
formulates a mathematical programming model to obtain booking limits, i.e. the number of rooms
to reserve for each type of guest.

These booking limits are nested such that a guest can always make use of the capacity reserved for
any less profitable guest. A possible drawback of the model is that it considers demand to be
deterministic. Weatherford allows for multiple day stays and maximizes the model for a decision
period consisting of a fixed set of target booking days. He does not account for overlapping stays
outside of the decision period.

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Work breakdown:
A work breakdown structure is a key project deliverable that organizes the team’s work into
manageable sections. The Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK) defines the work
breakdown structure as a “deliverable oriented hierarchical decomposition of the work to be
executed by the project team.” The work breakdown structure visually defines the scope into
manageable chunks that a project team can understand, as each level of the work breakdown
structure provides further definition and detail. Figure 1(below) depicts a sample work breakdown
structure with three levels defined. The project team creates the project work breakdown structure
by identifying the major functional deliverables and subdividing those deliverables into smaller
systems and sub-deliverables.
These sub-deliverables are further decomposed until a single person can be assigned. At this level,
the specific work packages required to produce the sub- deliverable are identified and grouped
together. The work package represents the list of tasks or “to-dos” to produce the specific unit of
work. If you’ve seen detailed project schedules, then you’ll recognize the tasks under the work
package as the “stuff” people need to complete by a specific time and within a specific level of
effort.
The work breakdown structure has a number of benefits in addition to defining and organizing the
project work. A project budget can be allocated to the top levels of the work breakdown structure,
and department budgets can be quickly calculated based on the each project’s work breakdown
structure. By allocating time and cost estimates to specific sections of the work breakdown
structure, a project schedule and budget can be quickly developed. As the project executes, specific
sections of the work breakdown structure can be tracked to identify project cost performance and
identify issues and problem areas in the project organization.
For more information about Time allocation, see the 100% Rule. Project work breakdown
structures can also be used to identify potential risks in a given project. If a work breakdown
structure has a branch that is not well defined then it represents a scope definition risk.
These risks should be tracked in a project log and reviewed as the project executes. By integrating
the work breakdown structure with an organization breakdown structure, the project manager can
also identify communication points and formulate a communication plan across the project
organization.

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Work Breakdown Structure Development Guidelines:
The following guidelines should be considered when creating a work breakdown structure:
The top level represents the final deliverable or project
Sub-deliverables contain work packages that are assigned to a organization’s department or unit
All elements of the work breakdown structure don’t need to be defined to the same level
The work package defines the work, duration, and costs for the tasks required to produce the sub-
deliverable
Work packages should not exceed 10 days of duration
Work packages should be independent of other work packages in the work breakdown structure
Work packages are unique and should not be duplicated across the work breakdown structure

1.3 Background:
HIRAD HOTEL was established in 2010; it has being working for many years, It plays an
important role for the development of low standard community who lives in hargeisa. Consists of
many departments such as reception and Bedrooms and also other sections.
HIRAD HOTEL takes parts the community services of the customers, People travel for a variety of
reasons, including for vacations, business, and visits to friends and relatives. For many of these
travelers, hotels and other accommodations will be where they stay while out of town. For others,
hotels may be more than just a place to stay; they are destinations in themselves. Resort hotels and
casino hotels, for example, offer a variety of activities to keep travelers and families occupied for
much of their stay.
Goods and services. Hotels and other accommodations are as different as the many family and
business travelers they accommodate. The industry includes all types of lodging, from luxurious
five-star hotels to youth hostels and RV (recreational vehicle) parks. While many provide simply a
place to spend the night, others cater to longer stays by providing food service, recreational
activities, and meeting rooms. In 2008, 64,300 establishments provided accommodations to suit
many different needs and budgets.
Hotels and motels comprise the majority of establishments in this industry and are generally
classified as offering either full-service or limited service. Full-service properties offer a variety of
services for their guests, but they almost always include at least one or more restaurant and
beverage service options other than self-service—from coffee bars and lunch counters to cocktail

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lounges and formal restaurants. They also usually provide room service. Larger full-service
properties usually have a variety of retail shops on the premises, such as gift boutiques, newsstands,
and drug and cosmetics counters, some of which may be geared to an exclusive clientele.
Additionally, a number of full-service hotels offer guests access to laundry and valet services
swimming pools, beauty salons, and fitness centers or health span.

The largest hotels often have banquet rooms, exhibit halls, and spacious ballrooms to accommodate
conventions, business meetings, wedding receptions, and other social, gatherings. Conventions and
business meetings are major sources of revenue for these properties. Some commercial hotels are
known as conference hotels—fully self-contained entities specifically designed for large-scale
meetings.

They provide physical fitness and recreational facilities for meeting attendees, in addition to state-
of-the-art audiovisual and technical equipment, a business center, and banquet services.
Limited-service hotels are free-standing properties that do not have on-site restaurants or most other
amenities that must be provided by a staff other than the front desk or housekeeping. They usually
offer continental breakfasts, vending machines or small packaged items, Internet access, and
sometimes unattended game rooms or swimming pools in addition to daily housekeeping services.
The numbers of limited-service properties have been growing. These properties are not as costly to
build and maintain. They appeal to budget-conscious family vacationers and travelers who are
willing to sacrifice amenities for lower room prices.

