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HOCHIMINH CITY

INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY

CHAPTER 2. DIFFERENTIATION

CALCULUS I

Lecturer: Nguyen Minh Quan, PhD

Email: quannm@hcmiu.edu.vn

Introduction

What is the derivative of a function? This question has three equally

important answers: A derivative is a rate of change, it is the slope of

a tangent line, and more formally, it is the limit of a difference

quotient. In this chapter, we explore these three facets of the

derivative and develop the basic techniques for computing derivatives.

CONTENTS

3 Rules of Differentiation

4 Implicit Differentiation

2.1 Tangent, Velocity Problems. Rates of Change

varies with another. For example,

How profit varies with amount spent on advertising,

How the population of a colony of bacteria changes with time,

How the energy loss of an electronic device changes with applied

current,...

We need the concept "rates of change".

2.1 Tangent, Velocity Problems. Rates of Change

Example

Suppose a car travels due north at a constant speed. After 3 hours

the car has travelled 180 km.

a) What is the speed of the car?

b) Sketch a graph of displacement, s, as a function of time, t.

2.1 Tangent, Velocity Problems. Rates of Change

Example

Suppose a car travels due north at a constant speed. After 3 hours

the car has travelled 180 km.

a) What is the speed of the car?

b) Sketch a graph of displacement, s, as a function of time, t. (a)

velocity = = = 60km/hr

time taken 3 hr

2.1 Tangent, Velocity Problems. Rates of Change

Example

Suppose a car travels due north at a constant speed. After 3 hours

the car has travelled 180 km.

a) What is the speed of the car?

b) Sketch a graph of displacement, s, as a function of time, t. (a)

velocity = = = 60km/hr

time taken 3 hr

(b) The graph of s(t) is a straight line.

The velocity is the slope of the line:

∆s s2 − s 1

v= = .

∆t t2 − t1

2.1 Tangent, Velocity Problems. Rates of Change

Can we measure the "rate of change" or "velocity" when the graph

y = f (x) is NOT a straight line? We need two important

concepts:"average rate of change" and "instantaneous rate of

change".

Definition

The average rate of change of y with respect to x on an interval

[x1 , x2 ] is the slope of the secant line (i.e. the line through two points

on a curve) joining [x1 , y1 ] and [x2 , y2 ]:

∆y y2 − y1 f (x2 ) − f (x1 )

m= = =

∆x x2 − x1 x2 − x1

Average Velocity

change in displacement

average velocity =

change in time

∆s s 2 − s1 s(t2 ) − s(t1 )

vav = = =

∆t t2 − t1 t2 − t1

That is, average velocity = slope of secant line.

Note: With "distance" and "speed" we are not concerned with the

direction in which the movement occurs. To be more precise, we use

displacement (directed distance) and velocity, where

speed = |velocity |.

Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 2. Differentiation Fall 2013 7 / 71

Instantaneous Rate of Change

distance travel s?

We need the concept "The instantaneous rate of change".

Instantaneous Rate of Change

distance travel s?

We need the concept "The instantaneous rate of change".

The instantaneous rate of change of y at x1 is the slope of the

tangent to the curve at x1 .

Instantaneous Rate of Change

The slope of the tangent line is said to be the limit of the slopes of

the secant lines as Q approaches P.

m = lim mPQ

Q→P

Instantaneous Rate of Change

Definition

The tangent line to the curve y = f(x) at the point P(a, f(a)) is the

line through P with slope

f (x) − f (a)

m = lim

x→a x −a

provided that this limit exists.

Definition

Then the tangent line to the curve y = f (x) at the point P(a, f (a))

has equation (in point-slope form)

y − f (a) = m(x − a)

Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 2. Differentiation Fall 2013 10 / 71

2.2 The Derivative

Definition

Derivative of a function f at a point a is

f 0 (a) = lim = lim

x→a x −a h→0 h

If f is defined in an interval containing a and the limit exists, we say

f is differentiable at a. The process of computing the derivative is

called differentiation.

differentiable at a point, it is also continuous at that point.

Derivative = slope of tangent = instantaneous rate of change!

2.2 The Derivative

P(x)

function Q(x) is also differentiable at almost every point, except

where Q(x) = 0.

