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CHAPTER. 1

RELATION
A relation from a set A to a set B is a subset of 𝑨 × 𝑩.

Total number of relations from a set consisting of m elements to a set consisting of n element is 𝟐𝒎𝒎.

## viii) the universal ration, if 𝑹 = 𝑨 × 𝑨.

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CHERTER.2
FUNCTION
Let A and B be two non-empty sets. Then, a subset 𝒇 𝒐𝒇 𝑨 × 𝑩 is a function from A to B, if
i) For each 𝒂 ∈ 𝑨 there exists 𝒃 ∈ 𝑩such that (𝒂, 𝒃) ∈ 𝒇
ii) (𝒂, 𝒃) ∈ 𝒇 and (𝒂, 𝒗) ∈ 𝒇 ⟹ 𝒃 = 𝒄.
In other words, a subset f of 𝑨 × 𝑩 is a function from A to B, if each element of A appears in
some ordered pair in 𝒇 and no two ordered pairs in 𝒇 have the same first element.
Let A and B be two non-empty sets. Then, a function 𝒇 from A to B associates every element of A to
a unique element of B. The set A is called the domain of 𝒇 and the set Bis known as ies co-domain. The
set of images of elements of set A is known as the range of 𝒇.
If 𝒇: 𝑨 → 𝑩 is a function, then 𝒙 = 𝒚 ⟹ 𝒇(𝒙) = 𝒇(𝒚)for all 𝒙, 𝒚 ∈ 𝑨.
AA function 𝒇: 𝑨 → 𝑩 is a one-one function or an injection, if 𝒇(𝒙) = 𝒇(𝒚) ⟹ 𝒙 = 𝒚 for all 𝒙, 𝒚 ∈
𝑨 𝒐𝒓 𝒙 ≠ 𝒚 ⟹ 𝒇(𝒙) ≠ 𝒇(𝒚) for all 𝒙, 𝒚 ∈ 𝑨 Graphically, if the graph of a function does not rake a turn,
in other words a straight line parallel to x-axis does not cut the curve at mote than one point, then it is a
one-one function. Note that a function is one-one, if it is either strictly increasing or strictly decreasing.
A function 𝒇: 𝑨 → 𝑩 is an onto function or a surjection, if range (𝒇) =co-domain (𝒇).
Let A and B be two finite sets and 𝒇: 𝑨 → 𝑩 be a function.
i) If 𝒇 is an injection, then 𝒏(𝑨) ≤ 𝒏(𝑩)
ii) If 𝒇 is a surjection, then 𝒏(𝑨) ≤ 𝒏(𝑩)
iii) If 𝒇 is a bijection, then 𝒏(𝑨) = 𝒏(𝑩)
If A and B are two non-empty finite sets containing m and n elements respectively, then
i) Number of functions from 𝑨 𝒕𝒐 𝑩 = 𝒏𝒎 .
𝒏𝑪 𝒊𝒇, 𝒏 ≥ 𝒎
ii) Number of one-one functions from 𝑨 𝒕𝒐 𝑩 = { 𝒎
𝟎, 𝒊𝒇 𝒏 < 𝒎
𝒏𝑪𝒓 𝒓𝒎 , 𝒊𝒇 𝒎 ≥ 𝒏
iii) Number of onto functions from 𝑨 𝒕𝒐 𝑩 = {∑𝒏𝒓=𝟏(−𝟏)𝒏−𝒓
𝟎, 𝒊𝒇 𝒎 < 𝒏
𝒏!, 𝒊𝒇 𝒎 = 𝒏
iv) Number of one-one into functions from 𝑨 𝒕𝒐 𝑩 = {
𝒐, 𝒊𝒇 𝒎 ≠ 𝒏
If a function 𝒇: 𝑨 → 𝑩 is not an onto function, the 𝒇: 𝑨 → 𝒇(𝑨) is always an onto function.
The composition of two bijections is a bijection.
If 𝒇: 𝑨 → 𝑩 is a bijection, then 𝒈: 𝑩 → 𝑨 is inverse of 𝒇, 𝒊𝒇𝒇 𝒇(𝒙) = 𝒚 ⟹ 𝒈(𝒚) =
𝒙 𝒐𝒓, 𝒈𝒐𝒇 = 𝑰𝑨 𝒂𝒏𝒅 𝒇𝒐𝒈 = 𝑰𝑩
Let 𝒇: 𝑨 → 𝑩 𝒂𝒏𝒅 𝒈: 𝑩 → 𝑨be two functions.
i) If 𝒈𝒐𝒇 = 𝑰𝑨 𝒂𝒏𝒅 𝒇 is an injection, then 𝒈 is a surjection.
ii) If𝒇𝒐𝒈 = 𝑰𝑩 𝒂𝒏𝒅 𝒇 is a surjection, then 𝒈 is an injection.
Let 𝒇: 𝑨 → 𝑩 𝒂𝒏𝒅 𝒈: 𝑩 → 𝑪be two functions.then
i) 𝒈𝒐𝒇: 𝑨 → 𝑪 is onto ⟹ 𝒈: 𝑩 → 𝑪is into.
ii) 𝒈𝒐𝒇: 𝑨 → 𝑪 is one-one ⟹ 𝒇: 𝑪 → 𝑩is one - one.
iii) 𝒈𝒐𝒇: 𝑨 → 𝑪 is onto and𝒈: 𝑩 → 𝑪 one-one⟹ 𝒇: 𝑨 → 𝑩 𝒊𝒏𝒕𝒐.
iv) 𝒈𝒐𝒇: 𝑨 → 𝑪 is one-one 𝒇: 𝑨 → 𝑩 is ⟹ 𝒈: 𝑩 → 𝑪 is one-one.

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CHAPTER. 3
BINARY OPERATIONS
A binary operation on a set 𝑺 is a function from 𝑺 × 𝑺 𝒕𝒐 𝑺.
A binary operation * on a set 𝑺 associates any two elements 𝒂, 𝒃 ∈ 𝑺 to a unique element 𝒂 ∗ 𝒃 ∈ 𝑺.

