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2015年度 船主セミナー資料 ServiceService ExperienceExperience ofof ME/MEME/ME--C/MEC/ME--BB enginesengines
2015年度 船主セミナー資料
ServiceService ExperienceExperience ofof
ME/MEME/ME--C/MEC/ME--BB enginesengines
MitsuiMitsui EngineeringEngineering && ShipbuildingShipbuilding CoCo LtdLtd
QualityQuality AssuranceAssurance DepartmentDepartment
AugustAugust 20152015
三井造船株式会社
MES
MES
MES
MES
三井造船株式会社
三井造船株式会社
三井造船株式会社
MITSUI ENGINEERING & SHIPBUILDING CO.,LTD.
MITSUI ENGINEERING & SHIPBUILDING CO.,LTD.
MITSUI ENGINEERING & SHIPBUILDING CO.,LTD.
MITSUI ENGINEERING & SHIPBUILDING CO.,LTD.
11
1 Malfunction items on ME/ME-C/ME-B engine   1.1 M a lf unc ti on o

1

Malfunction items on ME/ME-C/ME-B engine

 

1.1 Malfunction of exhaust valve on S50ME-C

1.2 Burn-away of exhaust valve on S50ME-C/ME-B

1.3 Malfunction of Hydraulic Control Valve

2

Cylinder condition -Cold corrosion issue-

2.1

Guidelines on cylinder lubrication

3

Use of Low sulphur fuel

3.1 Cylinder oil

3.2 Specification of low Sulphur fuel oil

3.3 Viscosity and Lubricity

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MITSUI ENGINEERING & SHIPBUILDING CO.,LTD.

MITSUI ENGINEERING & SHIPBUILDING CO.,LTD.

2

1   Malfunction items on ME/ME-C/ME-B engine   1.1 Ma lf unc ti on o

1

 

Malfunction items on ME/ME-C/ME-B engine

 

1.1

Malfunction of exhaust valve on S50ME-C

1.2

Burn-away of exhaust valve on S50ME-C/ME-B

1.3

Malfunction of Hydraulic Control Valve

2

Cylinder condition –Cold corrosion issue-

2.1

Guidelines on cylinder lubrication

3

Use of Low sulphur fuel

3.1 Cylinder oil

3.2 Specification of low Sulphur fuel oil

3.3 Viscosity and Lubricity

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MITSUI ENGINEERING & SHIPBUILDING CO.,LTD.

MITSUI ENGINEERING & SHIPBUILDING CO.,LTD.

3

1.1 Malfunction of exhaust valve on S50ME-C 1

Preface:

Malfunction of exhaust valve on S50ME-C ( 1 ) Preface: Knocking due to malfunction of exhaust

Knocking due to malfunction of exhaust valve which occurs at comparatively high load was reported on some S50ME-C with Low force exhaust valve.

The following failure scenario is found out. Step 1: Exhaust valve once pauses just before closing for several cycles Step 2: Exhaust valve cannot return to original closing position but keeps original stroke amount (Drifting of closing position)

Stroke amount unchanged
Stroke amount
unchanged

Normal stroke

Exhaust valve stroke

Closing position

Stroke pausing

Cannot return to closing position

Fig.1: Log data at knocking in ME engine control system

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MITSUI ENGINEERING & SHIPBUILDING CO.,LTD.

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4

1.1 Malfunction of exhaust valve on S50ME-C 2

1.1 Malfunction of exhaust valve on S50ME-C ( 2 ) 【 Ab out t h e

About the Low force exhaust valve

Reduced size of piston for hydraulic exhaust actuator (Pos. A, B ) Hydraulic actuator oil
Reduced size of piston for hydraulic
exhaust actuator (Pos. A, B )
Hydraulic actuator oil
Reduced working force for exhaust
valve
Hydraulic exhaust actuator
Open
Hydraulic
Piston
valve Hydraulic exhaust actuator Open Hydraulic Piston High pressure oil (30MPa) Hy draulic p iston Chamber

High pressure oil (30MPa)

Hydraulic piston

Chamber of

spring air

Fig.2 Low force exhaust valve

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MITSUI ENGINEERING & SHIPBUILDING CO.,LTD.