Example

Let f (x) = x 2 + x,

f (x + h) − f (x)

f 0 (x) = lim

h→0 h

= lim (2x + 1 + h) = 2x + 1

h→0

2.2 The Derivative

Example

x

Let f (x) = x−1

, for x 6= 1

−1

f 0 (x) = lim

(x + h − 1)(x − 1)

h→0

−1

=

(x − 1)2

2.2 The Derivative

Example

Show that the function f = |x| is not differentiable at x = 0.

Hint: Consider the limit from the left and the limit from the right as

x → 0. Question: Find f 0 (x)? Answer:

1, ifx > 0

0

f (x) = DNE , ifx = 0

−1, ifx < 0

by

f (a + h) − f (a) 0 f (a + h) − f (a)

f+0 (a) = lim+ , f− (a) = lim−

h→0 h h→0 h

Note that: f 0 (a) exists ⇔ f+0 (a) , f−0 (a) exist and equal.

Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 2. Differentiation Fall 2013 14 / 71

2.2 The Derivative

Definition

Then the tangent line to the curve y = f (x) at the point P(a, f (a))

has equation (in point-slope form)

y − f (a) = f 0 (a)(x − a)

2.2 The Derivative

Example

Find an equation of the tangent line to the graph of f (x) = x 2 at

x = 5.

f (x) − f (5) x 2 − 52

f 0 (5) = lim = lim = 10

x→5 x −5 x→5 x − 5

y − 25 = 10(x − 5), or in slope-intercept form: y = 10x − 25.

2.2 The Derivative

Example

A manufacturer produces bolts of a fabric with a fixed width. The

cost of producing x meters of this fabric is C = f (x) dollars.

(a) What is the meaning of the derivative f 0 (x)? What are its units?

2.2 The Derivative

Example

It can be shown that for an object falling freely under gravity, taking

g = 10m/s 2 , the downward displacement s (in meters) after t

seconds is given by s(t) = 5t 2 . Suppose a ball is dropped from the

top of a skyscraper. Find the velocity of the ball after 5 seconds.

2.2 The Derivative

Example

The graph of a function f is given in the figure. Use it to sketch the

graph of the derivative f 0 .

tangent to the graph f (x) at that x and estimating its slope. We

particularly notice that the slope is zero at three points: A, B and C .

Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 2. Differentiation Fall 2013 19 / 71

2.2 The Derivative

Example

2.2 The Derivative: Other Notations

are:

dy df d

f 0 (x) = y 0 = = = f (x) = Df (x) = Dx f (x)

dx dx dx

The process of finding a derivative is called differentiation.

The symbols D and d/dx are called differentiation operators.

The Leibnitz notation dy /dx is perhaps the most common.

Note: dy /dx is not a normal ratio but a symbol for a derivative,

dy ∆y

= lim

dx ∆x→0 ∆x

Differentiability and Continuity

Theorem

If f is differentiable at a then f is continuous at a.

Proof:

Differentiability and Continuity

imply differentiability. Consider the following example

Example

In the previous example, we showed that the function f = |x| is not

differentiable at x = 0. In the continuity section of Chapter 1, we

already saw that this function is continuous.

Differentiability and Continuity

Having a "corner" or "kink" (So the left and right hand limits

are different, and the curve has no tangent at that point.)

Having discontinuity (removable, jump or infinite).

Having a vertical tangent (f is continuous, but lim |f 0 (x)| = ∞).

x→a

Differentiability and Continuity

Example

Determine whether f 0 (0) exists.

1

2

x sin x

, if x 6= 0

(a) f (x) =

0, if x = 0

1

x sin x

, if x 6= 0

(b) f (x) =

0, if x = 0

Answers: (a) f 0 (0) = 0; (b) DNE.

Higher Order Derivatives

may have a derivative of its own, (f 0 )0 . This is called the second

derivative of f and denoted f ”.

d 2y

d dy

= 2

dx dx dx

a particle at time t is s(t) Then it has velocity v (t) = ds

dt

and

dv d 2s

acceleration a(t) = dt = dt 2 .