Hotels can also be categorized based on a distinguishing feature or service provided by the hotel.
Conference hotels provide meeting and banquet rooms, and usually food service, to large groups of
people. Resort hotels offer luxurious surroundings with a variety of recreational facilities, such as
swimming pools, golf courses, tennis courts, game, rooms, and health spas, as well as planned
social activities and entertainment.
Resorts typically are located in vacation destinations or near natural settings, such as mountains,
seashores, theme parks, or other attractions. As a result, the business of many resorts fluctuates with
the season. Some resort hotels and motels provide additional convention and conference facilities to
encourage customers to combine business with pleasure. During the off season, many of these

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establishments solicit conventions, sales meetings, and incentive tours to fill their otherwise empty
rooms; some resorts even close for the off-season.
.

1.4 Early conceptual model

Manager

Vice manager

Reception Rooms

Double room Relax room Single rooms

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2 system study
We get this hotel has not system and use manual system and there is no any computer in their hotel
we decided to build a small database software to manage the transaction of hotel at any side how to
facilities their tasks.

2.1 Problem statement (need assessment):


The project entitled Hotel Reservation is a manual based system which facilitates of hotel rooms
from anywhere in the world. If a person wants to reserve his accommodation he would to know the
list of hotels in the city he wants to visit, different amenities provided in each hotel the different
types of rooms available, the rates of those rooms, the constraints of the hotel and finally the
availability of the desired rooms on the desired rate.
He may achieve all this through travel agencies, the guides available, by making enquiries in
person, by making enquiries through telephone. If he wants to make a choice between the hotels he
has to repeat the whole process for number of hotels .After being satisfied with the choice he has to
confirm his reservation by paying the amount personally or through middle persons. This process is
laborious and his choice is limited.
So we found the necessity of providing all the information and the facility to reserve his
accommodation through the net so that maximum satisfaction is achieved by the customer with
least effort. The solution we are providing to this is to design a website that contains information
about various cities and the reputed hotels in each city along with the facilities, types of rooms and
their rates. The tourist can also choose the hotel of his Interest.
Disadvantages of existing system:
 Time consuming data entry and information retrieval
 Potential error in files
 Data loss
 Poor processing
 No or loss reports for decision making
 Lack of communication among employee
 Not very much accurate and not good organized
 Danger of losing the files

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Proposed system:
To develop hotel management system for customer’s multipurpose rooms the system needs to keep
the work going on its information and compute customers fees collected from the owner of the
hotel.
This system developed using the visual basic, net programming language using object oriented
features and concepts.

Advantages of proposed system:


 Very fast and accurate
 No need any extra manual effort
 Needs little knowledge to operate the system
 Does not need any extra hardware devices
 All activities can be done automatically as you enter data
 No need store the data in the papers
 Data can be saved automatically
Disadvantage of the proposed system:
 Crashed computer programs and lost data
 Too slow and inaccurate
 Computer not running out
 No need less skilled person

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Scope of project:
In project management, the term scope has two distinct uses: Project Scope and Product Scope.
Project Scope "The work that needs to be accomplished to deliver a product, service, or result with
the specified features and functions." Product Scope "The features and functions that characterize a
product, service, or result." Notice that Project Scope is more work-oriented, (the how,) while
Product Scope is more oriented toward functional requirements. (The what’s.).If requirements are
not completely defined and described and if there is no effective change controls in a project, scope
or requirement creep may ensue.
Scope creep management is important for effective project management. Projects are expected to
meet strict deadlines with resource restraints, and an unvented and unapproved change in the scope
can affect the success of the project. Scope creep sometimes causes overrun.

Scope is a term which refers to the incremental expansion of the scope of a project, which may
include and introduce more requirements that may not have been a part of the initial planning of the
project, while nevertheless failing to adjust schedule and budget. There are two distinct ways to
separate scope creep management. The first is business scope creep, and the second is called
features (also technology) scope creep. The type of scope creep management is always dependent
upon on the people who create the changes.

Business scope creep management occurs when decisions that are made with reference to a project
are designed to solve or meet the requirements and needs of the business. Business scope creep
changes may be a result of poor requirements definition early in development, or the failure to
include the users of the project until the later stage of the systems development life cycle. Scope
management plan is one of the major Scope communication documents. The Project Scope
Management Plan documents how the project scope will be defined, managed, controlled, verified
and communicated to the project team and stakeholders/customers. It also includes all work
required to complete the project. The documents are used to control what is in and out of the scope
of the project by the use of a Change Management system. Items deemed out of scope go directly
through the change control process and are not automatically added to the project work items. The
Project Scope Management plan is included in as one of the sections in the overall Project

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Management plan. It can be very detailed and formal or loosely framed and informal depending on
the communication needs of the project.

Features (Technology) scope creep occurs when the scope creep is introduced by technologists
adding features not originally contemplated. Customer-pleasing scope creep occurs when the desire
to please the customer through additional product features adds more work to the current project
rather than to a new project proposal. Gold-plating scope creep occurs when technologists augment
the original requirements because of a bias toward "technical perfectionism" or because the initial
requirements were in clear or detailed.