## A binary operation * on a set 𝑺 is said to be

i) Commutative, if 𝒂 ∗ 𝒃 = 𝒃 ∗ 𝒂 𝒇𝒐𝒓 𝒂𝒍𝒍 𝒂, 𝒃 ∈ 𝑺.
ii) Associative, if (𝒂 ∗ 𝒃) ∗ 𝒄 = 𝒂 ∗ (𝒃 ∗ 𝒄) 𝒇𝒐𝒓 𝒂𝒍𝒍 𝒂, 𝒃, 𝒄 = 𝑺.
iii) Distributive over a binary operation 𝝄 𝒐𝒏 𝑺, 𝒊𝒇 𝒂 ∗ (𝒃𝝄𝒄) = (𝒂 ∗ 𝒃)𝝄(𝒂 ∗ 𝒄) and, (𝒃𝝄𝒄) ∗ 𝒂 =
(𝒃 ∗ 𝒄)𝝄(𝒂 ∗ 𝒄) for all 𝒂, 𝒃 ∈ 𝑺.

Let*be a binary operation on a set S. An element 𝒆 ∈ 𝑺is said to be identity element for the binary operation*, if
𝒂 ∗ 𝒆 = 𝒂 = 𝒆 ∗ 𝒂 for all 𝒂 ∈ 𝑺.

Let*be a binary operation on a set S and 𝒆 ∈ 𝑺 be the identity element. An element 𝒂 ∈ 𝑺 is said to be invertible,
if there exists on element 𝒃 ∈ 𝑺 such that 𝒂 ∗ 𝒃 = 𝒆 = 𝒃 ∗ 𝒂.

A binary operation on a finite set can be completely described by means of composition table.
From the composition table, we can infer the following properties of the binary operation:
i) The binary operation is commutative if the composition table is symmetric about the leading diagonal.
ii) If the row headed by an element say e coincides with row at the top and the column headed by e
coincides with he column on the extreme left, then e is the identity element.
iii) If each row, except the top-most row, or each column, except the left-most column, contains the identity
element. Then, every element of the set is invertible with respect to the given binary operation.

𝟐
Total number of binary operations on a set consisting of n elements is 𝒏𝒏 .
𝒏(𝒏−𝟏)
Total number of commutative binary operations on a set consisting of n elements is 𝒏 .
𝟐

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Chap: 4
Inverse Trigonometry Functions
Inverse Trigonometric Functions Formulae
Principal values

## Functions Domain Range

𝝅 𝝅
𝐬𝐢𝐧−𝟏 𝒙 [−𝟏, 𝟏] [− , ]
𝟐 𝟐

## 𝐜𝐨𝐬 −𝟏 𝒙 [−𝟏, 𝟏] [𝟎, 𝝅]

𝝅 𝝅
𝐭𝐚𝐧−𝟏 𝒙 𝑹 (− , )
𝟐 𝟐

𝝅 𝝅
𝐜𝐬𝐜 −𝟏 𝒙 (−∞, −𝟏] ∪ [𝟏, ∞) [− , ] − {𝟎}
𝟐 𝟐

## 𝐬𝐞𝐜 −𝟏 𝒙 (−∞, −𝟏] ∪ [𝟏, ∞) [𝟎, 𝝅] − {𝝅/𝟐}

𝐜𝐨𝐭 −𝟏 𝒙 𝑹 (𝟎, 𝝅)

Property 1
𝝅 𝝅
(i) 𝐬𝐢𝐧−𝟏 (𝐬𝐢𝐧 𝜽) = 𝜽 𝒇𝒐𝒓 𝒂𝒍𝒍 𝜽 ∈ [− , ]
𝟐 𝟐
𝝅 𝝅
(ii) 𝐜𝐨𝐬 −𝟏 (𝑪𝒐𝒔𝜽) = 𝜽 𝒇𝒐𝒓 𝒂𝒍𝒍 (− , )
𝟐 𝟐
(iii) 𝐭𝐚𝐧−𝟏 (𝒕𝒂𝒏𝜽) = 𝜽 𝒇𝒐𝒓 𝒂𝒍𝒍 𝜽 ∈ [𝟎, 𝝅], 𝜽 ≠ 𝝅/𝟐
𝝅 𝝅
(iv) 𝐜𝐬𝐜 −𝟏 (𝑪𝒔𝒄𝜽) = 𝜽 𝒇𝒐𝒓 𝒂𝒍𝒍 𝜽 ∈ [− , ] , 𝜽 ≠ 𝟎
𝟐 𝟐
(v) 𝐬𝐞𝐜 −𝟏 (𝒔𝒆𝒄𝜽) = 𝜽 𝒇𝒐𝒓 𝒂𝒍𝒍 𝜽 ∈ [𝟎, 𝝅], 𝜽 ≠ 𝝅/𝟐
(vi) 𝐜𝐨𝐭 −𝟏 (𝒄𝒐𝒕𝜽) = 𝜽 𝒇𝒐𝒓 𝒂𝒍𝒍 𝜽 ∈ (𝟎, 𝝅)

Property2
(i) 𝐬𝐢𝐧(𝐬𝐢𝐧−𝟏 𝒙) = 𝒙 𝒇𝒐𝒓 𝒂𝒍𝒍 𝒙 ∈ [−𝟏, 𝟏]
(ii) 𝐜𝐨𝐬(𝐜𝐨𝐬 −𝟏 𝒙) = 𝒙 𝒇𝒐𝒓 𝒂𝒍𝒍 𝒙 ∈ [−𝟏, 𝟏]
(iii) 𝐭𝐚𝐧(𝐭𝐚𝐧−𝟏 𝒙) = 𝒙 𝒇𝒐𝒓 𝒂𝒍𝒍 𝒙 ∈ 𝑹
(iv) 𝐜𝐬𝐜(𝐜𝐬𝐜 −𝟏 𝒙) = 𝒙 𝒇𝒐𝒓 𝒂𝒍𝒍 𝒙 ∈ (−∞, −𝟏] ∪ [𝟏, ∞)
(v) 𝐬𝐞𝐜(𝐬𝐞𝐜 −𝟏 𝒙) = 𝒙 𝒇𝒐𝒓 𝒂𝒍𝒍 𝒙 ∈ (−∞, −𝟏] ∪ [𝟏, ∞)
(vi) 𝐜𝐨𝐭(𝐜𝐨𝐭 −𝟏 𝒙) = 𝒙 𝒇𝒐𝒓 𝒂𝒍𝒍 𝒙 ∈ 𝑹