MITSUI ENGINEERING & SHIPBUILDING CO.,LTD.

5

1.1 Malfunction of exhaust valve on S50ME-C 3

1.1 Malfunction of exhaust valve on S50ME-C ( 3 ) 【 Ab out t h e

About the Low force exhaust valve

Simple structure

Heat resistance steel (SNCrW) exhaust valve can be used

Exhaust valve is mechanically stopped.

Exhaust valve stroke amount is determined by amount of hydraulic oil amount delivered from the actuator

Hydraulic

damper

oil amount delivered from the actuato r Hydraulic damper h Thread part to fix the y

h

oil amount delivered from the actuato r Hydraulic damper h Thread part to fix the y

Thread part to fix the

y draulic damper

No hydraulic damper

Heat resistance steel SNCrW) can not be applied

Nimonic valve is applied

No thread part of spindle

Heat resistance steel SNCrW) valve can pp

be a

lied

Conventional type for ME engine

Low force exhaust valve

Fig 3 Comparison between conventional type and low force exhaust valve

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6

1.1 Malfunction of exhaust valve on S50ME-C 4

Cause:

Malfunction of exhaust valve on S50ME-C ( 4 ) C ause : ① High friction between

High friction between spindle guide and exhaust valve spindle

Relatively harder sliding mark was observed inside of spindle guide

harder sliding mark was observed inside of spindle guide Photo a) Harder sliding mark Photo a)
harder sliding mark was observed inside of spindle guide Photo a) Harder sliding mark Photo a)

Photo a)

Harder sliding mark

Photo a)
Photo a)

Fig 4: Hard contact mark inside spindle guide

.

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MITSUI ENGINEERING & SHIPBUILDING CO.,LTD.

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7

1.1 Malfunction of exhaust valve on S50ME-C 5

1.1 Malfunction of exhaust valve on S50ME-C ( 5 ) ② Excessive damping of hydraulic piston

Excessive damping of hydraulic piston

It is suspected that the exhaust valve pausing is caused by excessive damping force due to narrowed clearance by deformation.

Orifice

Deformed area

narrowed clearance by deformation . Orifice Deformed area Oil flow at damping Throttle valve Diameter :
Oil flow at damping
Oil flow at
damping
by deformation . Orifice Deformed area Oil flow at damping Throttle valve Diameter : smaller Damping
by deformation . Orifice Deformed area Oil flow at damping Throttle valve Diameter : smaller Damping

Throttle valve

Diameter : smaller

Damping

piston

Fig.5: Structure of exhaust valve top area

Shortage of oil flow from throttle valve

Oil flow amount is limited by orifice, and excessive oil trapped at previous cycle may not be drained off sufficiently. Accordingly, the drifting of closing position might occur.

Orifice

Fig.6 Throttle valve

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MITSUI ENGINEERING & SHIPBUILDING CO.,LTD.

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8

1.1 Malfunction of exhaust valve on S50ME-C 6

Countermeasure:

of exhaust valve on S50ME-C ( 6 ) Countermeasure: 1) Countermeasure Ⅰ : Redesign of Spindle

1) Countermeasure : Redesign of Spindle guide

Increase of clearance between spindle guide and exhaust valve spindle

Making spring guide shorter

I

f

li

ffi

i

h

l

i

f

i

l

ncrease o coo ng e

c ency to reduce t erma expans on o sp nd e

coo ng e c ency to reduce t erma expans on o sp nd e Original

Original

Countermeasure

reduce t erma expans on o sp nd e Original Countermeasure ① Increase of clearance Original:
① Increase of clearance Original: 0.26 ~ 0336 Countermeasure:0388 ~ 048

Increase of clearance Original: 0.260336

Countermeasure:0388048

Original: 0.26 ~ 0336 Countermeasure:0388 ~ 048 ③ Making additional cooling area ② S h o

Making additional cooling area

Short

(30mm)

cooling area ② S h o r t ( 3 0 m m ) Clearance Not

Clearance

Not cooling

Cooling

Spindle

guide

Housing

Fig.5: Redesign of spindle guide

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MITSUI ENGINEERING & SHIPBUILDING CO.,LTD.

