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Proceedings of 2005 International Symposium on Electrical Insulating

Materials, June 5-9, 2005, Kitakyushu, Japan

B5-2

THE EFFECT OF THE SECONDARY LOADS ON THE VOLTAGE SURGES TRANSFERRED THROUGH DISTRIBUTION TRANSFORMERS

Mohamed A. Abdallah

Alexandria University - Egypt abdallahma@hotmail.com

Abstract: Over voltages associated with nearby or direct lightning discharges on distribution networks have a great effect on the power quality. The surges transferred from the primary to the secondary via transformers should be correctty evaluated having in mind the protection of the installations and equipment connected to the low-voltage network. Thus a transformer model adequate for these catculations and that can be used in the presence of loads, is required. In this paper such a model, able to represent typical three-phase distribution transformers, is presented. Some measured and calculated waveforms of voltages transferred through typical distribution transformers, under different load conditions, are also shown. Based on comparisons of

the

Simulations results are also presented for the case of

direct lightning hits on the primary line of a typical

distribution network, making it possible to

effect, on the over voltages, of installing surge protective devices at different points of the secondary network. the simulations were performed through the use of the EMTDC.

results,

the

proposed

model

was

validated.

evaluate the

1. Introduction Bearing in mind the ever growing use of electronic

equipment, it is fundamental that the electrical energy supplied to consumers present acceptable qualities indexes. Therefore, special attention should be given to the potection systems aiming at the attenuation of the disturbances caused by lightning surges. So as to correctly evaluate the surges transferred to a

know the

secondary network, it

characteristics of the transients that occur on the primary line and to adequately represent the transformer regarding its frequency behavior. The Occurrence of lightning discharges nearby the distribution lines results in voltages induced in the

medium voltage network which strikes the primary terminals of the transformer. The induced voltages are important in the analysis of the lightning performance of distribution lines and many investigations have

[q the

voltages transferred to the secondary of a distribution

transformer, under the ndoad condition, are calculated considering two different models for the

is

necessary to

been conducted on this subject [1-5].

In

transformer: the well-known capacitive PI and the

Vaessen

differences

amplitudes of the transferred voltages. This emphasizes the importance of having an adequate model for the distribution transformer so as to allow the analysis of the transferred surges. It is also necessary to consider the transformer in the under load condition. In [8, 91, a simple and reliable model to represent the distribution transformer, under no load condition, is described. These studies came to a more

advanced state, which enabted the representation of the transformer in the under-load condition as well

[IO].

The obtained results motivated the continuation of the

other

distribution transformers being investigated. Based on

research, with the

one

in

[7].

The

results

to

both

show

significant

and

relation

waveforms

A further development was presented in

model representation for

[l I].

the characteristics of nine distribution transformers, a generic model ta represent them was obtained [12]. The present work shows results of tests and simulations considering a three-phase distribution transformer, 500 kVA, 11 kV/ 380 V, where the load effect can be observed. Balanced loads connected to

the

the

simulations,

represent the transformer. Afterwards, by using the

same model with the parameters corresponding to a

typical

distribution network, the voltages in some points of the

secondary network were determined considering the occurrence of a direct lightning discharge in the primary line. In this case, the simulations were performed through the use of the EMTDC.

secondary terminals were

kVA

considered.

In

the model proposed in 114 was used to

distribution

transformer

and

a

30

2 Transformer model The development of the model was based on measurements of the transformer’ s input, output and transfer impedances and the transfer characteristics (ratio between the voltages on the secondary and on the primary windings), as a function of frequency, with a simple and reliable circuit being obtained. The methodology and the stages of the development are described in [II], where a three-phase distribution transformer, rated 30 kVA, was used as reference The general applicability of the model was verified through the use of the same methodology in 500

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kVA,11 kV 1 380 V delta-wye connected. As a result, a model which represents reasonably well all the transformers considered was obtained and is shown in Figure 1.

Figure 1: Distribution transformer model [II].