Property3
𝒙 √𝟏−𝒙𝟐 𝟏 𝟏
(i) 𝐬𝐢𝐧−𝟏 𝒙 = 𝐜𝐨𝐬 −𝟏 √𝟏 − 𝒙𝟐 = 𝐭𝐚𝐧−𝟏 = 𝐜𝐨𝐭 −𝟏 = 𝐬𝐞𝐜 −𝟏 = 𝐜𝐬𝐜 −𝟏
√𝟏−𝒙 𝟐 𝒙 √𝟏−𝒙𝟐 𝒙

√𝟏−𝒙𝟐 𝒙 𝟏 𝟏
(ii) 𝐜𝐨𝐬 −𝟏 𝒙 = 𝐬𝐢𝐧−𝟏 √𝟏 − 𝒙𝟐 = 𝐭𝐚𝐧−𝟏 = 𝐜𝐨𝐭 −𝟏 = 𝐬𝐞𝐜 −𝟏 = 𝐜𝐬𝐜 −𝟏
𝒙 √𝟏−𝒙𝟐 𝒙 √𝟏−𝒙𝟐

𝒙 𝟏 𝟏 √𝟏+𝒙𝟐
(iii) 𝐭𝐚𝐧−𝟏 𝒙 = 𝐬𝐢𝐧−𝟏 = 𝐜𝐨𝐬 −𝟏 = 𝐜𝐨𝐭 −𝟏 = 𝐬𝐞𝐜 −𝟏 √𝟏 + 𝒙𝟐 = 𝐜𝐬𝐜 −𝟏
√𝟏+𝒙 𝟐 √𝟏+𝒙 𝟐 𝒙 𝒙

Property4
(i) 𝐬𝐢𝐧−𝟏 (−𝒙) = − 𝐬𝐢𝐧−𝟏 𝒙 𝒇𝒐𝒓 𝒂𝒍𝒍 𝒙 ∈ [−𝟏, 𝟏]
(ii) 𝐜𝐨𝐬 −𝟏(−𝒙) = 𝝅 − 𝐜𝐨𝐬 −𝟏 𝒙 𝒇𝒐𝒓 𝒂𝒍𝒍 𝒙 ∈ [−𝟏, 𝟏]
(iii) 𝐭𝐚𝐧−𝟏 (−𝒙) = − 𝐭𝐚𝐧−𝟏 𝒙 𝒇𝒐𝒓 𝒂𝒍𝒍 𝒙 ∈ 𝑹
(iv) 𝐜𝐬𝐜 −𝟏(−𝒙) = − 𝐜𝐬𝐜 −𝟏 𝒙 𝒇𝒐𝒓 𝒂𝒍𝒍 𝒙 ∈ (−∞, −𝟏] ∪ [𝟏, ∞)
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## (v) 𝐬𝐞𝐜 −𝟏 (−𝒙) = 𝝅 − 𝐬𝐞𝐜 −𝟏 𝒙 𝒇𝒐𝒓 𝒂𝒍𝒍 𝒙 ∈ (−∞, −𝟏] ∪ [𝟏, ∞)

(vi) 𝐜𝐨𝐭 −𝟏 (−𝒙) = 𝝅 − 𝐜𝐨𝐭 −𝟏 𝒙 𝒇𝒐𝒓 𝒂𝒍𝒍 𝒙 ∈ 𝑹

Property5
𝟏
(i) 𝐬𝐢𝐧−𝟏 ( ) = 𝐜𝐬𝐜 −𝟏 𝒙 𝒇𝒐𝒓 𝒂𝒍𝒍 𝒙 ∈ (−∞, −𝟏] ∪ [𝟏, ∞)
𝒙
𝟏
(ii) 𝐜𝐨𝐬 −𝟏 ( ) = 𝐬𝐞𝐜 −𝟏 𝒙 𝒇𝒐𝒓 𝒂𝒍𝒍 𝒙 ∈ (−∞, −𝟏] ∪ [𝟏, ∞)
𝒙
𝟏 𝐜𝐨𝐭 −𝟏 𝒙, 𝒇𝒐𝒓 𝒙 > 𝟎
(iii) 𝐭𝐚𝐧−𝟏 ( ) = {
𝒙 −𝝅 + 𝐜𝐨𝐭 −𝟏 𝒙, 𝒇𝒐𝒓 𝒙 < 𝟎

Property6
𝝅
(i) 𝐬𝐢𝐧−𝟏 𝒙 + 𝐜𝐨𝐬 −𝟏 𝒙 = 𝒇𝒐𝒓 𝒂𝒍𝒍 𝒙 ∈ [−𝟏, 𝟏]
𝟐
𝝅
(ii) 𝐭𝐚𝐧−𝟏 𝒙 + 𝐜𝐨𝐭 −𝟏 𝒙 = 𝒇𝒐𝒓 𝒂𝒍𝒍 𝒙 ∈ 𝑹
𝟐
𝝅
(iii) 𝐬𝐞𝐜 −𝟏 𝒙 + 𝐜𝐬𝐜 −𝟏 𝒙 = 𝒇𝒐𝒓 𝒂𝒍𝒍 𝒙 ∈ (−∞, −𝟏] ∪ [𝟏, ∞)
𝟐