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9

1.1 Malfunction of exhaust valve on S50ME-C 7

1.1 Malfunction of exhaust valve on S50ME-C ( 7 ) 2) Countermeasure Ⅱ : Redesign of

2) Countermeasure : Redesign of hydraulic piston in exhaust valve

Original
Original

Orifice

Original:φ0.5mm

Countermeasure
Countermeasure

Redesign:φ3.0mm

Omitting slide pieces

Fig.6 Redesign of hydraulic piston

The orifice size is changed from φ0.5mm to φ3.0mm so that the damping force is optimized by increasing the oil flow rate.

H

y

d

li

rau c

i

t

ith

ou

t

s

id

e

pieces, which had been used in MC-C engines, is applied in order to omit the deformation on the oil

cylinder.

p s on

w

3) Countermeasure :

Redesign of throttle valve in exhaust valve

Ⅲ : Redesign of throttle valve in exhaust valve Orifice Ori g Redesign: φ 2.0mm in

Orifice

Ori

g

Redesign:φ2.0mm

in

l φ1 0mm

a :

.

Fig.7 Throttle valve

The oil flow is increased by changing

. order to keep higher drain off capacity.

orifice size from φ1 0mm to φ2 0mm in

.

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MITSUI ENGINEERING & SHIPBUILDING CO.,LTD.

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10

1.1 Malfunction of exhaust valve on S50ME-C 8

Application:

New building engine:

( 8 ) A pp li ca ti on: New buildin g en g ine: These

These countermeasure will be applied to all S50ME-C engines with Low force exhaust valve.

Engine already in service:

We will supply necessary parts for modification (countermeasure) to all the vessels in question free of charge. We would like to ask customers to replace the parts at the next scheduled maintenance of exhaust valve.

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11

1   Malfunction items on ME/ME-C/ME-B engine   1.1 Ma lf unc ti on o

1

 

Malfunction items on ME/ME-C/ME-B engine

 

1.1

Malfunction of exhaust valve on S50ME-C

1.2

Burn-away of exhaust valve on S50ME-C/ME-B

1.3

Malfunction of Hydraulic Control Valve

2

Cylinder condition –Cold corrosion issue-

2.1

Guidelines on cylinder lubrication

3

Use of Low sulphur fuel

3.1 Cylinder oil

3.2 Specification of low Sulphur fuel oil

3.3 Viscosity and Lubricity

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MITSUI ENGINEERING & SHIPBUILDING CO.,LTD.

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12

1.2 Burn-away of exhaust valve on S50ME-C/ME-B1

Phenomenon:

of exhaust valve on S50ME-C/ME-B ( 1 ) Phenomenon: Exhaust valve spindle whose base material is

Exhaust valve spindle whose base material is heat resistant steel with Ni based high hardness alloy welded seat has been applied on S50ME-C with Low force exhaust valve and S50ME-B. Recently, rather high burn-away rates on exhaust valve bottom surface have been reported from some of these engine types after long time low load operation.

en g ine t yp es afte r lon g time low load o p eration.

