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School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001, China

Received 9 March 2009; accepted 14 July 2009

Abstract: A new apparatus was designed to measure the electromagnetic force and a computational study of the traveling magnetic

field (TMF) and its application to the Ga-In-Sn melt (with low melting point), then the forces on Al, Mg, and Li melt, were simulated.

The result show that the electromagnetic force on the melt increases linearly with the increasing length of the melt in the TMF. The

TMF-induced Lorentz force increases with increasing frequency, and then decreases. The maximum value is obtained when the

current frequency is 160 Hz, over that frequency the force decreases rapidly. When the iron-core is activated, the force increases

when the melt closes to the iron-core. The Lorentz forces have inversely-proportional relationships with the electrical resistivity, the

dƒx/dρ decreases and the dƒy/dρ increases with the increasing electrical resistivity (dƒ/dρ is the slope of the Lorentz force profile).

Key words: electromagnetic force; traveling magnetic field; Ga-In-Sn melt; molten metal

1 Introduction number of co-axial coils around the charge. The coils

carrying out-of-phase harmonic currents induce a

The application of traveling magnetic field (TMF) Lorentz force in the electrically conducting melt. The

in crystal growth of materials with electrical conductivity geometry of the coils, the phase difference between them,

is well known for a long time[1−4]. The TMF proves to the modulation frequency and the amplitude of the

be favorable for convenient control of the temperature currents can be used to control the magnitude and to

distribution, interface shape and mass transport by some extent the distribution of the force field in the melt.

relatively low power consumption[5−7]. Note that the So, it is important to study the distribution of the

application of a TMF for stirring purposes has a tradition electromagnetic force induced by a TMF. In this work,

in metal processing[8−10]. ZAIDAT et al[11] found that the electromagnetic forces induced by PTMF on molten

macro segregation can be induced by force convection metals are measured via a new apparatus we presented,

driven by TMF. A downward directed TMF also proves and coherent simulations are also made.

to be advantageous for silicon crystal growth[12], it

shows that a nearly ideal uniform oxygen distribution 2 Formulation of problem

along the grown crystals can be obtained. KRAUZE et al

[13] found that the temperature fluctuations particularly In this section, we present YESILYURT’s

in the outer crucible region were significantly decreased. derivation[18] of the TMF-induced Lorentz force of the

These are caused by convection directly. Convection molten metal. In this study, we use TMF generator, and

plays an even more important role in crystal growth, the calculation model is shown in Fig.1.

since not only the liquid moves, but both nuclei The calculation model is simplified, we assume that

(resulting from fragmentation of dendrites arms or each turn coil is evenly symmetrical, and the spatial

refining particles added to the melt) and growing crystals distribution of the magnetic field along the x-axis of

may be driven by the flow[14−17]. TMF is a direct way symmetry does not interact. Consider a coil positions at

to introduce a body force[8]. One can adjust the (x0, y0), carrying a time-dependent current given by

magnitude of the force by adjusting the TMF to create a I (t ) = I sin(ωt + ϕ ) (1)

Foundation item: Project supported by the Program of Excellent Team in Harbin Institute of Technology, China

Corresponding author: SU Yan-qing; Tel: +86-451-86417395; +86-451-86418415; E-mail: suyq@hit.edu.cn

DOI: 10.1016/S1003-6326(09)60195-3

SU Yan-qing, et al/Trans. Nonferrous Met. Soc. China 20(2010) 662−667 663

Since the z-component of the magnetic field is zero,

and the current is in the z-direction only, the Lorentz

force also is in x- and y-direction only. For a single coil,

from Eq.(7), one can show that the time-averaged

Lorentz force acting on the liquid conductor. In the case

of multiple coils, the time-averaged Lorentz force given

in Eq.(7) becomes[18]

N

1 T

Faverage = ∫ ( j × B)dt = σ ∑ωi Ai ×

T 0 σ i =1

⎢∑ ∫ cos(ωi t + ϕ i ) sin(ω j t + ϕ j )dt ⎥

⎢ i =1 y∂y T

0

⎥

where t is the time, ω is the frequency of the current, and ⎢ 0 ⎥ (8)

φ is the phase angle for which φ/ω represents a time- ⎢ N ∂A j 1 T ⎥

delay in the coil. From the Biot-Savart Law of ⎢ ∑ ∫ cos(ωi t + ϕ i ) sin(ω j t + ϕ j )dt ⎥

⎢⎣ i =1 ∂x T 0

⎥⎦

magnetostatics, we can obtain the magnetic field in the

space due to the current in the coil. One can show that In the case of three coils,ω1=ω2=ω3＝ω, and φ1=0,

the vector potential, A, due to the coil has only φ2=2π⁄3, φ3=4π⁄3, one can show that Eq.(8) becomes

z-directional component, and given by[19]