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Remark
Property7 In order to simplify Trig. Exp involving inverse T
𝒙+𝒚 F functions following substitutions are very useful.
𝐭𝐚𝐧−𝟏 ( ) 𝒊𝒇 𝒙𝒚 < 𝟏 E expression Substitution
𝟏−𝒙𝒚
−𝟏 𝒙+𝒚 𝑎2 + 𝑥 2 𝑥 = 𝑎 𝑡𝑎𝑛𝜃 𝑜𝑟 𝑥 = 𝑎 𝑐𝑜𝑡𝜃
(i) 𝐭𝐚𝐧−𝟏 𝒙 + 𝐭𝐚𝐧−𝟏 𝒚 = 𝝅 + 𝐭𝐚𝐧 ( ) , 𝒊𝒇𝒙 > 𝟎, 𝒚 > 𝟎 𝒙𝒚 > 𝟏
𝟏−𝒙𝒚 𝑎2 − 𝑥 2 𝑥 = 𝑎 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜃 𝑜𝑟 𝑥 = 𝑎 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜃
−𝟏 𝒙+𝒚 𝑥 − 𝑎2
2
𝑥 = 𝑎 𝑠𝑒𝑐𝜃 𝑜𝑟 𝑥 = 𝑎 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑒𝑐𝜃
{−𝛑 + 𝐭𝐚𝐧 (𝟏−𝒙𝒚) 𝒊𝒇 𝒙 < 𝟎, 𝒚 < 𝟎 &𝒙𝒚 > 𝟏
𝒙−𝒚 𝑎−𝑥 𝑎+𝑥
𝐭𝐚𝐧−𝟏 ( ) 𝒊𝒇 𝒙𝒚 > −𝟏 √
𝑎+𝑥
𝑜𝑟 √
𝑎−𝑥
𝑥 = 𝑎 𝑐𝑜𝑠2𝜃
𝟏+𝒙𝒚
−𝟏 𝒙−𝒚
(ii) 𝐭𝐚𝐧−𝟏 𝒙 − 𝐭𝐚𝐧−𝟏 𝒚 = 𝝅 + 𝐭𝐚𝐧 (
𝟏+𝒙𝒚
) , 𝒊𝒇𝒙 > 𝟎, 𝒚 < 𝟎 , 𝒙𝒚 < −𝟏 𝑎2 − 𝑥 2 𝑎2 + 𝑥 2
√ 2 𝑜𝑟 √ 𝑥 2 = 𝑎2 𝐶𝑜𝑠2𝜃
−𝟏 𝒙−𝒚 𝑎 + 𝑥2 𝑎2 − 𝑥 2
{−𝛑 + 𝐭𝐚𝐧 (𝟏+𝒙𝒚) 𝒊𝒇 𝒙 < 𝟎, 𝒚 > 𝟎 &𝒙𝒚 < −𝟏

Property8
𝐬𝐢𝐧−𝟏 {𝒙√𝟏 − 𝒚𝟐 + 𝒚√𝟏 − 𝒙𝟐 } 𝒊𝒇 𝒙𝒚 < 𝟎 &𝒙𝟐 + 𝒚𝟐 > 𝟏
(i) 𝐬𝐢𝐧−𝟏 𝒙 + 𝐬𝐢𝐧−𝟏 𝒚 = 𝝅 − 𝐬𝐢𝐧−𝟏 {𝒙√𝟏 − 𝒚𝟐 + 𝒚√𝟏 − 𝒙𝟐 } 𝒊𝒇 𝒙 > 𝟎 𝒚 ≤ 𝟏&𝒙𝟐 + 𝒚𝟐 > 𝟏
−𝟏 𝟐 𝟐 𝟐 𝟐
{−𝝅 − 𝐬𝐢𝐧 {𝒙√𝟏 − 𝒚 + 𝒚√𝟏 − 𝒙 } 𝒊𝒇 𝒙 ≥ −𝟏, 𝒚 < 𝟎 &𝒙 + 𝒚 > 𝟏

## 𝐬𝐢𝐧−𝟏 {𝒙√𝟏 − 𝒚𝟐 − 𝒚√𝟏 − 𝒙𝟐 } 𝒊𝒇 𝒙𝒚 > 𝟎 &𝒙𝟐 + 𝒚𝟐 > 𝟏

(ii) 𝐬𝐢𝐧−𝟏 𝒙 − 𝐬𝐢𝐧−𝟏 𝒚 = 𝝅 − 𝐬𝐢𝐧−𝟏 {𝒙√𝟏 − 𝒚𝟐 − 𝒚√𝟏 − 𝒙𝟐 } 𝟎 < 𝒙 ≤ 𝟏 − 𝟏 ≤ 𝒚 ≤ 𝟎&𝒙𝟐 + 𝒚𝟐 > 𝟏
−𝟏 𝟐 𝟐 𝟐 𝟐
{−𝝅 − 𝐬𝐢𝐧 {𝒙√𝟏 − 𝒚 − 𝒚√𝟏 − 𝒙 } 𝒊𝒇 − 𝟏 ≤ 𝒙 < 𝟎, −𝟏, 𝟎 < 𝒚 ≤ 𝟏&𝒙 + 𝒚 > 𝟏

Property9
𝐜𝐨𝐬 −𝟏 {𝒙𝒚 − √𝟏 − 𝒙𝟐 √𝟏 − 𝒚𝟐 } 𝒙 ≥ −𝟏, 𝒚 ≤ 𝟏 𝒂𝒏𝒅 𝒙 + 𝒚 ≥ 𝟎
(i) 𝐜𝐨𝐬 −𝟏 𝒙 + 𝐜𝐨𝐬 −𝟏 𝒚 ={
𝟐𝝅 − 𝐜𝐨𝐬 −𝟏 {𝒙𝒚 − √𝟏 − 𝒙𝟐 √𝟏 − 𝒚𝟐 } 𝒙 ≥ −𝟏, 𝒚 ≤ 𝟏 𝒂𝒏𝒅 𝒙 + 𝒚 ≤ 𝟎