Higher Order Derivatives

d 2y d 3y

000 000 d

y = f (x) = =

dx dx 2 dx 3

by differentiating n times,

d ny

y (n) = f (n) (x) = .

dx n

2.3 Rules of Differentiation

We start with the simplest function: f (x) = c. The graph is the

horizontal line y = c, which has slope 0. So, we must have

f 0 (x) = 0.

This is also easily shown from the definition:

f (x + h) − f (x) c −c

f 0 (x) = lim = lim =0

h→0 h h→0 h

Therefore, we obtain the first rule of differentiation

d

(c) = 0

dx

2.3 Rules of Differentiation: Power rule

Theorem

For all exponents n,

d n

(x ) = nx n−1

dx

Note: The Power Rule is valid for all exponents.

Example

Find the derivatives.

d

(a) dx (x 2012 ).

(b) g (x) = x12 .

(c) x(t) = t √1 t

2.3 Rules of Differentiation: Power rule

Example

Find the points on the hyperbola xy = 12 where the tangent is

parallel to the line 3x + y = 0.

New Derivatives from Old

Constant multiple rule:

d d

[cf (x)] = c f (x)

dx dx

Sum/difference rule: If f and g are both differentiable, then

d d d

[f (x) ± g (x)] = f (x) ± g (x)

dx dx dx

Example

d d d d

(2x 7 − 5x 4 − 8x) = 2 (x 7 ) − 5 (x 4 ) − 8 (x)

dx dx dx dx

6 3 6 3

= 2(7x ) − 5(4x ) − 8(1) = 14x − 20x − 8

Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 2. Differentiation Fall 2013 31 / 71

Product Rule. Quotient Rule

Product Rule: If f and g are both differentiable, then

d d d

[f (x)g (x)] = f (x) [g (x)] + g (x) [f (x)]

dx dx dx

0 0 0

or (fg ) = f .g + f .g

Quotient Rule: If f and g are both differentiable, then

g f 0 − f g0

d f

=

dx g g2

Example

Find the derivatives

√ of the given functions

(a) f (t) = t(1 − 3t)

x2 − 1

(b) f (x) = √

x +2

Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 2. Differentiation Fall 2013 32 / 71

Summary of Rules of Differentiation

Derivatives of Trigonometric Functions

The chain rule

√

How to calculate F 0 (x) where F (x) = x 2 + 1? Note that √ F is a

composite function of the two simpler functions f (x) = x and

g (x) = x 2 + 1, that is, F = f ◦ g . We already knew the derivatives of

f and g , can we calculate the derivative of F ? The following theorem

give you the answer.

Theorem

If g is differentiable at x and f is differentiable at g (x), then the

composite function F = f ◦ g (defined by F (x) = f (g (x)) is

differentiable at x and F 0 is given by the product:

The chain rule

u = g (x) is a differentiable function of x, then

dy dy du

=

dx du dx

or

d du

f (u) = f 0 (u)

dx dx

The chain rule

Example

√

Find F 0 (x) if F (x) = x 2 + 1.

The chain rule

Example

√

Find F 0 (x) if F (x) = x 2 + 1.

Solution

We have

F (x) = (f ◦ g ) (x) = f (g (x)) ,

√

where f (u) = u, g (x) = x 2 + 1.

1

f 0 (u) = √ , g 0 (x) = 2x.

2 u

By chain rule,

1 x

F 0 (x) = f 0 (g (x)) g 0 (x) = √ (2x) = √ .

2

2 x +1 2

x +1

Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 2. Differentiation Fall 2013 37 / 71

The chain rule

Example

Find F 0 (x) if

2

x

(a) F (x) = cos x , (b) F (x) = tan

x +1

√

q

(c) F (x) = x+ x2 + 1

The chain rule

du d

d

dx

(u n ) = nu n−1 , or ([g (x)]n ) = n [g (x)]n−1 g 0 (x) ,

dx dx

d g (x) 0 g (x)

dx

e = g (x) e ,

d

dx

(ax ) = ax ln a.

Example

Find the derivatives:

−1/3

(a) f (x) = (x 3 + 9x + 2) ,

cos x

(b) f (x) = e ,

√ 3

(c) f (x) = x + xe cos x .