Tools using in gathering data


INFORMATION GATHERING MOTIVATION

The Information system designed for an organization must meet the requirements of the end users
of the organization. To obtain what an end user expects from the Information System the designer
must gain complete knowledge of the organization’s working. It is important for the student to
know the information gathering techniques so that no information is overlooked and the nature and
functions of an organization are clearly understood. The main purpose of gathering information is
to determine the information requirements of an organization. Information requirements are often
not stated precisely by management. It is the analyst’s responsibility to prepare a precise Systems
Requirements Specifications (SRS), which is easily understood (SRS) by users, as SRS document is
a vital document before starting a project

INFORMATION GATHERING STRATEGIES

A strategy should be evolved by the analyst to gather information. The strategy consists of
identifying information sources, evolving a method of obtaining information from the identified
sources and using an information flow model of organization

INFORMATION SOURCES

The main sources of information are users of the system, forms and documents used in the
organization, procedure manuals, rule books etc, reports used by the organization and existing
computer programs(If Any).

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INFORMATION GATHERING Method

Information can be gathered by interviewing top-level management, middle level management and
operational staff. Besides Interviews group discussions also help the analyst to gather information.
It is not possible to obtain all information in a single interview; more than one interview is thus
required.

PLANNING AN INTERVIEW

Before starting the interview the analyst must make a list of people to be interviewed and in what
order, plan and note down a list of questions to be asked, plan several interviews with same person-
mainly to clarify doubts and interview groups as appropriate.

INTERVIEWING TECHNIQUE

There are some guidelines to ensure a successful interview: Make an prior appointment with the
person to be interviewed and meet him at the allotted time. Read background material and go
prepared with the checklist. State purpose of interview. Be punctual and pay attention to what user
says. Do not use computer jargon. Obtain both quantitative and qualitative Information.
Discriminate between essential and desirable requirements. State what you understand and get it
confirmed. Do not prolong interview and summarize the information gathered by you during the
interview and verify this with the user

USE OF QUESTIONNAIRES

Questionnaires are useful for collecting statistical data. Sometimes the questionnaires are not
promptly replied and several follow-ups/personal interviews may be required to get questionnaires
back from respondents But if the questionnaires are short the probability of getting the reply is
high When data has to be collected form large number of people questionnaires are useful.

3 .feasibility study:

A feasibility studies main goal is to assess the economic viability of the proposed business. The
feasibility study needs to answer the question: “Does the idea make economic sense?” The study
should provide a thorough analysis of the business opportunity, including a look at all the possible
roadblocks that may stand in the way of the cooperative’s success. The outcome of the feasibility
study will indicate whether or not to proceed with the proposed venture. If the results of the
feasibility study are positive, then the cooperative can proceed to develop a business plan.

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If the results show that the project is not a sound business idea, then the project should not be
pursued. Although it is difficult to accept a feasibility study that shows these results, it is much
better to find this out sooner rather than later, when more time and money would have been
invested and lost.

It is tempting to overlook the need for a feasibility study. Often, the steering committee may face
resistance from potential members on the need to do a feasibility study. Many people will feel that
they know the proposed venture is a good idea, so why carry out a costly study just to prove what
they already know? The feasibility study is important because it forces the NGC to put its ideas on
paper and to assess whether or not those ideas are realistic. It also forces the NGC to begin
formally evaluating which steps to take next.

The NGC’s organizers will typically hire a consultant to conduct the feasibility study. Because the
consultant is independent of the cooperative, he or she is in a better position to provide an objective
analysis of the proposed venture. The consultant should have a good understanding of the industry
as well as the new generation cooperative model of business. He or she should have previous
experience in directly related work. To get an estimate of the costs of a feasibility study, prepare a
rough outline of the work needed to be done. Contact several consultants and provide them with a
copy of this rough draft to see what sort of estimates they give. When the time comes to hire a
consultant, prepare a formal request for proposals that outlines the information that is needed and
send this to several consultants.

It might be tempting to choose the lowest-cost consultant or a personal acquaintance of one of the
NGC’s organizers, but always remember that quality work is the most important factor when
choosing a consultant. Make sure that the consultant can provide an independent assessment of the
business opportunity. For instance, hiring an engineering firm or an equipment manufacturer to
conduct market analysis may lead to biased results in favor of proceeding with the venture.
Engineering firms and equipment manufacturers may have an incentive to show positive results so
they can obtain contracts with the cooperative once it chooses to start up operations. Engineering
firms and equipment manufacturers are needed in order to provide information about equipment
requirements and costs, but an independent consultant should conduct the overall feasibility study.

A feasibility study should examine three main areas: market issues ,technical and organizational
requirements, financial overview.

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3.1 Economic feasibility
Economic feasibility is often referred cost-benefit analysis and department able to pay all the
expenses of the project and also used methods for evaluating the effectiveness of the new system
.more commonly known as cost/benefit analysis ,the procedures is to determine the benefit an
savings that are expected from a candidate system and compare them with cost.