## 𝐜𝐨𝐬 −𝟏 {𝒙𝒚 + √𝟏 − 𝒙𝟐 √𝟏 − 𝒚𝟐 } 𝒙 ≥ −𝟏, 𝒚 ≤ 𝟏 𝒂𝒏𝒅 𝒙 ≤ 𝒚

(ii) 𝐜𝐨𝐬 −𝟏 𝒙 − 𝐜𝐨𝐬 −𝟏 𝒚 ={
− 𝐜𝐨𝐬 −𝟏 {𝒙𝒚 + √𝟏 − 𝒙𝟐 √𝟏 − 𝒚𝟐 } 𝟎 < 𝒙 ≤ 𝟏, −𝟏 < 𝒚 ≤ 𝟎 𝒂𝒏𝒅 𝒙 ≥ 𝒚

Property10
𝟏 𝟏
𝐬𝐢𝐧−𝟏 (𝟐𝒙√𝟏 − 𝒙𝟐 ) , 𝒊𝒇 − ≤𝒙≤
√𝟐 √𝟐
𝟏
(i) 2𝐬𝐢𝐧−𝟏 𝒙 𝝅 − 𝐬𝐢𝐧−𝟏 (𝟐𝒙√𝟏 − 𝒙𝟐 ) , 𝒊𝒇 ≤𝒙≤𝟏
√𝟐
−𝟏 (𝟐𝒙√𝟏 − 𝟏
{−𝝅 − 𝐬𝐢𝐧 𝒙𝟐 ) , 𝒊𝒇 − 𝟏 ≤ 𝒙 ≤ −
√𝟐

𝟏 𝟏
𝐬𝐢𝐧−𝟏 (𝟑𝒙 − 𝟒𝒙𝟑 ), 𝒊𝒇 − ≤ 𝒙 ≤
𝟐 𝟐
𝟏
(ii) 3𝐬𝐢𝐧−𝟏 𝒙 𝝅 − 𝐬𝐢𝐧−𝟏 (𝟑𝒙 − 𝟒𝒙𝟑 ), 𝒊𝒇 ≤ 𝒙 ≤ 𝟏
𝟐
−𝟏 𝟑 𝟏
{−𝝅 − 𝐬𝐢𝐧 (𝟑𝒙 − 𝟒𝒙 ), 𝒊𝒇 − 𝟏 ≤ 𝒙 < − 𝟐

Property11
𝐜𝐨𝐬 −𝟏 (𝟐𝒙𝟐 − 𝟏, 𝒊𝒇 𝟎 ≤ 𝒙 ≤ 𝟏)
𝟐 𝐜𝐨𝐬 −𝟏 𝒙 = {
𝟐𝝅 − 𝐜𝐨𝐬 −𝟏 (𝟐𝒙𝟐 − 𝟏, 𝒊𝒇 − 𝟏 ≤ 𝒙 ≤ 𝟎)
𝟏
𝐜𝐨𝐬 −𝟏 (𝟒𝒙𝟑 − 𝟑𝒙) 𝒊𝒇 ≤ 𝒙 ≤ 𝟏
𝟐
𝟏 𝟏
𝟑 𝐜𝐨𝐬 −𝟏 𝒙 = 𝟐𝝅 − 𝐜𝐨𝐬 −𝟏 (𝟒𝒙𝟑 − 𝟑𝒙) 𝒊𝒇 − ≤ 𝒙 ≤
𝟐 𝟐
−𝟏 𝟑
𝟏
{𝟐𝝅 + 𝐜𝐨𝐬 (𝟒𝒙 − 𝟑𝒙) 𝒊𝒇 − 𝟏 ≤ 𝒙 ≤ − 𝟐
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Property12
𝟐𝒙
𝐭𝐚𝐧−𝟏 ( ) 𝒊𝒇 − 𝟏 < 𝒙 < 𝟏
𝟏 − 𝒙𝟐
𝟐𝒙
𝟐 𝐭𝐚𝐧−𝟏 𝒙 = 𝝅 + 𝐭𝐚𝐧−𝟏 ( ) 𝒊𝒇 𝒙 > 𝟏
𝟏 − 𝒙𝟐
−𝟏
𝟐𝒙
{−𝝅 + 𝐭𝐚𝐧 (𝟏 − 𝒙𝟐 ) 𝒊𝒇 𝒙 < −𝟏

𝟑𝒙 − 𝒙𝟑 𝟏 𝟏
𝐭𝐚𝐧−𝟏 ( 𝟐 ) 𝒊𝒇 − <𝒙<
𝟏 − 𝟑𝒙 √𝟑 √𝟑
𝟑
𝟑𝒙 − 𝒙 𝟏
𝟑 𝐭𝐚𝐧−𝟏 𝒙 = 𝝅 + 𝐭𝐚𝐧−𝟏 ( 𝟐 ) 𝒊𝒇 𝒙 >
𝟏 − 𝟑𝒙 √𝟑
𝟑
𝟑𝒙 − 𝒙 𝟏
−𝝅 + 𝐭𝐚𝐧−𝟏 ( 𝟐 ) 𝒊𝒇 𝒙 < −
{ 𝟏 − 𝟑𝒙 √𝟑

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CHAP: 5
ALGEBRA OF MATRICES
A set of mn numbers (real or imaginary) arranged in the form of a rectangular array of m rows and n
columns is called an 𝒎 × 𝒏 matrix.

## A matrix having only one column is called a column matrix.

A matrix in which the number of rows is equal to the number of columns, say n, is called a square matrix
of order n.

The elements 𝒂𝒊𝒋 of a square matrix 𝑨 = [𝒂𝒊𝒋 ]𝒏×𝒏 for which 𝒊 = 𝒋, i.e. the elements 𝒂𝟏𝟏 , 𝒂𝟐𝟐 , … , 𝒂𝒏𝒏 are
called the diagonal elements and the line along which they lie is called the principal diagonal or leading
diagonal.