Fig.1Born-away on bottom surface, S50ME-C8.2

Sear area:

Ni based high hardness alloy

f ace, S50ME -C8.2 Sear area : Ni based high hardness alloy B a s e

Base material:

high hardness alloy B a s e m a t e r i a l :

Heat resistance steel

Fig.2 Design of exhaust valve spindle

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1.2 Burn-away of exhaust valve on S50ME-C/ME-B2

Countermeasure:

exhaust valve on S50ME-C/ME-B ( 2 ) C oun t ermeasure: Dura-Spindle with welded layer of

Dura-Spindle with welded layer of Ni based heat resistance on its bottom surface is applied to S50ME-C with Low force exhaust valve and S50ME-B engine

Original

Countermeasure

Sear area:

Ni based

high hardness alloy

Countermeasure 】 Sear area : Ni based high hardness alloy Base material : Heat resistance steel

Base material:

Heat resistance steel

Sear area: (Dura-seat)

Ni based high hardness alloy

+ Cold rolling process

+ A

g in g heat treatment
g
in
g
heat treatment

Base material:

Heat resistance steel

Bottom surface:

Ni based heat resistance alloy

Fig.3: Comparison of exhaust valve spindle

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14

1.2 Burn-away of exhaust valve on S50ME-C/ME-B3

Application:

of exhaust valve on S50ME-C/ME-B ( 3 ) A pp li ca ti on: New buildin

New building engine:

Dura-Spindle with welded layer of Ni based heat resistance on its bottom surface will be applied to all S50ME-C with Low force exhaust valve and S50ME-B engines.

Engines already in service:

We will supply Dura-Spindle with welded layer of Ni based heat resistance on its bottom surface to all the vessels in question free of charge. We would like to ask customers to replace the exhaust valve spindle at the next scheduled maintenance of exhaust valve.

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MITSUI ENGINEERING & SHIPBUILDING CO.,LTD.

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15

1   Malfunction items on ME/ME-C/ME-B engine   1.1 Ma lf unc ti on o

1

 

Malfunction items on ME/ME-C/ME-B engine

 

1.1

Malfunction of exhaust valve on S50ME-C

1.2

Burn-away of exhaust valve on S50ME-C/ME-B

1.3

Malfunction of Hydraulic Control Valve

2

Cylinder condition -Cold corrosion issue-

2.1

Guidelines on cylinder lubrication

3

Use of Low sulphur fuel

3.1 Cylinder oil

3.2 Specification of low Sulphur fuel oil

3.3 Viscosity and Lubricity

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16

1.3 Malfunction of Hydraulic Control Valve(1)

Phenomenon

1.3 Malfunction of Hydraulic Control Valve(1) Phenomenon : Alarms activated and Engine speed decreased automatically by

Alarms activated and Engine speed decreased automatically by slow-down function due to malfunction of FIVA valves, which controls the oil flow to fuel oil boosters, exhaust valve s and cylinder oil lubricators

FIVA valve
FIVA valve

Hydraulic control valve

Fig.1 Hydraulic oil system

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1.3 Malfunction of Hydraulic Control Valve(2)

1.3 Malfunction of Hydraulic Control Valve(2) M E - C / H C U ME -

ME-C/HCU

ME-B/Dual HCU

Control Valve(2) M E - C / H C U ME - B/Dual HCU ELFI 弁

ELFI

【Hydraulic oil system for ME engine】 HCU 燃料油 FIVA弁 Cyl.1 Cyl.2 Cyl.3 Cyl.4 Cyl.5 Cyl.6
【Hydraulic oil system for ME engine】
HCU
燃料油
FIVA弁
Cyl.1
Cyl.2
Cyl.3
Cyl.4
Cyl.5
Cyl.6
30MPa
HPS
Retuen
To Piston cooling oil
Start up pumps
Filter

From main lube oil (System oil)

High pressure hydraulic oil

Fig 2 Hydraulic oil system

Engine driven

pumps

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1.3 Malfunction of Hydraulic Control Valve(3)

Investigation

Malfunction of Hydraulic Control Valve(3) Investigation : Many scratches and wear was found at the edge

Many scratches and wear was found at the edge part of spool in hydraulic control valve on FIVA valve.