Economic analysis is the most frequently used method for evaluating the effectiveness of a new
system. More commonly known as cost/benefit analysis, the procedure is to determine the benefits
and savings that are expected from a candidate system and compare them with costs. If benefits
outweigh costs, then the decision is made to design and implement the system. An entrepreneur
must accurately weigh the cost versus benefits before taking an action.
Cost-based study: It is important to identify cost and benefit factors, which can be categorized as
follows: 1. Development costs; and 2. Operating costs. This is an analysis of the costs to be incurred
in the system and the benefits derivable out of the system.

Time-based study: This is an analysis of the time required to achieve a return on investments. The
future value of a project is also a factor.

3.2 political feasibility


Political the system evaluating the key stakeholders within the organization agreed the proposed
system and there is no compliance from them.

3.3 legal and contractual feasibility


Both legally and contractually the project is feasible because there is no legal and contractual issues
that makes impossible for the development of the project.

Determines whether the proposed system conflicts with legal requirements, e.g. a data processing
system must comply with the local Data Protection Acts.

3.4 technical feasibility


Development group must understanding of the possible target hardware, software, and operating
environment as well as system size and scope.

3.5 operational feasibility

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Operationally ,the project is feasible because at least it will increase the performance and will attain
the desired the goal also will reduce the current problems as soon as possible.

Operational feasibility is a measure of how well a proposed system solves the problems, and takes
advantage of the opportunities identified during scope definition and how it satisfies the
requirements identified in the requirements analysis phase of system development

3.6 schedule feasibility


Time the project end will fit the organizational deadlines if it takes long to be completed before it is
use full, typically this means estimating how long the system will take to develop

A project will fail if it takes too long to be completed before it is useful. Typically this means
estimating how long the system will take to develop, and if it can be completed in a given time
period using some methods like payback period. Schedule feasibility is a measure of how
reasonable the project timetable is. Given our technical expertise, are the project deadlines
reasonable? Some projects are initiated with specific deadlines. You need to determine whether the
deadlines are mandatory or desirable

4. System analysis
4.1 system analysis:

The analysis phase defines the requirements of the system, independent of how these requirements
will be accomplished. This phase defines the problem that the customer is trying to solve. The
deliverable result at the end of this phase is a requirement document. Ideally, this document states
in a clear and precise fashion what is to be built.

This analysis represents the ``what'' phase. The requirement document tries to capture the
requirements from the customer's perspective by defining goals and interactions at a level removed
from the implementation details. The requirement document may be expressed in a formal language
based on mathematical logic. Traditionally, the requirement document is written in English or
another written language.

The requirement document does not specify the architectural or implementation details, but
specifies information at the higher level of description. The problem statement, the customer's
expectations, and the criteria for success are examples of high-level descriptions. There is a fuzzy
line between high-level descriptions and low-level details. Sometimes, if an exact engineering detail
needs to be specified, this detail will also appear in the requirement document. This is the exception
and should not be the rule.

These exceptions occur for many reasons including maintaining the consistency with other
established systems, availability of particular options, customer's demands, and to establish, at the
requirement level, a particular architecture vision. An example of a low-level detail that might

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appear in the requirement document is the usage of a particular vendor's product line, or the usage
of some accepted computer industry standard, or a constraint on the image size of the application.

4.2 process modeling;


Process modeling involves the graphical representation of the functions, or processes of that
capture, manipulate, store and distribute data between a system and its environment and among
system component.

4.3 hotel process

Customer
Reception

Customer order Room order


Room
receipt
ordering
system

Management report

Hotel manager

4.5 Entity relationship;

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Person Request

Request Room

4.6 logical modeling


A logical data model (LDM) in systems engineering is a representation of an organization's data,
organized in terms of entities and relationships and is independent of any particular data
management technology

4.7 structured English

Structured English is the use of the English language with the syntax of structured programming. Thus
structured English aims at getting the benefits of both the programming logic and natural language. Program
logic helps to attain precision while natural language helps in getting the convenience of spoken languages.

Elements of the structured English:


Structured English or "pseudo code" consists of the following elements:

 Operation statements written as English phrases executed from the top down
 Conditional blocks indicated by keywords such as IF, THEN, and ELSE
 Repetition blocks indicated by keywords such as DO, WHILE, and UNTIL

Use the following guidelines when writing Structured English:

 Statements should be clear and unambiguous


 Use one line per logical element
 All logic should be expressed in operational, conditional, and repetition blocks

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 Logical blocks should be indented to show relationship
 Keywords should be capitalized

5 system design

Systems design is the process of defining the architecture, components, modules, interfaces,
and data for a system to satisfy specified requirements. One could see it as the application
of systems theory to product development. There is some overlap with the disciplines of systems
analysis, systems architecture and systems engineering.[1][2] If the broader topic of product
development "blends the perspective of marketing, design, and manufacturing into a single
approach to product development,"[3] then design is the act of taking the marketing information and
creating the design of the product to be manufactured. Systems design is therefore the process of
defining and developing systems to satisfy specified requirements of the user. Until the 1990s
systems design had a crucial and respected role in the data processing industry. In the
1990s standardization of hardware and software resulted in the ability to build modular systems.
The increasing importance of software running on generic platforms has enhanced the discipline
of software engineering.
Object-oriented analysis and design methods are becoming the most widely used methods for
computer systems design.[

