JANUARY 1952 Kirchmayer, Stagg Incremental Fuel Costs and Transmission Losses . 13
PLANT 2 20 MW LOSS FOR PLANT Figure 1 (left).
100 MW TRANSFER
Simple 2plant
cn
J
aPL= incremental transmission loss at plant w
(JPn
n in megawatts per megawatt Figure 2 (right). I
z
X = incremental cost of received power in w
4
dollars per megawatt hour Approximate in
cremental fuel 0
The derivation of these equations is pre costs for simple zI
sented in Appendix I. In general, the in 2plant system MW OUTPUT OF EACH AREA
cremental transmission loss at plant n
may be expressed by
= 2 2BnmPm
bPn m
where Bnn = transmission loss formula
constants.
The incremental fuel cost of a given
plant over a limited range may be repre
sented by
z i 0~~~~~~ ~~~~~ N L PENLT
F42Z YACTOR 0
0
z
dn FnnPn +fn
z
4
EQUATIONS
oo0
=
NEGLECTED
 ±
514 Kirchmayer, StaggIncremental Fuel Costs and Transmission Losses JANUARY l1952
1600 Table 11.
15600
1400
F X X T TRANSMISSION LOSSES
NEGLECTED IN
Plant n Fnn fn
COORDINATION EQUATIONS 7
cr
D
:3
0
132
00   x1 X
PENALTY FACTOR  1 0.00820 ..... 1.280
2 .... 0.00440 ..... 0.795
ir 1200 3 .0.00190 ..... 1.809
.0.00429
4 0.657
.L xl\i
0. .....
1100 APPROXIMATE L 1 EXACT COORDINATION
0
6.
....
0
0.00222 .....
0.01200..... 0.300
0.889
7 ..... 0.02080 ..... 0.635
1000 PRACTiC AL LOAD ING
0
0 X _ .EOUAION 8 ........ 0.01270 ..... 0.572
z
90OCCURS1 AT THIS PODINT .D/ l l l
THE RESULTS OBTAINED
z /
1 / WITH APPROXIMATE LINEAR
800 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~COORDINATION
EQUATIONS ARE
:3 DESIGNATED AS FOLLOWS dF2
_2.
700 BYt A< Ya incremental fuel cost of plant 2
,8 '2.5 BY X dP2
600 __ __ __ e 3O0 BY 0
=F22P2 +f2
500 / __ _
= 0.004P2+2.0
JANUARY 1952 Kirchmayer, StaggIncremental Fuel Costs and Transmission Losses 515
170 190
160 180
PLANT NO 6
PLANT
NQ PENALTY_
DENOTESSOLUTION
x~FACTOR
150 170 ___
z
¢ 140 0 160
Z
.2
J
EXACT SOLUTION 
I
z 150 2.0
z 130 4
a j
0.
0
> 120 140 1 \ 
z TRANSMISSION LOSSES
.4
J NEGLECTED
0C 110 130  .
l 0 ~~XDENOTES PENALTY
4u
A t%
516 Kirchmayer, Stagg Incremental Fuel Costs and Transmission Losses JANUARY 1952
100 f 3 C 3 150
I)
95
'<80
0
C .8
3050
p~~~~~~~8 =2
a
° 75 x
°
I 3000
'65 tl
a( <X EXACT SOLUTION
 w
o _. _. X DENOTES PENALTY 0
6C ____ FACTOR SOLUTION J
Q
z2A
o 2950
0
1200 1250 1300 1350 1400 z
RECEIVED LOAD  MW
0.
Figure 7 (above). Total transmission losses resulting from the genera z
tion schedules given by various coordination methods _j2900
Figure 8 (right). Fuel inputs for the various generation schedules de
termined for the simplified American Gas and Electric System 2850
JANUARY 1952 Kirchmayer, Stagg Incremental Fuel Costs and Transmission Losses 517
39
0I
a
.4

I
RECEIVED LOAD  MW
11 0
100
z
90 90
~~~~~~~~~D
LO ADING Bnm
80 ____L</ER AVE 6nm
.4 140
J
jI130 z
IL 4
J
TRNSMISSIONLOSSES
PLANT N2 3 C. B LOADING Bnm NEGLECTED
60
120
110
TRANSMISSION LOSSES
o 1200 1250 1300
RECEIVED LOAD  MW
1350 1400
NEGLECTED
Sc  __~~~~~~~~~~oeI.