part of spool in hydraulic control valve on FIVA valve . Hydraulic control valve Spool in

Hydraulic control valve

control valve on FIVA valve . Hydraulic control valve Spool in hydraulic control valve Scratches and

Spool in hydraulic control valve

. Hydraulic control valve Spool in hydraulic control valve Scratches and wear at the edge of
. Hydraulic control valve Spool in hydraulic control valve Scratches and wear at the edge of

Scratches and wear at the edge of spool

Fig.3 Damaged condition of Hydraulic control valve

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1.3 Malfunction of Hydraulic Control Valve(4)

Cause

1.3 Malfunction of Hydraulic Control Valve(4) Cause : 1 ) Particle contamination of lube . oil

1Particle contamination of lube.oil / Hydraulic oil

2Water contamination of lube.oil / Hydraulic oil

Countermeasure

Countermeasure 1Prevention of particle contamination

of lube. oil

Service Note No.193

of lube. oil 【 S e r v i c e Note No.193 】 Countermeasure 2

Countermeasure 2 :

Prevention of water contamination of

lube. Oil

Service Note No.192

of lube. Oil 【 S e r v i c e Note No.192 】 MES MES
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20

1.3 Malfunction of Hydraulic Control Valve(5)

1.3 Malfunction of Hydraulic Control Valve(5) Countermeasure 1 : Prevention of particle contamination of lube. Oil.

Countermeasure 1Prevention of particle contamination of lube. Oil.

1Evaluation of lube. Oil / hydraulic oil

The cleanliness of lube. oil is required ISO 4406 xx/16/13 or better at after flow of HPS fine filter.

Contamination of oil can be measured accurate by means of ISO 4407 / JIS B9930 Measurement by LASER is not suitable for used oil, because the measurement by LASER counter frequently counts the particles more than its proper value because of discoloration, sludge or other effects.

Although the used lube oil seemingly appears dirty than ISO 4406 xx/16/13 as the color is changed to dark blown, sometime cleanliness of discolored used oil

is still better than ISO 4406 xx /16/13. On the other hand, even new oil may dirty

it is recommended to measure the

than ISO 4406 xx/16/13

Therefore ,

. contamination by the above-mentioned method (ISO4407 / JIS B9930)

Take lube oil samples every 3 months to analysis the lube oil quality. The p

g

sam le oil can be taken from the

p hose, supplied as main engine tool.

In case the cleanliness become worse in short time, it is recommended to

lu

g

on HCU b

,

y

usin

g

the

ressure measurin

p

ins ect the lube oil s stem and remove the source of the

 

articles

p

y

p

.

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21

1.3 Malfunction of Hydraulic Control Valve(6)

Countermeasure 2:

Prevention of water contamination of lube. oil

2 : Prevention of water contamination of lube. oil We received the information that the h

We received the information that the hydraulic control valves on FIVA valves were damaged by water contamination of the lube. oil

Freshwater content in the lube oil is allowed max. 0.2% or 0.5% for short periods.

However, It is strongly recommended to find the root of water contamination and to remove water by circulation and centrifuging (at preheating temperature) as quickly as possible, if water contamination is observed even less than 0.2% water content.

is observed even less than 0.2% water content. Fig.3 Water in crank case. MES MES

Fig.3 Water in crank case.

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22

1 Malfunction items on ME/ME-C/ME-B engine   1.1 Ma lf unc ti on o f

1

Malfunction items on ME/ME-C/ME-B engine

 

1.1 Malfunction of exhaust valve on S50ME-C

1.2 Burn-away of exhaust valve on S50ME-C/ME-B

1.3 Malfunction of Hydraulic Control Valve

2

Cylinder condition -Cold corrosion issue-

2.1

Guidelines on cylinder lubrication

3

Use of Low sulphur fuel

3.1 Cylinder oil

3.2 Specification of low Sulphur fuel oil

3.3 Viscosity and Lubricity

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23

2.1 Guidelines on cylinder lubrication1

Effect of TBN100 Cylinder oil

cylinder lubrication ( 1 ) Effect of TBN100 Cylinder oil Cylinder condition was obviously improved after