5.1 logical designs:


-Based upon the conceptual data model

-Four key steps

 Develop a logical data model for each known user interface for the application using
normalization principles.
 Combine normalized data requirements from all user interfaces into one consolidated logical
database model
 Translate the conceptual E-R data model for the application into normalized data
requirements
 Compare the consolidated logical database design with the translated E-R model and
produce one final logical database model for the application

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Relational Database Model:

 Data represented as a set of related tables or relations


 Relation

A named, two-dimensional table of data. Each relation consists of a set of named columns and an
arbitrary number of unnamed rows

 Properties
 Entries in cells are simple
 Entries in columns are from the same set of values
 Each row is unique
 The sequence of columns can be interchanged without changing the meaning or use
of the relation
 The rows may be interchanged or stored in any sequence

.Well-Structured Relation

A relation that contains a minimum amount of redundancy and allows users to insert, modify and
delete the rows without errors or inconsistencies

Employee_id name address salary

0001 ahmed h.s $15

0002 omer h.s $20

5.1.1 Transforming E-R Diagrams into Relations


 It is useful to transform the conceptual data model into a set of normalized relations
 Steps

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1. Represent entities

2. Represent relationships

3. Normalize the relations

4. Merge the relations

Addres
s
Name
City_state_zip

Customer_id
Discount

Customer

customer

Customer_id Name Adress city_state_zip discount


0001 comer Ethiopia Addis Ababa $5
0002 Namco Hargaysa burco $3

Entity-relationship model

In software engineering, an entity-relationship model (ERM) is an abstract and conceptual


representation of data. Entity-relationship modeling is a database modeling method, used to produce
a type of conceptual schema or semantic data model of a system, often a relational database, and its

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requirements in a top-down fashion. Diagrams created by this process are called entity-relationship
diagrams, ER diagrams, or ERDs.

This article refers to the techniques proposed in Peter Chen's 1976 paper.[1] However, variants of
the idea existed previously,[2] and have been devised subsequently

wo unary relation-EMPLOYEE with manages Relationship (1: N)

Name

Emp_ID
Address

EMPLOYEE

Employee 1 Manages

The building blocks: entities, relationships, and attributes

Primary key

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An entity may be defined as a thing which is recognized as being capable of an independent
existence and which can be uniquely identified. An entity is an abstraction from the complexities of
some domain. When we speak of an entity we normally speak of some aspect of the real world
which can be distinguished from other aspects of the real world.[3]

An entity may be a physical object such as a house or a car, an event such as a house sale or a car
service, or a concept such as a customer transaction or order. Although the term entity is the one
most commonly used, following Chen we should really distinguish between an entity and an entity-
type. An entity-type is a category. An entity, strictly speaking, is an instance of a given entity-type.
There are usually many instances of an entity-type. Because the term entity-type is somewhat
cumbersome, most people tend to use the term entity as a synonym for this term.

Entities can be thought of as nouns. Examples: a computer, an employee, a song, a mathematical


theorem.

A relationship captures how two or more entities are related to one another. Relationships can be
thought of as verbs, linking two or more nouns. Examples: an owns relationship between a
company and a computer, a supervises relationship between an employee and a department, a
performs relationship between an artist and a song, a proved relationship between a mathematician
and a theorem.

The model's linguistic aspect described above is utilized in the declarative database query language
ERROL, which mimics natural language constructs.

Entities and relationships can both have attributes. Examples: an employee entity might have a
Social Security Number (SSN) attribute; the proved relationship may have a date attribute.

Every entity (unless it is a weak entity) must have a minimal set of uniquely identifying attributes,
which is called the entity's primary key.

Entity-relationship diagrams don't show single entities or single instances of relations. Rather, they
show entity sets and relationship sets. Example: a particular song is an entity. The collection of all
songs in a database is an entity set. The eaten relationship between a child and her lunch is a single
relationship. The set of all such child-lunch relationships in a database is a relationship set. In other
words, a relationship set corresponds to a relation in mathematics, while a relationship corresponds
to a member of the relation. Certain cardinality constraints on relationship sets may be indicated as
well.

Diagramming conventions:

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Entity sets are drawn as rectangles, relationship sets as diamonds. If an entity set participates in a
relationship set, they are connected with a line.

Attributes are drawn as ovals and are connected with a line to exactly one entity or relationship set.

Cardinality constraints are expressed as follows:

 a double line indicates a participation constraint, totality or subjectivity: all entities


in the entity set must participate in at least one relationship in the relationship set;
 an arrow from entity set to relationship set indicates a key constraint, i.e. infectivity:
each entity of the entity set can participate in at most one relationship in the
relationship set;
 a thick line indicates both, i.e. objectivity: each entity in the entity set is involved in
exactly one relationship.
 an underlined name of an attribute indicates that it is a key: two different entities or
relationships with this attribute always have different values for this attribute.

Attributes are often omitted as they can clutter up a diagram; other diagram techniques often list
entity attributes within the rectangles drawn for entity sets.

Relationships of those tables?