Figures 2 and 3 show some measured and calculated voltages transferred through the 500 kVA transformer under different load conditions, for thecase of impulse voltages with the standardized waveform 6 /50 p s) applied to the W terminals interconnected. Initially, the measurements were taken in the absence of loads and then one capacitive and some resistive balanced loads were considered. The peak values of the impulse voltages applied were 1.14 kV and 1.15 kV, depending on the load. The waveform of the applied impulse was kept unaltered in all applications. As under the test Conditions the system was linear, the voltages shown in Figures 2 and 3 were normalized to 100 kV (this value applied to HV terminals of the transformer instead of 1.14 kV and 1.I5 kV). The measured voltages were compared to those calculated by using the modef presented in Figure 1, whose parameters referring to the 500 kVA transformer are shown below:- resistances (k ): 3.0

0.35 (R6), 1.5 (R7);- capacitances

(pF): 600 (Cl),1125.76 ((2).146.13 (C3), 600 (C4), 400 (C5).850 (C7);- inductances (mH): 35 (L2), 15 (L3). 0.0124 (L7). The waveforms of the transferred voltages present, in general, a damped oscillatory behavior. For resistive loads, the lower the vafue of

the load impedance, the greater the damping. In the

case of the resistive toad of

voltage

practically

(R2), 5.0 (R3),

10

, for instance, the

waveform

can

be

considered

unidirectional.

Figure 2: Measured and calculated transferred voltages. Transformer (500 kVA ) under the ndoad condition

P

z

3’

-.%*

3 -*

-2

J

T-

1-

I]

tu)

--Tcararfoamer

-- MOdSl

“s L4

Cd1

Figure 3: Measured and calculated transferred

voltages. Transformer 600 kVA ) under different load

conditions. a) 510

b) 50

c) 10

d) 330 pF

A good agreement is observed between the waveforms of the measured and calculated transferred voltages. The average difference found on the peak values was about 5.6 %, which is quite reasonable. On the other hand, the voltages predicted by the capacitive PI circuit may reach magnitudes as high as 20 times geater than the measured ones, even in the absence of loads.

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3. Application in practical situations An example of the utilization of the transformer model, with a typical secondary network Configuration being considered, is presented here. Besides the transformer, the most relevant components of the system, such as arresters, insulators, etc., are represented in the simulations, which were performed by using the EMTDC. The case of direct strikes to the primary line is considered. A lightning current with

triangular waveform, peak value of 45 kA, front time of

2.25 s and time to half value of 80s was adopted. The

basic configuration

long primary line, with the neutral conductor grounded every 300 m. The network components were modeled as described in [IO]. The distribution transformer was located in the middle of the MV line. For the secondary circuit, the length of 300 m was adopted (150 m for each side of The transformer), this circuit being coupled with the MV line, with 1/0 AWG aluminum conductor. The branches of the consumers are 30 m long and connected to the secondary line every 30 m, with the neutral being grounded at the entrance of the consumers. The striking point is assumed to be at the right side of the transformer; the consumers are then identified according to their position (left or right) and to their distance with respect to the transformer. The closest consumer is at point 0,

the others at points 1, 2 and so on. As the distance

between them is 30 m and the

length of the secondary

line from each side of the transformer is 150 m, the consumers at the line ends are identified as E5 and

D5. The transformer was threephase. 30 kVA, and

with the following parameters relative to Figure

considered comprises a 10 km

1:-

resistances (k ): 14 (FE)0.8,

(R3), 1.1 (R6)and 1.62

(R7);-capacitances @F): 493 (Cl), 94.8 (CZ),21.51

(C3),50 (GI)and 759.5 (C7);- inductances (mH): 16

(L2). 1.84 (L3) and 0.05 (L7). Three configurations

were analyzed concerning the position of the LV surge

protection

Secondary network: no SPDs; SPDs placed only at the LV terminals of the transformer; SPDs at the LV terminals of the transformer and at both ends of the

secondary (points E5 and D5). Figures 4 and 5

present, respectively, the voltages corresponding to

the first and third situations, for a value of 300

grounding resistance. In both cases the lightning striking point is at the right side of the transformer, at a distance of 300 m from it.

for the

the

(SPDs)

devices

connected

to

Tb*ot@b

IC)

F

igure 4: Phase-to-neutral voltages at the entrances of the consumers. Grounding resistance: 300 . Striking point at a distance of 300 m from the transformer LV line without protection. a) close to the transformer b) consumers of the right side of the transformer c) ~ consumers of the left side of the transformer

The installation of SPDs causes significant reductions on the voltages at points close to the transformer. The voltage on its LV terminals varies from about 20 kV to 1 .O kV, this value corresponding to the residual voltage of the SPDs. As for the reduction on the peak value of the voltage at the entrance of the consumer closest to the transformer, although smaller it is also significant: from about 5.0 kV to 1.0 kV. For the consumers located on the left side of the transformer, nsar points El and E, the voltages decrease I1 % and 75 %, respectively. For the specific case considered, no significant effect of the SPDs is observed on the 3 The effect of the secondary loads

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on the voltage surges voltages at the consumers located on the right side of the transformer. This may probably be ascribed to flashovers on the MV and LV insulators, which greatly complicate the analysis of the phenomenon.