Cylinder condition was obviously improved after using of TBN100 cylinder oil

Engine typeS65ME-C8.2

Normal service load50 % LOAD

Before:

TBN70 at 2,400 hours

After: TBN100at 5,000 hours

ACC factor0.40 g/kWhS%

( at 5,000 hours ) ACC factor : 0.40 g/kWh ・ S% ACC factor : 0.40
( at 5,000 hours ) ACC factor : 0.40 g/kWh ・ S% ACC factor : 0.40

ACC factor0.40 g/kWhS%

: 0.40 g/kWh ・ S% ACC factor : 0.40 g/kWh ・ S% MES MES 三井造船株式会社
: 0.40 g/kWh ・ S% ACC factor : 0.40 g/kWh ・ S% MES MES 三井造船株式会社
: 0.40 g/kWh ・ S% ACC factor : 0.40 g/kWh ・ S% MES MES 三井造船株式会社
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2.1 Guidelines on cylinder lubrication2

2.1 Guidelines on cylinder lubrication ( 2 ) Cold corrosion on S60ME-C 7.1 Maximum liner wear

Cold corrosion on S60ME-C 7.1

Maximum liner wear rate 0.19mm / 1000hr

Running hours3,600 hours Normal service load50

6 0 0 h o u r s Normal service load : 50 % Cylinder oil
6 0 0 h o u r s Normal service load : 50 % Cylinder oil
6 0 0 h o u r s Normal service load : 50 % Cylinder oil

Cylinder oil feed rate1.2g/kWh Cylinder oil TBNTBN70

Sulphur in fuel oil3%

ACC factor0.40g/kWhS% calculated

Previous Guiding ACC factor range0.34~0.20 g/kWhS%

Cylinder condition was improved after using of TBN100 cylinder

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2.1 Guidelines on cylinder lubrication3

2.1 Guidelines on cylinder lubrication ( 3 ) N ewly applied based on service experience Engine
N ewly applied based on service experience Engine type All Mk.8, Mk9 and Mk7and older
N ewly applied based on service experience
Engine type
All Mk.8, Mk9
and
Mk7and older types
S60Mk7.1
Lubricator type
Alpha lubricator
Alpha lubricator
Mechanical lubricator
Guidance
Service Note No.189
Service Note No.188
Service Note No.183
Cylinder oil (S%≧1.5%)
100BN
70BN
70BN
Cylinder oil (S%<1 5%)
.
15~40BN
15~40BN
15~40BN
ACC factr (g/kWhS)
0.40~0.20 x (100/BN)
0.34~0.20 x (70/BN)
=====
0.40~0.20 x(100/BN) xS%
0.34~0.20 x(70/BN) xS%
1.4~0.8 (S70/S80)
1.1~0.8
(S70/S80以外)
Feed rate (g/kWh)
Optimal ACC factor should be
evaluated base on the actual
condition which shall be confirmed
by port inspection or drain oil
analysis
Optimal ACC factor should be
evaluated based on the actual
condition which shall be confirmed
by port inspection or drain oil
analysis
Optimal feed rate should be
evaluated based on actual
condition which shall be
checked by port inspection
Min. feed rate (g/kWh)
0.6
0.6
0.8
Part load control
Load dependant
Load dependane or MEPdependant
Speed dependant
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2.1 Guidelines on cylinder lubrication4

2.1 Guidelines on cylinder lubrication ( 4 ) Guideline for All Mk8, Mk9 and S60Mk7.1 (

Guideline for All Mk8, Mk9 and S60Mk7.1TBN100 cylinder oil)

Scavenge port inspection
Scavenge port inspection

Before reducing the feed rate to the next step, cylinder condition must be evaluated by scavenge port inspection or drain oil analysis (next page), and confirmed that condition is satisfactory.