A( y , t ) = A( x, y ) sin(ωt + ϕ )ez (2) 3

Faverage = − σω ⋅

2

In the absence of free charges in the space, the

⎡ ∂ ( yA2 ) ∂ ( yA3 ) ∂ ( yA3 ) ∂ ( yA1 ) ∂ ( yA1 ) ∂ ( yA2 ) ⎤

function A(x, y) is scalar function and given by[20] ⎢ A1 y∂y + A1 y∂y + A2 y∂y − A2 y∂y − A3 y∂y − A3 y∂y ⎥

⎢ ⎥

⎢ 0 ⎥

Iμ m ∞ ( −ξ x − x 0 ) ∂A ∂ A ∂A ∂A ∂A ∂ A

A( x, y ) = ∫0 J1 (ξ i ) J1 (ξ y )e dξ ⎢ ⎥

3 3

(3) ⎢

A1

∂x

2

+ A1

∂x

+ A2

∂x

− A2

∂x

1

− A3

∂x

2

− A3

∂x

1

⎥

8π ⎣ ⎦

and equal to 4π×10−7 H/m, and J1 is the first order Bessel

function. Eqs.(8) and (9) show that the multiple current

Using the vector potential, one can calculate the carrying out-of-phase coils can create a body force in

magnetic field B(y, t) and the electric field E(y, t) created x-and y-directions; the force is zero in z-direction.

by the current in the coil as

3 Computational models of TMF

B ( y, t ) = ∇ × A( y, t ) (4)

∂A( y, t ) Fig.1 shows the computational model of the TMF,

E ( y, t ) = － (5)

∂t the total length of the TMF is 726 mm, width 300 mm,

height 110 mm, inter spacing of iron-teeth 32 mm, width

The current-loop creates a magnetic field in the x-

of iron-tooth 22 mm, height of iron-tooth 38 mm, and

and y-direction, and еx component (direction of the

coil cross-sectional area is 600 mm2.

current) of the magnetic field is zero.

Table 1 lists the properties and dimensions of some

Using the Ohm’s Law one can calculate the current

parameters used in simulations. TMF calculations are

density, jσ, formed inside the liquid conductor, the current

carried out for twelve coils, placed at yc=72 mm and

density in the conductor is, then, obtained as

xc=50, 104, 158, 212, 266, 320, 374, 428, 482, 536, 590,

jσ ( y, t ) = σE ( y, t ) (6) 644, and 698 mm equal magnitude currents with phase

angles of 0, 2π⁄3, 4π⁄3,0, 2π⁄3, 4π⁄3,0, 2π⁄3, 4π⁄3,0, 2π⁄3,

where σ is the conductivity of the melt.

Furthermore, by neglecting the effect of the induced 4π⁄3, and different frequencies. We neglected the effect

magnetic field due to the currents in the conductor, and of the conductor in the traveling magnetic field, and the

the effect of the moving charges in the liquid conductor, density, relative permeability, resistivity used in

we can also calculate the time-averaged Lorentz force F simulations are assumed to be constant, and the melt is

in the conducting melt as follows[18]: considered as rigid body. Since the current is the in

z-direction only and the z-component of the magnetic

1 T

Faverage = ∫ ( jσ × B )dt (7) field is zero, so we set up two-dimension model for

T 0

664 SU Yan-qing, et al/Trans. Nonferrous Met. Soc. China 20(2010) 662−667

calculating. Then we apply the boundary condition that is driven by Fx, and Fy is the pulse force. Since it is

the magnetic flux is parallel to the border of the free difficult to measure the electromagnetic force directly,

space. And the vector diagram of electromagnetic force we use low melting point Ga-In-Sn melt, of which the

on Ga-In-Sn melt and the magnetic flux density in TMF melting point is about 10.2 ℃ to measure Fx. The flow

are shown in Fig.2. status of the Ga-In-Sn melt is shown in Fig.3, it can be

seen that the melt moving from left side to right side, and

Table 1 Properties and dimensions of some parameters used in then accumulating at the end of the right side of the

simulations container. At the end of the left side of the container, the

Property Value Ga-In-Sn melt is so little that we can see the bottom of

20, 50, 100, 160, 200,

the container. Meanwhile, the melt in the middle of the

Current frequency/Hz container is moving rightward, and the thickness of the

400, 1 000, 5 000

melt increases from left to right side. A new apparatus

Height of coil/mm 30

designed to measure the Lorentz force is shown in Fig.4.

Length of coil/mm 20 Dimensions of the container are 300 mm×150 mm×

Number of winding 375 3 mm, there are nine plastic tubes position at the right

Electrical resistivity of coils/ side of the container and a bigger one at the left side, the

1.678×10−8

(Ω·m) distance between the two tubes is 15 mm, and we can put

Electrical resistivity of Al/(Ω·m) 2.65×10−8 the Ga-In-Sn melt into the container through the tube

positioned at the left side of the container.