A square matrix 𝑨 = [𝒂𝒊𝒋 ] is called a diagonal matrix if all the elements, except those in the leading
𝒏×𝒏
diagonal, are zero i.e.𝒂𝒊𝒋 = 𝟎 𝒇𝒐𝒓 𝒊 ≠ 𝒋.

## A square matrix 𝑨 = [𝒂𝒊𝒋 ]𝒏×𝒏is called a scalar matrix, if

(𝒊)𝒂𝒊𝒋 = 𝟎 𝒇𝒐𝒓 𝒂𝒍𝒍 𝒊 ≠ 𝒋 𝒂𝒏𝒅, (𝒊𝒊)𝒂𝒊𝒋 = 𝒄 𝒇𝒐𝒓 𝒂𝒍𝒍 𝒊, 𝒘𝒉𝒆𝒓𝒆 𝒄 ≠ 𝟎.

## A square matrix 𝑨 = [𝒂𝒊𝒋 ]𝒏×𝒏is called an identity or a unit matrix, if

(𝒊)𝒂𝒊𝒋 = 𝟎 𝒇𝒐𝒓 𝒂𝒍𝒍 𝒊 ≠ 𝒋 𝒂𝒏𝒅, (𝒊𝒊)𝒂𝒊𝒋 = 𝟏 𝒇𝒐𝒓 𝒂𝒍𝒍 𝒊,

A matrix whose all elements are zero is called a null matrix or a zero matrix.

## A square matrix 𝑨 = [𝒂𝒊𝒋 ]𝒏×𝒏is called

i) An upper triangular matrix, if 𝒂𝒊𝒋 = 𝟎 𝒇𝒐𝒓 𝒂𝒍𝒍 𝒊 > 𝒋
ii) A lower triangular matrix, if 𝒂𝒊𝒋 = 𝟎 𝒇𝒐𝒓 𝒂𝒍𝒍 𝒊 < 𝒋 .

Two matrices 𝑨 = [𝒂𝒊𝒋 ]𝒎×𝒏and 𝑩 = [𝒃𝒊𝒋 ]𝒎×𝒏of the same order are equal, if
𝒂𝒊𝒋 = 𝒃𝒊𝒋 𝒇𝒐𝒓 𝒂𝒍𝒍 𝒊 = 𝟏, 𝟐, … , 𝒎; 𝒋 = 𝟏, 𝟐, … , 𝒏

If 𝑨 = [𝒂𝒊𝒋 ]𝒎×𝒏and 𝑩 = [𝒃𝒊𝒋 ]𝒎×𝒏 are two matrices of the same order 𝒎 × 𝒏, then their sum 𝑨 + 𝑩
is an 𝒎 × 𝒏 matrix such that (𝑨 + 𝑩)𝒊𝒋 = 𝒂𝒊𝒋 + 𝒃𝒊𝒋 𝒇𝒐𝒓 𝒊 = 𝟏, 𝟐, . . , 𝒎 𝒂𝒏𝒇 𝒋 = 𝟏, 𝟐, 𝟑, … , 𝒏
Following are the properties of matrix addition:
i) 𝑪𝒐𝒎𝒎𝒖𝒕𝒂𝒕𝒊𝒗𝒊𝒕𝒚: if A and B are two matrices of the same order, then A+B=B+A.
ii) 𝑨𝒔𝒔𝒐𝒄𝒊𝒂𝒕𝒊𝒗𝒊𝒕𝒚; if A, B, C are three matrices of the same order, then (𝑨 + 𝑩) + 𝑪 = 𝑨 +
(𝑩 + 𝑪 )
iii) 𝑭𝒙𝒊𝒔𝒕𝒆𝒏𝒄𝒆 𝒐𝒇 𝒊𝒅𝒆𝒏𝒕𝒊𝒕𝒚; The null matrix is the identity element for matrix addition I.e.,𝑨 + 𝑶 =
𝑨+𝑶×𝑨
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iv) 𝑭𝒙𝒊𝒔𝒕𝒆𝒏𝒄𝒆 𝒐𝒇 𝑰𝒏𝒗𝒆𝒓𝒔𝒆: For every matrix 𝑨 = [𝒂𝒊𝒋 ]𝒎×𝒏there exists a matrix− 𝑨 =
[−𝒂𝒊𝒋 ] such that 𝑨 + (−𝑨) = 𝑰 = (−𝑨) + 𝑨.
𝒎×𝒏
v) 𝑪𝒂𝒏𝒄𝒆𝒍𝒍𝒂𝒕𝒊𝒐𝒏 𝑳𝒂𝒘𝒔: If A, B, C are three matrices of the same order, then 𝑨 + 𝑩 = 𝑨 + 𝑪 ⟹
𝑩 = 𝑪 𝒂𝒏𝒅, 𝑩 + 𝑨 = 𝑪 + 𝑨 ⟹ 𝑩 = 𝑪.

Let 𝑨 = [𝒂𝒊𝒋 ] be an 𝒎 × 𝒏 matrix and, K be any number called a scalar. Then, the matrix obtained by
multiplying every element of A by k is called the scalar multiple of A by k and is denoted by kA.
Thus, = [𝒌 𝒂𝒊𝒋 ] .
𝒎×𝒏
Following are the properties of scalar multiplication:
If A, B are two matrices of the same order and k, I are scalars, then
(𝒊)𝒌(𝑨 + 𝑩) = 𝒌𝑨 = 𝒌𝑩 (𝒊𝒊)(𝒌 + 𝒍)𝑨 = 𝒌𝑨 + 𝒍𝑨 (𝒊𝒊𝒊)(𝒌𝒍)𝑨 = 𝒌(𝒍𝑨) = 𝒍(𝒌𝑨)
(𝒊𝒗)(−𝒌)𝑨 = −(𝒌𝑨 = 𝒌)(−𝑨) (𝒗)𝟏𝑨 = 𝑨 (𝒗𝒊)(−𝟏)𝑨 = −𝑨