__ 140_______J74i4
PLANT NQ 8
:
130
. _ _ ..__
7C  ,  _ _ _ _
,37 I,
12013013010 i T.

z 120
.
1200 a I
i ! =W
4
4 ;k AG .I fV
60REEIE
LA MW_
0
o 110
z TRANSMISSION LOSSES
4
NEGLECTED
CL
average transmission
loss coefficients for taneous equations and from loading by
518 Kirchmayer, StaggIncremental Fuel Costs and Transmission Losses JANUARY 1952
100
95
90
TRANSMISSION LOSSES NEGLECTED 3150
3100 _
W / IN SCHEDULING GENERATION
lBLOADING Bnm
z85 ~'2.2
80
0
i
z
3050 'DLODING Bnm
°275
D LOADING Bnm
AVERAGE Bnm TRANSMISSION LOSSES
~70 0 NEGLECTED IN
I 3000 _ SCHEDULING GENERATION
a
t , t , B LOADING Bnm
60 _ . 0.
a
0 2950 
55 AVERAGE Bn m
1200 1250 1300
RECEIVED LOAD  MW
1350 1400 z
~2.2
0.
z
plants 2 and 5 remain at their maximum Figure 10. Total J
2900
loads of 210 megawatts and 310 mega transmission losses Li.
watts respectively. Also indicated in obtained using the 2DLOADING Bnm
Figure 6 are the generation schedules ob B and D loading
tained from the approximate linear si and average trans
mission loss coeffi 2850
multaneous equations for various values cients in the coor
of : as well as the generation schedules ob dination methods
tained from the penalty factor method. for the simplified
The total transmission losses as a function American Gas and
of received load are plotted in Figure 7 for Electric System ~B
2800~~~~~~.
2800
 LOADING Bnm
the generation schedules discussed pre Figure 11 (right).
viously. A comparison of the fuel inputs Fuel inputs for the
in dollars per hour is given in Figure 8. various generation
It will be noted here that the fuel inputs schedules deter 27501  ~ L
JANUARY 1952 Kirchmayer, Stagg Incremental Fuel Costs and Transmission Losses 519
realized when the effect of transmission
losses are included in the economic schedul
Appendix 11. Use of Punched where
ing of generation. Card Machines B =loss formula coefficient niatrix
,520 Kirchmayer, StaggIncremental Fuel Costs and Transmission Losses JANUARY 19,59
anaIyzer in solving the simultaneous equa among the interconnected power stations. L. K. Kirchmayer and G. W. Stagg: M e
tions, a question that was raised more than 2 The other factor required is the system wish to thank Mr. Watchorn for his discus
years ago with respect to reference 6 of the loss equations. Would it not be possible to sion. Regarding the question, "Would it
paper, is of particular importance, since it is obtain these equations automatically, pos not be possible to obtain these equations
believed that a more flexible means is pro sibly by means of a system analogue, which, automatically, possibly by means of a sys
vided thereby to adopt the method to the by means of appropriate instrumentation, tem analogue which, by means of appropri
automatic assignment of load among the would currently represent the system or sys ate instrumentation, would currently repre
various units on a system or a group of tems as actually operated. sent the system or systems as actually
interconnected systems regardless of loca It is realized that such a proposal may operated?" we have the following com
tion than if it were necessary to use a net appear to be visionary to many, but it is be ments:
work analyzer for such purpose. lieved to be a worthwhile objective, since if The network analyzer is an analogue com
It is believed that this fact, coupled with accomplished, it would result in several puter which may be used to represent a
the possibility of automatic computation of major benefits, which might well more than given power system. Howevet, with pres
current incremental generating costs at the justify many such installations. ent network analyzers it is necessary to sum
various stations, rather than by use of the losses line by line to determine total
manually operated mechanical computers, REFERENCE transmission losses. A device to accom
as described in the paper, together with 1. CALCULATING MACHINE SlMPLIFIES POWER plish this summing automatically may be
automatic load assignment among the units PLANT PERFORMANCE CALCULATIONS, E. Daniele,
L. J. Parsons, G. R. Baiter, and discussion by C. W.
prohibitively expensive as compared with an
in such stations,' should provide one factor Watchorn. AIEE Transactions, volume 71, part analogue of the system loss equations which
as a basis for automatic load assignment III, 1952,pages 8187. may be used to represent the system.
JANUARY 1952 Kirchmayer, StaggIncremental Fuel Costs and Transmission Losses 591
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