Electrical resistivity of Mg/(Ω·m) 4.39×10−8

Electrical resistivity of Li/(Ω·m) 8.55×10−8

Electrical resistivity of

9.75×10−8

Ga-In-Sn/(Ω·m)

Relative permeability of air 1.0

Relative permittivity of air 1.0

Relative permeability of Al 1.0

Relative permeability of coil 1.0 Fig.3 Flow status of Ga-In-Sn melt (f=50 Hz, I=1 272 A)

Relative permeability of ceramic 1.0

Relative permeability of low

2 000

carbon steel

1 272 A)

that in the container when the electromagnetic force

applying on the melt. According to that, we can calculate

the Lorentz force. So the results were recorded as the

length of the melt changing in the TMF. Fig.5 shows the

Fig.2 Vector diagram of electromagnetic force of Ga-In-Sn electromagnetic force of different lengths of the

melt (a) and magnetic flux density (b) in TMF (f=50 Hz, I= Ga-In-Sn melt in the TMF, the Lorentz force increases

1 800 A) continually with the length increasing of the melt, and

the measured values is compared with the results

4 Results and discussion obtained by the numerical simulation, as we can see, the

simulated course is very close to the experimental one.

4.1 Experimental results and numerical simulations Note that the measurement of the Lorentz fore profile

of electromagnetic force reproduces the computed one very well. These facts

The electromagnetic force on the melt in the TMF verify the correctness of the used simulation code and

can be divided into Fx and Fy. The convection of the melt emphasize the reliability of the calculated TMF too.

SU Yan-qing, et al/Trans. Nonferrous Met. Soc. China 20(2010) 662−667 665

lengths in TMF

on electromagnetic force

Fig.6 shows the calculated horizontal time average

Lorentz force profile. We calculated the time average

Lorentz force profile of the melt with different current

frequencies and different y, (y is the distance between the

TMF generator surface and the melt surface). The time

average Lorentz force profile is shown in Fig.6(a) for the

container of the measuring apparatus without upper

iron-core. The force first increases slightly, and then Fig.6 Curves of time-average Lorentz force of Ga-In-Sn melt at

decreases rapidly as y approaches 7 mm. The different heights under different current frequencies:

TMF-induced Lorentz force increases with increasing (a) Without iron-core (b) With iron-core

frequencies, and the maximum value is 0.63 N when the

current frequency is 160 Hz compared with 1.1 N in of 50−100 Hz and 200−400 Hz without iron-core, the

TMF with the iron-core shown in Fig.6(b), over that turbulent flow is generated.

frequency the force decreases, in this case all the force

are nearly zero at the height of 19 mm. In other case 4.3 Electromagnetic force of metals with different

when the iron-core is activated, the force increases when conductivities

the melt closes to the iron-core. The electromagnetic forces on Ga-In-Sn, Li, Mg, Al

The TMF concept emerged from recognizing melt were simulated, the horizontal Lorentz force profile

deficiencies in the rotating magnetic field (RMF) and force vectors are presented in Fig.7, Figs.7(a)−(d)

technique to generate an optimal flow for solidification, show the simulation fields of the horizontal Lorentz

the flow induced by the x-direction Lorentz force. The force distribution of the Ga-In-Sn, Li, Mg, Al

greater the differential forces of melts with different respectively, the distributions of the force are similar, and

heights in x-direction are, the more intense the flow is. the body force induced by the TMF is concentrated

So the current frequency plays a more important role in mostly near the surface of the TMF generator. The ratio

the casting process, the ideal current frequency has of the electrical resistivity of the four materials, Ga-In-Sn,

chosen to master the flow. The forced convection is used Li, Mg, and Al is 3.68:2.22:1.14:1, correspondingly. Due

for reducing the temperature gradient of solidification to the significant difference in electrical resistivity, the

front, making the solute distribution homogeneous, and value of the Lorentz force increases linearly with the

consequently changing the interface shape. However, decreasing of electrical resistivity, and the time average

when the convection is too intense, segregation will Lorentz forces is as high as 1.279 55, 1.441 20, 2.640 19,

happen. The analysis shows that frequency in range of and 3.719 55 N, respectively. The dƒx/dρ decreases with

100−200 Hz is the optimum condition for the fast casting, the electrical resistivity increasing, the dƒy/dρ (where ρ is

in this case the maximum value of the Lorentz force the electrical resistivity, the dƒx/dρ and dƒy/dρ are the

when the current frequency is 160 Hz is obtained by slopes of the Lorentz force profile) increases with the

relatively lower power consumption, and in the range increasing electrical resistivity, it is shown in Fig7(e),

666 SU Yan-qing, et al/Trans. Nonferrous Met. Soc. China 20(2010) 662−667

Lorentz force distribution and electro-

magnetic force-conductivity curves:

(a) Ga-In-Sn melt; (b)Li melt; (c) Mg

melt; (d) Al melt; (e) Force conductivity

curve with TMF (I=1 800 A, f=50 Hz,

φ=120˚)

SU Yan-qing, et al/Trans. Nonferrous Met. Soc. China 20(2010) 662−667 667

according to Eq.(9), the result reproduced the computed convection and under a forced flow driven by a traveling magnetic

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(Edited by LI Xiang-qun)

Directional solidification of refined Al–3.5wt% Ni under natural

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