Relationship types
you share many relationships with members of your family. For instance, you and your mother are
related. You have only one mother, but she may have several children. You and your siblings are
related—you may have many brothers and sisters and, of course, they'll have many brothers and
sisters as well. If you're married, both you and your spouse have a spouse—each other—but only
one at a time. Database relationships are very similar in that they're associations between tables.
There are three types of relationships:

 One-to-one: Both tables can have only one record on either side of the relationship.
Each primary key value relates to only one (or no) record in the related table. They're
like spouses—you may or may not be married, but if you are, both you and your
spouse have only one spouse. Most one-to-one relationships are forced by business
rules and don't flow naturally from the data. In the absence of such a rule, you can
usually combine both tables into one table without breaking any normalization rules.
 One-to-many: The primary key table contains only one record that relates to none,
one, or many records in the related table. This relationship is similar to the one
between you and a parent. You have only one mother, but your mother may have
several children.

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 Many-to-many: Each record in both tables can relate to any number of records (or
no records) in the other table. For instance, if you have several siblings, so do your
siblings (have many siblings). Many-to-many relationships require a third table,
known as an associate or linking table, because relational systems can't directly
accommodate the relationship.

Establishing relationships

By the time you get around to establishing relationships between the related tables, you'll probably
be very familiar with the data. Consequently, associations are more obvious at this point than when
you started. Your database system relies on matching values found in both tables to form
relationships. When a match is found, the system pulls the data from both tables to create a virtual
record. For instance, you might want to see all the books written by a particular author. In this case,
the system would match values between the Books and the Authors tables. It's important to
remember that most of the time, the resulting record is dynamic, which means any change made to
the virtual record will usually work its way back to the underlying table.

Those matching values are the primary and foreign key values. (The relational model doesn't
require that a relationship be based on a primary key. You can use any candidate key in the table,
but using the primary key is the accepted standard.) You learned about primary keys in Part 2—a
primary key uniquely identifies each record in a table. A foreign key is, simply put, one table's
primary key in another table. As such, there's not much for you to do—simply add the primary key
field to the related table, as a foreign key.

The only consideration is that a foreign key field must be of the same data type as the primary key.
Some systems allow one exception to this rule and will allow a relationship between a number and
an auto numbering field (such as AutoNumber in Access of Identity in SQL Server). In addition,
foreign key values can be Null, although the recommendation is that you not leave a foreign key
Null without a very specific reason to do so. Chances are you may never work with a database that
requires this capability.

5.1.2 Data dictionary

A data dictionary, or metadata repository, as defined in the IBM Dictionary of Computing, is a


"centralized repository of information about data such as meaning, relationships to other data,
origin, usage, and format."[1] The term may have one of several closely related meanings pertaining
to databases and database management systems (DBMS):

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 a document describing a database or collection of databases
 an integral component of a DBMS that is required to determine its structure
 a piece of middleware that extends or supplants the native data dictionary of a DBMS

5.2 physical designs:

The physical design relates to the actual input and output processes of the system. This is laid down
in terms of how data is input into a system, how it is verified/authenticated, how it is processed, and
how it is displayed as output.

Physical design, in this context, does not refer to the tangible physical design of an information
system. To use an analogy, a personal computer's physical design involves input via a keyboard,
processing within the CPU, and output via a monitor, printer, etc. It would not concern the actual
layout of the tangible hardware, which for a PC would be a monitor, CPU, motherboard, hard drive,
modems, video/graphics cards, USB slots, etc. it involve detail design of user and a product
database structure processing and control processor .The H/S personal specification a develop for
the proposed system
5.2.1 Special language features:
This project we used to implement the VB, NET via Access using OLEDB connection (object
linked and impended database

5.2.2 Front End

VB.NET

Overview of VB.NET
visual basic is the most standard notation for object-oriented analysis and design ,the object
management group defines it, the head of object oriented problem solving is the construction of
model abstracts the essential details of the underlying problem from its usually complicated real
world .several modeling tools are wrapped under the head of the vb.net.which standards for visual
basic .net.

the visaul basic.net provides the easiest and most productive language and tools for rapidly building
windows and web applications,the visaul basic ,net comes wiyh enhanced visual designers
,increased application performance ,and a power.

The micrsoft visual basic .net programming language is the high-level programming language for
Microsoft .net framework.

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Although it is designed to be an approachable and easy to learn language ,it is also power full
enough to satisfy the need of experienced programmer .the visual basic.net programming language
is closely related to visual basic programming language but we two language are not the same?

The visual basic.net programming language has syntax that is similar to English ,which promotes
the clarity and readability of visual basic.net.

Where ever possible, meaningful words or phrases are used instead of abbreviation, acronyms, or
special character, extraneous or unneeded syntax is generally allowed, but not required.

The visual basic.net programming language can be either strongly typed or a loosely typed
language .loose typing defers much of the burden of type checking until the program successfully
run.

This includes not only type checking of conversion but also of method calls, meaning that the
binding of a method call can be referred until run-time .this useful when building prototypes or
other program in which speed of development is more important than execution speed.

The visual basic.net programming language also provides strongly.