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2.1 Guidelines on cylinder lubrication5

2.1 Guidelines on cylinder lubrication ( 5 ) Judgment of cylinder condition by scavenge drain oil

Judgment of cylinder condition by scavenge drain oil analysis

Criteria

Iron content is Increased by wear

Residual TBN is decreased by increase of sulfuric acid

wear Residual TBN is decreased by increase of sulfuric acid S w e e p T

Sweep Test

Service Note No.190

acid S w e e p T e s t 【 Service Note No.190 】 Seep

Seep test is the fastest way to evaluate the corrosive behavior and optimal ACC factor.

to evaluate the corrosive behavior and optimal ACC factor. MES MES 三井造船株式会社
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1 Malfunction items on ME/ME-C/ME-B engine   1.1 Ma lf unc ti on o f

1

Malfunction items on ME/ME-C/ME-B engine

 

1.1 Malfunction of exhaust valve on S50ME-C

1.2 Burn-away of exhaust valve on S50ME-C/ME-B

1.3 Malfunction of Hydraulic Control Valve

2

Cylinder condition -Cold corrosion issue-

2.1

Guidelines on cylinder lubrication

3

Use of Low sulphur fuel

3.1 Cylinder oil

3.2 Specification of low Sulphur fuel oil

3.3 Viscosity and Lubricity

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3.1 Cylinder oil

Attention

3.1 Cylinder oil Att en ti on • When operating on low sulphur fuel(S<1.5%), it is

When operating on low sulphur fuel(S<1.5%), it is recommended to use low TBN cylinder oil (1540BN.

It is important to prevent the excessive cylinder oil dosage.

Monitor the cylinder condition and act accordingly after switching to low sulphur fuel.

Example of commercial low BN cylinder oil

Oil company Oil name Base number (TBN) JX Nippon oil & Energy
Oil company
Oil name
Base number (TBN)
JX Nippon oil & Energy
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3.2 Specification of low sulphur fuel oil

3.2 Specification of low sulphur fuel oil Distillate fuel • Mitsui-MAN B&W engine allows using the

Distillate fuel

Mitsui-MAN B&W engine allows using the distillate fuel oil such as MGO and MDO according to ISO 8217 without any modification on current fuel system.

New type Low Sulphur fuel ULSFO =Ultra low Sulphur Fuel Oil)

Characteristics of ULSFO are different depending on the product. It is important to confirm the characteristics of used fuel (ULSFO) and inform the crew about the appropriate actions to ensure that the fuel could be used safely and efficiently.

The General characteristics of these fuels (ULSFO) are;

They might have higher viscosity and higher pour point. (Heating

is necessary

They might be contain cat-fines (Al+Si). (Cleaning is necessary)

There could be compatibility issues when blending with other fuels.

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3.3 Viscosity and Lubricity

Viscosity

3.3 Viscosity and Lubricity V iscosity • The viscosity at engine inlet should be kept above

The viscosity at engine inlet should be kept above 2mm 2 /scSt).

Fuel pumps should be in adequate condition. (Worn fuel pumps must be renewed)

It is advisable to make start checks in an area for safe operation prior to entering high risk areas, e.g., ports and other congested areas)

Lubricity

Too little lubricity may result in fuel pump seizure. However, we do not regard the lubricity of fuel as a major issue.

ISO 8217-2012 lubricity limits, HFRR (High Frequency Reciprocating Rig) wear scar limit max.520μm, is adopted.

When lubricity modifiers are used, follow the instruction manual

of used lubricit

modifier

y

.

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ごご清聴あり清聴ありががとうとうござございました。いました。 ThankThank youyou forfor
ごご清聴あり清聴ありががとうとうござございました。いました。
ThankThank youyou forfor youryour attentionattention
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