## If A and B are two matrices of the same order, then A – B = A + (- b ).

Two matrices A and B are conformable for the product AB if the number of columns in A is same as
the number of rows in B.
If 𝑨 = [𝒂𝒊𝒋 ]𝒎×𝒏and 𝑩 = [𝒃𝒊𝒋 ]𝒏×𝒑 are two matrices, then AB is an 𝒎 × 𝒑matrix such that (𝑨𝑩)𝒊𝒋 =
∑𝒏𝒓=𝟏 𝒂𝒊𝒓 𝒃𝒓𝒋 .
Matrix multiplication has the following properties:
i) Matrix multiplication is not commutative.
ii) Matrix multiplication is associative i.e. (𝑨𝑩)𝑪 = 𝑨(𝑩𝑪) wherever both sides of the equality are
defined.
iii) Matrix multiplication is distributive over matrix addition i.e. 𝑨(𝑩 + 𝑪) = 𝑨𝑩 + 𝑨𝑪 𝒂𝒏𝒅 (𝑩 +
𝑪)𝑨 = 𝑩𝑨 + 𝑪𝑨 wherever both sides of the equality are defined.
iv) If A is an 𝒎 × 𝒏 matrix, then 𝑰𝒎 𝑨 = 𝑨 = 𝑨𝑰𝒏 .
v) If A is an 𝒎 × 𝒏 matrix and O is a null matrix, then 𝑨𝒎×𝒏 𝑶𝒏×𝒑 = 𝑶𝒎×𝒑 𝒂𝒏𝒅𝑶𝒑×𝒎 × 𝑨𝒑×𝒎 =
𝑶𝒑×𝒏. i.e., the product of a matrix with a null matrix is a null matrix.
If A is a square matrix, then we define 𝑨𝟏 = 𝑨 𝒂𝒏𝒅 𝑨𝒏+𝟏 = 𝑨𝒏 𝑨
If A is a square matrix and 𝒂𝒐 , 𝒂𝟏 , … , 𝒂𝒏 are constants, then 𝒂𝒐 𝑨𝒏 + 𝒂𝟏 𝑨𝒏−𝟏 + 𝒂𝟐 𝑨𝒏−𝟐 + ⋯ +
𝒂𝒏−𝟏 𝑨 + 𝒂𝒏 𝑰 is called a matrix polynomial.
Let 𝑨 = [𝒂𝒊𝒋 ]be an 𝒎 × 𝒏 matrix. Then, the transpose of A, denoted by 𝑨𝑻 , is an 𝒏 × 𝒎 matrix such
that (𝑨𝑻 )𝒊𝒋 = 𝒂𝒊𝒋 𝒇𝒐𝒓 𝒂𝒍𝒍 𝒊 = 𝟏, 𝟐, … , 𝒏.
Following are the properties of transpose of a matrix:
(𝒊) (𝑨𝑻 )𝑻 = 𝑨 (𝒊𝒊)(𝑨 + 𝑩)𝑻 = 𝑨𝑻 + 𝑩𝑻 (𝒊𝒊𝒊) (𝒌𝑨)𝑻 = 𝒌𝑨𝑻
(𝒊𝒗)(𝑨𝑩)𝑻 = 𝑩𝑻 𝑨𝑻 (𝒗)(𝑨𝑩𝑪)𝑻 = 𝑪𝑻 𝑩𝑻 𝑨𝑻
A square matrix 𝑨 = [𝒂𝒊𝒋 ] is called a symmetric matrix, if 𝒂𝒊𝒋 = 𝒂𝒊𝒋 𝒇𝒐𝒓 𝒂𝒍𝒍 𝒊, 𝒋 𝒊. 𝒆. 𝑨 = 𝑨𝑻 .
A square matrix 𝑨 = [𝒂𝒊𝒋 ] is called a skew symmetric matrix, if 𝒂𝒊𝒋 = −𝒂𝒊𝒋 𝒇𝒐𝒓 𝒂𝒍𝒍 𝒊, 𝒋𝒊. 𝒆. 𝑨𝑻 = −𝑨.
All main diagonal elements of a skew-symmetric matrix are zero.
Every square matrix can be uniquely expressed as the sum of a symmetric and a skew-symmetric
matrix.
All positive integral powers of a symmetric matrix are symmetric matrices.
All positive integral powers of a skew-symmetric matrix are skew-symmetric matrices.

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CHAP:6
DETERMINANTS
Every square matrix can be associated to an expression or a number which is known as its
determinant.
𝒂𝟏𝟏 𝒂𝟏𝟐
i) If 𝑨 = [𝒂 ] is a square matrix of order 𝟐 × 𝟐 , then its determinant is denoted by
𝟐𝟏 𝒂𝟐𝟐
𝒂 𝒂
|𝑨| 𝒐𝒓, [𝒂𝟏𝟏 𝒂𝟏𝟐 ]and is defined as 𝒂𝟏𝟏 𝒂𝟐𝟐 − 𝒂𝟏𝟐 𝒂𝟐𝟏.
𝟐𝟏 𝟐𝟐
𝒂𝟏𝟏 𝒂𝟏𝟐
i.e. |𝑨| 𝒐𝒓, [𝒂 ] = 𝒂𝟏𝟏 𝒂𝟐𝟐 − 𝒂𝟏𝟐 𝒂𝟐𝟏.
𝟐𝟏 𝒂𝟐𝟐
𝒂𝟏𝟏 𝒂𝟏𝟐 𝒂𝟏𝟑
ii) If 𝑨 = [𝒂𝟐𝟏 𝒂𝟐𝟐 𝒂𝟐𝟑 ] is a square matrix of order 𝟑 × 𝟑, then its determinant is denoted by .
𝒂𝟑𝟏 𝒂𝟑𝟐 𝒂𝟑𝟑
𝒂𝟏𝟏 𝒂𝟏𝟐 𝒂𝟏𝟑
|𝑨| 𝒐𝒓, [𝒂𝟐𝟏 𝒂𝟐𝟐 𝒂𝟐𝟑 ] and is equal to 𝒂𝟏𝟏 𝒂𝟐𝟐 𝒂𝟑𝟑 + 𝒂𝟏𝟐 𝒂𝟐𝟑 𝒂𝟑𝟏 + 𝒂𝟏𝟑 𝒂𝟑𝟐 𝒂𝟐𝟏 −
𝒂𝟑𝟏 𝒂𝟑𝟐 𝒂𝟑𝟑
𝒂𝟏𝟏 𝒂𝟐𝟑 𝒂𝟑𝟐 − 𝒂𝟐𝟐 𝒂𝟏𝟑 𝒂𝟑𝟏 − 𝒂𝟏𝟐 𝒂𝟐𝟏 𝒂𝟑𝟑