Typed semantics that performs all types checking at compile-time and disallows run-time binding
of method calls. This guarantees maximum performance and helps ensure that type conversions are
correct. This is useful when building production applications in which speed of execution and
execution correctness is important. this document describes the visual basic.net.

It is means to be complete language description rather than language tutorial or a user’s reference
manual.

5.2.3 Back end

Microsoft Access
Microsoft access is a computer application used to create and manage computer-based database on
desktop computer and /or on connected computers (a network).

Microsoft access can be used for personal information management, in a small business to organize
and manage data, or in an enterprise to communicate with servers

Like any other computer application ,in order to use Microsoft access ,you must first install it, after
installing Microsoft access ,than you can open it, there was various ways you can open Microsoft
access. it gets launched like the usual products you have probably been using, as such to

 Start program.
 You click start

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 All programs

Microsoft access-Microsoft access 2007.you can also launched it from windows explorer or my
computer .to do this ,locate its shortcut in windows explorer or my computer. By default, Microsoft
access 2007 is located in c:\program files\Microsoft office\office 12 and its shortcut is called
MSaccess .EaaXE..When you have located it, you can double click it.

5.2.4 DESIGNING FORMS

Form:
A form is a bit of screen real estate usually, rectangle, that you can use to present information to the
users. Form can be standard windows, multiple, document interface windows, dialog boxes, display
surface for graphical routines. The easiest way defines the use interface for a form is to place
controls on its surface. Forms are an object that exposes properties which defines their interaction
with users.

Advantages of forms:
 Lower total cost of ownership
 Security
 Xml web service support
 Flexible controls
 Printing
 Design time support

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Main form

Loading form for login:

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Check in form

Check out form

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34
Booking form

Customer information

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35
Room price form

Room information:

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5.2.5 Crystal report:
 Crystal reports for visual basic.net is the standard reporting tool for VISUAL BASIC .NET,
it brings the ability to create interactive ,representation –quality content which has been the
strength of crystal reports of years to the .NET platform.
 With crystal reports for visual basic.net you can host reports on web and windows platform
and publish crystal reports as report web service on web server.
 Crystal Reports is a business intelligence application used to design and
generate reports from a wide range of data sources. Several other applications,
including Microsoft Visual Studio, at one time bundled an OEM version of Crystal Reports
as a general purpose reporting tool.[1]Crystal Reports is a popular report writer, especially so
when Microsoft bundled it with Visual Studio versions 2003 through 2008. Microsoft
discontinued this practice and later released their own competitive reporting tool, SQL
Server Reporting Services (SSRS).[2][verification needed]Crystal Reports for Visual Studio 2010 is
still available as add-on software

Check in report

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Check out report

Booking report:

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5.2.5 Software description
Microsoft visual studio is an integrated development environment (IDE) from the Microsoft. It can
be used to develop console and graphical user interface application along with the windows forms
applications, websites, and web application and web server in both native code together with
managed code for all platforms supported by Microsoft windows ,windows mobile ,windows
CE.NET framework ,net compact framework and Microsoft silver light

Hotel management system description


The system which meets their needs is database software which captures the data from the forms
into system also stores this data for future uses, outputs the information in reports and screens and
processes the operation of the activities includes these:

 Decision making support


 Every day transaction management
 Keeping Hotel books
 Getting valuable information

5.2.6 System requirements:


Recommended system requirements are often suggested by software vendors for optimal
performance of software. Although not a necessity, this set of requirements is often sought after by
power users who expect to gain a better experience of software usability. Recommended System
Requirements do not promise best possible performance of software and are treated as
more of a guideline than a rule. Almost always a better system is available, or will be in future, to
provide better performance. Also, exceeding by far these requirements does not guarantee to
the user that everything will run with absolute smoothness and look its best. More often than not,
games are a bit disappointing in this respect, presenting issues that may or may not be corrected
with future modifications.

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Hardware requirements:
 Processor Intel pentium4 based system
 Processor speed 250 MHz
 RAM 256mb
 Hard disk 2 GB
Hardware requirements detail
The most common set of requirements defined by any operating system or software application is
the physical computer resources, also known as hardware, a hardware requirements list is often
accompanied by a hardware compatibility list (HCL), especially in case of operating systems. An
HCL lists tested, compatible, and sometimes incompatible hardware devices for a particular
operating system or application. The following sub-sections discuss the various aspects of hardware
requirements.

 Processing power.
The power of the central processing unit (CPU) is a fundamental system requirement for any
software. Most software running on x86 architecture define processing power as the model and the
clock speed of the CPU. Many other features of a CPU that influence its speed and power, like bus
speed, cache, and MIPS are often ignored. This definition of power is often erroneous, as AMD
Anthon and Intel Pentium CPUs at similar clock speed often have different throughput speeds. Intel
Pentium CPUs have enjoyed a considerable degree of popularity, and are often mentioned in this
category [citation needed].