2

Derivatives of Logarithmic Functions

Theorem

d 1 d 1

(loga ) x = , (ln x) = .

dx x ln a dx x

Example

d

(ln sin x) = cot x,

dx

d √ 1

ln x = √ .

dx 2x ln x

Logarithmic Differentiation

products, quotients, or powers can often be simplified by the method

of logarithmic differentiation

Example

Differentiate √

x 3/4 x 2 + 1

y=

(3x + 2)5

Logarithmic Differentiation

Solution: There are 3 steps

Taking logarithms of both sides of the equation

3 1

ln x + ln x 2 + 1 − 5 ln (3x + 2) .

ln y =

4 2

Differentiating implicitly with respect to x gives

1 dy 3 1 1 2x 3

= + − 5 .

y dx 4 x 2 x2 + 1 3x + 2

dy

Solving for dx

, we get

√

x 3/4 x 2 + 1 3

dy x 15

= + − .

dx (3x + 2)5 4x x 2 + 1 3x + 2

Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 2. Differentiation Fall 2013 42 / 71

Logarithmic Differentiation

Exercises

Differentiate

(x+1)2 (2x 2 −3)

(a) f (x) = √

x 2 +1

,

Calculate limits by differentiation

Example

sin x tg (x) arcsin(x)

Prove that (a) lim = 1, (b) lim = 1, (c) lim = 1,

x→0 x x→0 x x→0 x

ln(x+1) e x −1

(d) lim x

= 1, (e) lim x

= 1.

x→0 x→0

Solution

(a) By the definition of derivative, we have

lim sinx x = lim sin x−sin

x−0

0

= sin0 (0) = cos 0 = 1.

x→0 x→0

One can prove the problems (b) − (e) similarly.

Example

Find the limit

2x − 4

lim

x→2 x − 2

An application in Economics

Marginal Cost:

Example: A manufacturer produces bolts of a fabric with a fixed

width. The cost of producing x meters of fabric is C = f (x) dollars.

What is the meaning of f 0 (x)?

In this example, the function C (x) is an example of a cost function.

The derivative dC /dx is called the marginal cost, which can be

approximated by

C 0 (x) ≈ C (x + 1) − C (x)

Marginal cost estimates the cost of producing one unit beyond the

present production level.

An application in Economics

commodity are produced, and p(x) is the corresponding profit. When

x = a units are being produced, then

The marginal revenue is r 0 (a). It approximates r (a + 1) − r (a),

the additional revenue generated by producing one more unit.

The marginal profit is p 0 (a). It approximates p(a + 1) − p(a),

the additional profit generated by producing one more unit.

An application in Economics

Example

Suppose it costs C (x) = x 3 − 6x 2 + 15x dollars to produce x stoves

and your shop is currently producing 10 stoves a day. About how

much extra will it cost to produce one more stove a day?

Solution

The cost of producing one more stove a day when 10 are produced is

about C 0 (10). Since

C 0 (x) = 3x 2 − 12x + 15

That is, the additional cost will be about $195 if you produce 11

stoves a day.

Implicit Differentiation

To differentiate using the methods covered thus far, we must have a

formula for y in terms of x, for instance, y = x 3 + 1. But suppose

that y is determined instead by an equation such as x 2 + y 2 = 1. In

this case, we say that y is defined implicitly.

How can we find the slope of the tangent line at a point on the graph

in this case?

Implicit Differentiation

dy

To compute , first take the derivative of both sides of the

dx

equation and evaluate:

d d

x2 + y2 =

(1)

dx dx

d

y2 = 0

2x +

dx

d

y 2 , we think of y as a function y = f (x), then

To calculate

dx

d dy

y 2 = 2y . Hence,

y 2 = f (x)2 , and apply the Chain Rule:

dx dx

dy dy x

2x + 2y =0⇒ =−

dx dx y

Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 2. Differentiation Fall 2013 49 / 71

Implicit Differentiation

Example

Find the slope of the tangent line at the point P = (3/5, 4/5).

Solution

Substitute x = 53 , y = 45 into the equation dy

dx

= − yx we obtain

dy 3

=−

dx P 4

Implicit Differentiation

How to find the implicit derivative?

Method

Step 1. Differentiate both sides of the equation with respect to x.

Step 2. Solve for y 0 .

