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8.2 AERODYNAMICS

Effect of Shapes on Streamlined Flow

Effect of Shapes on Streamlined Flow (a) Flat Plate 100% Resistance (b) Sphere 50% Resistance (c)

(a) Flat Plate 100% Resistance

(b) Sphere 50% Resistance

(a) Flat Plate 100% Resistance (b) Sphere 50% Resistance (c) Ovoid 15% Resistance (d) Streamlined 5%

(c) Ovoid 15% Resistance

(d) Streamlined 5% Resistance

STREAMLINED

Boundary Layer

Boundary Layer Unaffected airflow Each layer experience retardation until some distance away from surface Next layer

Unaffected airflow

Each layer experience retardation until

some distance away from surface

Next layer slowed down but not stop

Airflow nearest the surface come to rest

STREAMLINED

Boundary Layer

Boundary Layer STREAMLINED

STREAMLINED

Separation and turbulence at various

AOA

Separation and turbulence at various AOA STALLING

STALLING

AERODYNAMIC TERM

AERODYNAMIC TERM Stagnation point Velocity = 0m/s Wing tip vortices

Stagnation point Velocity = 0m/s

AERODYNAMIC TERM Stagnation point Velocity = 0m/s Wing tip vortices

Wing tip vortices

Airfoil Shape

Symmetrical no lift at zero angle of attack

Asymmetrical lift created even at small angle of attack

– no lift at zero angle of attack  Asymmetrical – lift created even at small

AIRFOIL

Airfoil Shape

Medium and high speed aircraft much less

curvature lift comes from their additional speed

through the air.

Low speed aircraft cambered not for high speed (excess lift as well as drag)

AIRFOIL
AIRFOIL

CAMBER (CURVE)

Camber curvature of an aerofoil (wing)

above and below the chord line

Camber (curvature) of an aerofoil
Camber (curvature) of an aerofoil

PRODUCTION OF LIFT

AIRFOIL @ AEROFOIL

Any surface which produces a reaction (lift) as air passes over it

The airfoil should provide this reaction (lift), whilst

having a shape which presents the least possible

resistance, or drag, to its passage through air

(lift), whilst having a shape which presents the least possible resistance, or drag, to its passage

AIRFOIL

T/C AND FINENESS RATIO

T/C AND FINENESS RATIO Thicness/Chord ratio = CD AB

Thicness/Chord ratio = CD

AB

MEAN AERODYNAMIC CHORD

Average distance between leading and trailing

edge of wing

Mean chord = Wing Area

Wing Span

AERODYNAMIC CHORD • Average distance between leading and trailing edge of wing • Mean chord =

ANGLE OF ATTACK

The acute angle formed between the relative wind striking an airfoil and the chord line.

Increasing the angle from zero degree to a maximum

(between 15 degrees and 18 degrees) will increase lift, but will also increases drag.

to a maximum (between 15 degrees and 18 degrees) will increase lift, but will also increases

CENTER OF PRESSURE

ANGLE OF INCIDENCE

o

o

o

o

o

Angle formed by the intersection of the wing

chord line and the

horizontal plane or longitudinal axis of aircraft

Positive Angle of Incidence (AOI) leading edge higher

than trailing edge

Correct AOI low drag + longitudinal stability

‘Wash out’ – higher AOI at wing root than at wing tip

‘Wash out’ – higher AOI at wing root than at wing tip ‘Wash in’ – higher

‘Wash in’ – higher AOI at

wing tip than at wing root

ANGLE OF INCIDENCE

WASH IN AND OUT

Wash in :

Angle of incident increase from root to tip

Tip will stall 1st

Wash out :

Angle of incident decrease from root tip

Root will stall 1st

root to tip – Tip will stall 1st • Wash out : – Angle of incident

CENTER OF PRESSURE (c.p)

The position whereby the resultant force (lift) cuts

through chord line and considered to act

Total Lift

Shape of airfoil and angle of attack influence the c.p

location and direction

Position of lines denotes direction of lift Length of line denote magnitude of lift

direction of lift Length of line denote magnitude of lift Direction of airflow Center of Pressure

Direction

of airflow

Center of Pressure

CENTER OF PRESSURE

CENTER OF PRESSURE (c.p)

o

Position of c.p varies during flight as the angle of attack (AOA)

altered

a. Increase AOA c.p moves forward

b. Decrease AOA c.p moves backward

o

In normal flight the AOA usually between 2˚ and 4˚ (seldom

below 0˚ or above 16˚)

Small AOA

Medium AOA

Large AOA

below 0˚ or above 16˚ ) Small AOA Medium AOA Large AOA N o s e

Nose Heavy

Balance Flight

CENTER OF PRESSURE

Tail Heavy

WING SHAPE

WING SHAPE

ASPECT RATIO

Ratio of aircraft wingspan to its mean chord

length

ASPECT RATIO • Ratio of aircraft wingspan to its mean chord length

PRODUCTION OF LIFT

To keep flying aircraft must produce a force equal to its own weight

Greater force to lift the aircraft from the ground

Force (lift) is provided by the wing

The production of lift is based

on Bernoulli’s theory

 Force (lift) is provided by the wing  The production of lift is based on

PRODUCTION OF LIFT

Lift Weight
Lift
Weight

Bernoulli’s theorem

Air velocity increase the pressure decreases (and vice versa)

The total energy of a moving fluid is made up of three forms of energy:

Potential Energy due to height or position

Kinetic Energy due to motion

Pressure Energy due to pressure

In a streamline flow of an ideal fluid, the sum of all those energy is constant

Potential + Kinetic + Pressure = Constant

PRODUCTION OF LIFT

Venturi Effect

A short circular tube with large opening at both the front and rear end +

restrictor between the

opening

Venturi is a convergent/divergent

duct

the opening • Venturi is a convergent/divergent duct • Bernoulli’s Theory is being proven by passing