I

4

3

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F+LhSSTOG3€Y3ND

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(b)

Figure 5 Phaseto-neutral voltages. Grounding resistance: 300 . Striking point at a distance of 300 m from the transformer. SPDs at the transformer LV terminals and at both ends of the LV line.

4. Conclusions This paper presented some waveforms of voltages transferred through distribution transformers under different load conditions. The measured results were compared with the calculated ones by making use of a model developed to represent the transformer. A good agreement was found, thus confirming the validity of the model. Simulations using the EMTDC were then perFormed for a typical distribution network and the voltages transferred to the secondary. with and without SPDs, for the case of direct discharges into the primary line, were calculated. In spite of the great quantity of parameters involved and the variation ranges d their values, the information presented in the paper allows one to have an overall idea of the basic characteristics of the transferred voltages.

5. References

[I]

A.

Piantini and J.

M

Janiszewski,

”Induced

Voltages

on

Distribution

Lines

due

to

Lightning

Discharges on

Nearby

Metallic

Structures”.

/E€E

Tranactions on Magnetics, vol. 34, n 5, pp. 2799- 2802, Sep. 1998.

[2l A. Piantini and J, M. Janiszewski, ”Analysis of Three Different Theories for Computation of Induced Voltages on Distribution Lines Due to Nearby Lightning”. Procs. of the Int. Conf. on Electricity Distribution (CIRED Argentina’961, pp. Session 1 / 127-132, Buenos Aires, 1996.

[3] A. Piantini and J. M. Janiszewski. “The Influence of the Upward Leader on Lightning Induced Voltages”. Procs. Of the Int. Conf. on Lightning Protection (23rd ICLP), vol. 1, pp. 352-357, Florence, 1996.

[4]

C.

A.

Nucci, Task Force 33.01.01 of Study

Committee 33. “Lightning-Induced Voltages on Overhead Power Lines. Part II: Coupling Models for the €valuation of the Induced Voltages”. Electra, n. 162, pp 127-145, October 1995. [5jC. A. Nucci et al. “Comparison of Two Coupling Models for Lightning-Induced Over voltages Calculations”. /€€E Trans. on Power Delivery, vol. IO, n.1, pp 330339, January 1995. [q A. Borghetti et al, “Calculation of Vo!tages Induced by Nearby Lightning on Overhead Lines Terminated on Distribution Transformels”. Procs. of the Int. Conf. on Power Systems Transients (IPST’95), pp. 31 2-316, Lisbon, 1995.

[7l P. T. Vaessen, “Transformer Model for High Frequencies” . IEEf Trans. on Power Delivery, vol. 3, n.4, pp 1761-1768, Oct.1988. [8] A. Piantini and C V. S. Malagodi, “Modeling of Three Phase Distribution Transformers for Calculating Lightning Induced Voltages Transferred to the Secondary , Proceedings of the V International Symposium on Lightning Protection (V SIPDA). pp 59- 64, Sa Paulo, May 1999. [9] A. Piantini and C V. S. Malagodi. ‘Voltage Surges Transferred to the Secondary of Distribution Transformers . Proceedings of the 1Ith International Symposium on High Voltage Engineering (11th ISH). vol. 1, pp. 1.365-1.368, London, Aug. 1999. [IO] A. Piantini, W. Bassi, J. M. Janiszewski and N M. Matsuo. “A Simple Transformer Model for Analysis of Transferred Lightning Surges from MV to LV Lines . Procs. of the Idh Int. Conf. on Electricity

Distribution (1 5th CIRED), Nice,

[I11 A. G. Kanashiro, A Piantini and G. F. Burani, “A Methodology for Transformer Modeling Concerning

High

Symposium on Lightning Protection (VI SIPDA), pp. 275-280, Sa Paulo, Nov. 2001.

7999.

of

Frequency Surges” . Procs.

the

VI

Int.

[I21

A.

Piantini and A.

G.

Kanashiro,

“A

High

Frequency Distribution

Transformer

Model

for

Calculating Transferred Voltages . Procs. of the Int. Conf. on Lightning Protection (26th ICLP), vol. 2, pp. 429-434, Cracow, Sep. 2002

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