 Memory.
All software, when run, resides in the random access memory (RAM) of a computer. Memory
requirements are defined after considering demands of the application, operating system, supporting
software and files, and other running processes. Optimal performance of other unrelated software
running on a multi-tasking computer system is also considered when defining this requirement

Software requirement:

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 Operating system
 Windows NT/95/98/2003/2007/2010
 Windows XP service pack 2(sp2)
 Windows vista
 Windows 2007

 Packages:
 Microsoft visual studio 2005/2008/2010
 Microsoft 2003/2007

Software requirement:
Software Requirements deal with defining software resource requirements and pre-requisites that
need to be installed on a computer to provide optimal functioning of an application.
These requirements or pre-requisites are generally not included in the software installation package
and need to be installed separately before the software is installed.

6. Implementation

System implementation is a stage where theatrical design turned into working system
,implementation is planned carefully to propose system to avoid unanticipated problems ,many
preparation involved before and during implementation proposed system the system needed
plugged into organization’s network then it could be accessed anywhere ,after a user login into
portal,thetask that had to be done to implement system were to create database tables into
organization database.

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6.1 system testing
Objectives of testing:

Objectives of the tests are psychosomatic tests that measure an individual characteristics in away

that is automous of the rather bias or the entity\s own beliefs .objective tests are often contrasted
with subjective test ,with are perceptive to rater or examine e ideas. They can also contrast with
projective test s which are based on Freudian psychology.

And hunt to expose the unconscious perception of the people .object tests be likely to be more
reliable and valid then projective or subjective test.

Objects of software test is to check whether a software has error or not and if it has then remove
those errors .before releasing a software last step o process is software testing and it is performed ta
the end of software development life cycle .many people think that software testing is different
from quality assurance is procedures which takes place throughout the software development life
cycle (SDLC) and testing is the a phase quality assurance.

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Actually, we perform software testing to giving quality products to give quality product to users for
maintaining quality of software.

Software testing is essential in different situation, different strategies are used, for example, if you
want to test a web based software or website then you have to use loading testing or stress testing .if
you want test software and you know about its internal functionalities and source code then you will
use white box testing technique.

Though ,if you want to test software but you don’t know about its source code and internal function
then now your strategy will be different .as this time depending on the situation you will perform
black box testing, so what we want to say which strategy we will use to test software dependent on
the condition.

Testing phases

The testing phase involves the testing of development system using various kinds fo data .an
elaborated testing of data is prepared and a system is tested using the data ,while testing ,errors are
noted and corrections remade ,the corrections are also noted for future use.

System testing:

Testing is set of activities that can be planned in advance and conducted systematically .the
proposed system is tested in parallel with the software that consist of its own phase of analysis
,implementation ,testing ,and maintained.

Unit testing

During the implementation of the system each unit of the system was tested individually to discover
errors within its boundaries, user interface was used as guide in the process.

Testing

A module is composed of various programs related to that module .module testing is done to check
the module functionality an interaction between units within a module. It checks the functionality of
each program with related to other program within same module, it then tests the overall
functionality of each module.

Integration testing

Integration testing is systematic technique for constructing the program structure while conducting
tests to uncover errors associated with interfacing the objective is to take unit tested module and
build a program structure that has been dictated by design.

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Acceptance testing

The software has been tested with the realistic data given by the client and produced fruitful result.
The client satisfying all the requirements specified by them has also developed the software within
the time limitation specified.

Black box testing

The black box testing is used to represent a system that is inside working are not goes in and what
comes out i.e. ,input and output,

White box testing

White box testing assumes that the specific logic is important and must be tested to warranty the
system’s proper functioning.

Top down testing

Assumes that main logic or object interactions and system message of application need more testing
than an individual objective’s method.

Bottom down testing

Starts with the details of the system and proceeds to higher of level of progressive aggregation.

Test plan

Test plan is used to detected and classify potential problem before delivering the software

The following tests ways are used

Alpha test: it’s at testing done by in-house testers (within same group) such as the programmers,
software engineers etc.

Beta testing: it is the attesting done by group of actual of the system.

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7. Conclusion
we hope this software was become successfully work ,we are maintain if there is errors and tasks
complete good every software has errors and way you solving these problems easy sometimes
became difficult.

The hirad House Hotel, (known as the hared Hotel in hargaisa 2010), which has been described as
once "one of the famous hotels of the world area new hargaisa ""a land mark of modern harg",[and
as "once the most luxurious hotel in the world", was the first Western hotel established in hargaisa.

Established in 2010 as ' Hotel and Restaurant, it has been in its present location at 15 near the
confluence of the harg River and the in the District, theater of harg near the police station, this
project consist of hardware and software also uses manual,

Project management in the modern sense began in the early 1960s, although it has its roots much
further back in the latter years of the 19th century.

The need for project management was driven by businesses that realized the benefits of organizing
work around projects and the critical need to communicate and co-ordinate work across
departments and professions.

One of the first major uses of project management as we know it today was to manage the United
States space programmer. The government, military and corporate world have now adopted this
practice. Here is the main definition of what project management is:

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7.1 Bibliography

BOOK REFERED

The following books were used extensively for the project development and implementation.

 VB.NET Microsoft visual basic

By Steven Holster

Publisher: paraglyph press

 DBMS (database management system)


By Jeffrey A. Hoofer
Marry Prescott
HeikkiTopi
Publisher: pear so education

 Website referred

 www.google.com
 www.wekipedia.com
 www.gppgle.com
 www.projectsmart.com
 www.seminarproject

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