Example

Find an equation of the tangent line at the point P = (1, 1) on the

curve y 4 + xy = x 3 − x + 2.

Implicit Differentiation

Solution

Differentiate both sides of the equation with respect to x

4y 3 y 0 + (xy 0 + y ) = 3x 2 − 1

y 0 4y 3 + x = 3x 2 − 1 − y

2

3x − 1 − y dy 1

y0 =

3

. Thus, =

4y + x dx (1,1) 5

1 1 4

y −1= (x − 1) or y = x +

5 5 5

Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 2. Differentiation Fall 2013 52 / 71

Implicit Differentiation

Example

(a) Find y 0 if x 3 + y 3 = 6xy .

(b) Find the tangent to the curve (which is called folium of

Descartes) x 3 + y 3 = 6xy at the point (3, 3).

(c) At what points in the first quadrant is the tangent line horizontal?

Implicit Differentiation

Exercises

Find y 0 if

(a) sin (x + y ) = y 2 cos x,

(b) 2x 3 + x 2 y − xy 3 = 2,

2

(c) y 5 + x 2 y 3 = 1 + ye x ,

(d) 1 + x = sin (xy 2 ),

y

(e) tan (x − y ) = 1+x 2

,

(f) e xy = x + y .

Differentiation of Inverse Functions

Assume that f (x) is differentiable and one-to-one with inverse

g (x) = f −1 (x). If b belongs to the domain of g (x) and

f 0 (g (b)) 6= 0, then g 0 (b) exists and

1

g 0 (b) =

f 0 (g (b))

Differentiation of Inverse Functions

Example

Differentiate g (x) = f −1 (x) where g (x) is the inverse of

f (x) = x 2 + 4

Solution

By technique of finding the inverse function, we obtain

√

g (x) = x − 4

1 1 1

g 0 (x) = 0

= = √

f (g (x)) 2g (x) 2 x −4

Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 2. Differentiation Fall 2013 56 / 71

Differentiation of Inverse Functions

Calculate g 0 (1), where g (x) is the inverse of f (x) = x + e x .

Differentiation of Inverse Functions

Calculate g 0 (1), where g (x) is the inverse of f (x) = x + e x .

Solution By the derivative of the inverse theorem

1 1 1

g 0 (1) = 0

= 0 =

f (g (1)) f (c) 1 + ec

c = f −1 (1) = 0. Therefore, g 0 (1) = 12 .

Differentiation of Inverse Functions

Derivatives of the Inverse trigonometric functions

Remarks

Note that the notations sin−1 (x),cos−1 (x),.. in the formula in the

previous slide mean arcsin x, arccos x,...respectively. They are

respectively the inverse functions of y = sin x, y = cos x,...[while

(sin (x))−1 = sin1 x , be careful, sin−1 x and (sin (x))−1 are two different

functions, that is, arcsin x = sin−1 x 6= (sin (x))−1 = sin1 x ].

Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 2. Differentiation Fall 2013 58 / 71

Differentiation of Inverse Functions

Example

Differentiate

√

(a) f (x) = arcsin x, (b) f (x) = arctan (3x + 1)

Solution

By the chain rule:

(a)

√ 0

√ 0 x 1

arcsin x = q √

√ 2 = 2√x 1 − x

1− x

(b)

0 (3x + 1)0 3

(arctan (3x + 1)) = 2 =

1 + (3x + 1) 1 + (3x + 1)2

Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 2. Differentiation Fall 2013 59 / 71

Linear Approximations

Definition

The approximation

at x = a, and the function L (x) = f (a) + f 0 (a) (x − a) is called the

linearization of f at x = a.

Linear Approximations

Example

(a) Find the linearization of the function f (x) = e x at a = 0 and use

it to approximate the number e 0.01 . √

(b) Find the linearization of the function f (x) = x at a = 1 and

use it to approximate the number 1.001.

Solution

(a). We have a = 0, f (x) = e x ⇒ f 0 (x) = e x , f 0 (0) = 1.

By linear approximation,

f (x) ≈ 1 + 1 (x − 0) = x + 1

Differentials

Let

∆y = f (x) − f (a) and ∆x = x − a.