Bernoulli’s Theory is being proven by passing a streamline flow of air

through a venturi duct

PRODUCTION OF LIFT

Venturi Effect

Venturi Effect PRODUCTION OF LIFT

PRODUCTION OF LIFT

INLET Airspeed normal Pressure normal

Venturi Effect

CENTRE (THROAT)

Airspeed maximum

Pressure minimum

OUTLET

Airspeed decrease

Pressure increase (equal to inlet area)

maximum Pressure minimum O U T L E T Airspeed decrease Pressure increase (equal to inlet

PRODUCTION OF LIFT

Camber (Curved)

Airflow around the cambered wing behave exactly as airflow in a venturi tube

Camber (Curved) • Airflow around the cambered wing behave exactly as airflow in a venturi tube

PRODUCTION OF LIFT

Airflow on wing (Lift distribution)

Increased Speed Decreased Speed 70% of Total Lift

Decreased Speed Increased Speed

30% of Total Lift

Provide 70% of the wing’s Total Lift

Decreased pressure

Provide 70% of the wing’s Total Lift Decreased pressure Increased pressure Providing 30% of the wing’s
Provide 70% of the wing’s Total Lift Decreased pressure Increased pressure Providing 30% of the wing’s

Increased pressure

Providing 30% of the wing’s Total Lift

PRODUCTION OF LIFT

STREAMLINED

Streamline shape or contour that presents a

minimum resistance to the air

A perfect streamlined form is similar to the top view of a fish

Air flows around non-streamlined object air swirls

into eddies + streamline distorted disappear

Airstream becomes turbulent

Streamline air appears as smooth parallel lines

Smoke jets introduce smoke into air to observe

and illustrate movement of air around object

STREAMLINED

Effect of Shapes on Streamlined Flow

Effect of Shapes on Streamlined Flow STREAMLINED

STREAMLINED

DRAG

As an aircraft passes through the air, the air offers

a resistance to the passage. This resistance, is known as ‘Drag’.

(Resistance to forward motion)

The total amount of drag on an aircraft is made

up of many types of drag forces.

Common type of drag:-

i.

Form drag

ii.

Parasite drag

iii.

Induced drag

DRAG

DRAG

RESISTANCE TO FORWARD MOTION

DRAG RESISTANCE TO FORWARD MOTION DRAG

DRAG

FORM DRAG

Caused by the shape or form of the aircraft

Reducing form drag

Streamlining aircraft shaped to produce least resistance to the airflow

For least resistance object length between 3-4 times greater than maximum thickness

Fineness ratio ratio between length and maximum

thickness

DRAG
DRAG

PARASITE DRAG

A combination of many different drag forces

Any exposed object on an aircraft offers some resistance to the airflow, and the more objects in

the airstream, the more parasite drag

Reducing parasite drag

reducing the number of exposed parts to as few as

practical and streamlining their shape.

DRAG

Streamlining

Streamlining • Fixed landing gear

Fixed landing gear

SKIN FRICTION DRAG

A type of parasite drag most difficult to reduce

Air particles in contact with surface of the aircraft Reducing skin friction

glossy flat finishes

eliminating protruding rivet heads, roughness, and other irregularities.

skin friction  glossy flat finishes  eliminating protruding rivet heads, roughness, and other irregularities. DRAG

DRAG

INDUCED AND TOTAL DRAG

Lift created by the airfoil also created drag induced drag

Just as lift increases with an increase in angle of attack, induced drag also increases as the angle of attack becomes greater.

TOTAL DRAG
TOTAL DRAG

DRAG

THRUST AND WEIGHT

Thrust is forward force produce by engine

Determine by size and type use in propulsion

system

Weight is a mass of aircraft act vertically

downward

Determined by size and material used in aircraft

FORCES ACTING ON AIRCRAFT IN

THRUST

FLIGHT

The aircraft’s propelling force

Arranged symmetrically to the

centre line

Act parallel to the line of flight

LIFT Acts at right angle to the line of flight & through the Centre of Pressure of the wings

of flight & through the Centre of Pressure of the wings DRAG WEIGHT@ GRAVITY Acts vertically

DRAG

WEIGHT@ GRAVITY

Acts vertically downwards through the Centre of Gravity

Opposes the forward motion

Regarded as a rearward acting force

FORCES ACTING ON AIRCRAFT IN FLIGHT

LIFT AND DRAG COEFFICIENT

LIFT AND DRAG COEFFICIENT • Theoritical value base on airfoil shape Lift Drag = C D

Theoritical value base on

airfoil shape

Lift

Drag = C D x 1/2ρv 2 x S

= C L x 1/2ρv 2 x S

value base on airfoil shape Lift Drag = C D x 1/2 ρ v 2 x

IDEAL ANGLE

POLAR CURVE

Drag Polar is the relationship between the lift

and its drag interm on coefficeient

POLAR CURVE • Drag Polar is the relationship between the lift and its drag interm on

STALL

‘Sudden lost of lift’

i.

Increase AOA separation moves forward (turbulent)

Insufficient pressure drop on upper surface no pressure differential to create lift

ii.

Increase to higher AOA excessive turbulence

Drag increase higher than lift created

Critical Angle of Attack airflow separate + turbulence Critical AOA = 15˚ and above

STALLING

AIRFOIL CONTAMINATION

Any contamination on wing will affect its

performance

Need to provide method to remove the contamination during flying

Type of contamination :

Ice

Snow

Frost