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Practice Set 2

MAL 213 - Probability & Statistics January 16, 2019


Two players A and B alternately roll a pair of unbiased dice. A wins if o n a throw he

obtains exactly six points before B gets seven points, B winning in the opposite event. If


begins the game, prove that his probability of winning is 30/61.


In a certain community, it is found that 60% of all property owner s oppose an increase


the property tax while 80% of non-property owners favor it. If 6 5% of all registered

voters are property owners, what proportion of registered vot ers favor the tax increase ?



family has twins. It is known that one is a girl. What is the probability that both are


girls ?



family has twins. It is known that first child is a girl. What is the probability that

both are girls ?


Two fair dice are thrown. Let A denote the event that the sum of the dice is 7. Let B be the event that first die equals 4 and let C be the event that second die equals 3. Show that A is independent of B and is also independent of C . But, A is not independent of


B C .


A biased coin with probability of obtaining a Head equal to p > 0 is tossed repeatedly and

independently until the first head is observed. Using Total Probability Theorem calculate

the probability that the first head appears at an even numbered to ss.


Information is communicated digitally as a binary sequence known a s “bits”. However, the noise interference on the channel corrupts the signal, in that a digit transmitted as 0 is received as 1 with probability 1 p , with a similar random corruption when the digit 1 is transmitted it is received 0 with probability again 1 p . It has been observed that, across a large number of transmitted signals, the 0s and 1s are transmitted in the ratio 3 : 4. Given that the sequence 101 is received, what is the probability distributio n over transmitted signals? Assume that the transmission and reception processes ar e independent.


At Duke University, two students had received A’s in chemistry all semester, but on the night before the final exam, they partied all night, woke up too late, and missed the exam. Their excuse to the professor was that they had a flat tire on the way to school, and they


asked if they could take a make-up test. The professor agreed, wrote out a test and sent the two to separate rooms to take it. The first question (on one side of the paper) was worth 10 points, and they answered it easily. Then they flipped the paper over and found the second question, worth 90 points: Which tire was it ? What is the probability that both students would say the same thing? I think it is 1/16. Is that rig ht?

9. Suppose A and B are independent events. Prove that following pairs of events are a lso independent


A c , B


A, B c


A c , B c

10. Consider the following data available on 20 emails.

S.No. Contains word “Offer” Spam 1 yes yes 2 no yes 3 yes yes 4
S.No. Contains word “Offer” Spam
1 yes
2 no
3 yes
4 yes
5 yes
6 no
7 yes
8 yes
9 yes
10 yes
11 yes
12 no
13 yes
14 yes
15 yes
16 no
17 yes
18 yes
19 no
20 no

Suppose a new mail contains the word ‘Offer’. What is the probability that it is a SPAM mail ? If the cutoff probability for SPAM mail is 0.90, whether this new mail should go to SPAM folder or INBOX ?

11. Suppose you’re on a game show, and you’re given the choice of three doors. Behind one door is a car, behind the others, goats. You pick a door, say door no. 1, and the host, who knows what’s behind all the doors, opens another door, say do or no. 3, which has a goat. He then asks if you want to pick door no. 2? Should you switch ?