Graphically, we see that letting dx = ∆x, the corresponding change

in the function is ∆y . The corresponding change in the tangent line

is dy := f 0 (x)dx.

The differential dy is then defined by df = dy = f 0 (a) dx.

Differentials

Example

If y = x 3 then dy = 3x 2 dx.

Exercise

1. Find the linearization of the function at a = 0

(a) f (x) = sin x.

(b) f (x) = cos x.

2. Use the linearization to estimate tan π4 + 0.02 .

√

3. Use the linearization to estimate 3.98.

More applications: An application in Physics

The position of a particle is given by the equation

s = f (t) = t 3 − 6t 2 + 9t

(a) Find the velocity at time t.

(b) What is the velocity after 2 s? After 4 s?

(c) When is the particle at rest?

(d) When is the particle moving forward (that is, in the positive

direction)?

(e) Find the total distance traveled by the particle during the first

five seconds.

(f) Find the acceleration at time t and after 4 s.

Example: Moving objects

Hints:

ds

(a) v (t) = dt

= 3t 2 − 12t + 9

(c) v (t) = 0 ⇔ t = 1, t = 3

Exercise: Moving objects

A particle moves along the x-axis, its position at time t given by

t

x (t) = 1+t 2 , t > 0, where t is measured in seconds and x in meters.

(b) When is the particle moving to the right? When is it moving to

the left?

(c) Find the total distance traveled during the first 4 s.

Hint: (c) |s(1) − s(0)| + |s(4) − s(1)| = 1/2 + (1/2 − 4/17) = 13/17.

Exponential Growth and Decay

In many natural phenomena, quantities y grow or decay at a rate

proportional to their size. That is,

dy

= ky

dt

It is called a differential equation.

Theorem

The only solutions of the differential equation dy /dt = ky are the

exponential functions y (t) = y (0)e kt .

population at time, we can write dP/dt = kP, where k is called the

relative growth rate.

Nguyen Minh Quan (HCMIU) CHAP. 2. Differentiation Fall 2013 67 / 71

Exponential Growth and Decay

Example

Use the fact that the world population was 2560 million in 1950 and

3040 million in 1960 to model the population of the world in the

second half of the 20th century. (Assume that the growth rate is

proportional to the population size.) What is the relative growth

rate? Use the model to predict the population in the year 2020.

Exponential Growth and Decay

Example

Use the fact that the world population was 2560 million in 1950 and

3040 million in 1960 to model the population of the world in the

second half of the 20th century. (Assume that the growth rate is

proportional to the population size.) What is the relative growth

rate? Use the model to predict the population in the year 2020.

Solution

We measure the time t in years and let t = 0 in the year 1950. We

measure the population P(t) in millions of people. We have

1 3040

P (10) = 2560e 10k = 3040 ⇒ k = ln ' 0.0172

10 2560

the population in 2020 will be P(70) ' 8524 millions.

Exercise

proportional to its size. After an hour the population has increased to

420.

(a) Find an expression for the number of bacteria after t hours.

(b) Find the number of bacteria after 3 hours.

(c) Find the rate of growth after 3 hours.

(d) When will the population reach 10,000?

Answer

(a) P (t) = 100 (4.2)t .

(b) P (3) ≈ 7409 bacteria.

(c) P 0 (3) ≈ 10, 632.

(d) t ≈ 3.2 hours.

Continuously Compounded Interest

Suppose an amount of $A0 is invested in the bank, with continuous

compounding of interest at interest rate r , the amount after t years is

A (t) = A0 e rt

dt

= rA (t), which implies

that, with continuous compounding of interest, the rate of increase of

an investment is proportional to its size.

Continuously Compounded Interest

Suppose an amount of $A0 is invested in the bank, with continuous

compounding of interest at interest rate r , the amount after t years is

A (t) = A0 e rt

dt

= rA (t), which implies

that, with continuous compounding of interest, the rate of increase of

an investment is proportional to its size.

Example

Suppose $1000 is invested at 6% interest, compounded continuously.

Find the the value of the investment after 36 months.

Answer: with r = 0.06, t = 3 (years), then

Exercise

rate is 6% compounded continuously?

Hint: Find t such that A(t) = 2A0 .

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