## This expression can be arranged in the following

𝒂𝟏𝟏 𝒂𝟏𝟐 𝒂𝟏𝟑
𝒂𝟐𝟐 𝒂𝟐𝟑 𝒂𝟐𝟏 𝒂𝟐𝟑
form: [𝒂𝟐𝟏 𝒂𝟐𝟐 𝒂𝟐𝟑 ] = (−𝟏)𝟏+𝟏𝒂𝟏𝟏 |𝒂 𝒂 | + (−𝟏)𝟏+𝟐 𝒂𝟏𝟐 |𝒂 |+
𝟑𝟐 𝟑𝟑 𝟑𝟏 𝒂𝟑𝟑
𝒂𝟑𝟏 𝒂𝟑𝟐 𝒂𝟑𝟑
𝒂 𝒂𝟐𝟐
(−𝟏)𝟏+𝟑𝒂𝟏𝟑 | 𝟐𝟏
𝒂𝟑𝟏 𝒂𝟑𝟑 |
This is known as the expansion of |𝑨| along first row.
In fact, |𝑨| can be expanded along any of its rows or columns. In order to expand |𝑨| along any
row or column, we multiply each element 𝒂𝒊𝒋 of ith row (say) With (−𝟏)𝒊+𝒋 times the
determinant of the submatrix obtained by leaving the row and column passing through the
element and then they are added.
Similarly, we can find the value of the determinant of square matrices of order 4 or more.
A square matrix is a singular matrix if its determinant is zero. Otherwise, it is a non-singular matrix.
.
i) Let 𝑨 = [𝒂𝒊𝒋 ]be a square matrix of order n. Then the minor 𝑴𝒊𝒋 𝒐𝒓 𝒂𝒊𝒋 𝒊𝒏 𝑨 is the determinant of
the sub-matrix of order (𝒏 − 𝟏) obtained by leaving ith row and jth column of A .
𝟏 𝟐 𝟑
For example, if 𝑨 = [−𝟑 𝟐 −𝟏], then
𝟐 −𝟒 𝟑
𝟐 −𝟏 −𝟑 −𝟏
𝑴𝟏𝟏 = | | = 𝟐, 𝑴𝟏𝟐 = | | = −𝟕 𝒂𝒏𝒅 𝒔𝒐 𝒐𝒏.
−𝟒 𝟑 𝟐 𝟑
ii) The cofactor 𝑪𝒊𝒋 𝒐𝒇 𝒂𝒊𝒋 𝒊𝒏 𝑨 = [𝒂𝒊𝒋 ]𝒏×𝒏 𝒊𝒔 𝒆𝒒𝒖𝒂𝒍 𝒕𝒐 (−𝟏)𝒊+𝒋 𝒕𝒊𝒎𝒆𝒔 𝑴𝒊𝒋 .
𝟏 𝟐 𝟑
For example, if 𝑨 = [−𝟑 𝟐 −𝟏], then
𝟐 −𝟒 𝟑
𝟏+𝟏
(
𝑪𝟏𝟏 = −𝟏 ) 𝑴𝟏𝟏 = 𝟐 𝒂𝒏𝒅 𝑪𝟏𝟐 = (−𝟏)𝟏+𝟐 𝑴𝟏𝟐 = −𝑴𝟏𝟐 = 𝟕 𝒂𝒏𝒅 𝒔𝒐 𝒐𝒏.
Following are some important properties of determinants:
i) Let 𝑨 = [𝒂𝒊𝒋 ]be a square matrix of order n. Then the sum of the product of elements of any row
(column) with their cofactors is always equal to |𝑨| or, det (𝑨).
i.e. ∑𝒏𝒋=𝟏 𝒂𝒊𝒋 𝑪𝒊𝒋 = |𝑨| 𝒂𝒏𝒅 ∑𝒏𝒊=𝟏 𝒂𝒊𝒋 𝑪𝒊𝒋 = |𝑨|

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ii) Let 𝑨 = [𝒂𝒊𝒋 ]be a square matrix of order n. Then the sum of the product of elements of any
row(column) with the cofactors of the corresponding elements of some other row (column) is zero.
i.e. ∑𝒏𝒋=𝟏 𝒂𝒊𝒋 𝑪𝒌𝒋 = 𝟎 𝒂𝒏𝒅 ∑𝒏𝒊=𝟏 𝒂𝒊𝒋 𝑪𝒊𝒋 = 𝟎.
iii) Let 𝑨 = [𝒂𝒊𝒋 ] be a square matrix of order n, then |𝑨| = |𝑨𝑻 |.
By the abuse of language this property is also stated as follows:
The value of a determinant remains unchanged if its rows and columns are interchanged.
iv) Let 𝑨 = [𝒂𝒊𝒋 ]be square matrix of order n,(≥ 𝟐)and let B be a matrix obtained from A by
interchanging any two rows (columns) of A, then |𝑩| = − |𝑨|. Conventionally this property is also
stated as:
v) If any two rows (columns) of a square matrix 𝑨 = [𝒂𝒊𝒋 ] of order n (≥ 𝟐)are identical, then its
determinant is zero i.e. |𝑨| = 𝟎. Conventionally this property is stated as: If any two rows or
columns of a determinant are identical, then its value is zero.
vi) Let 𝑨 = [𝒂𝒊𝒋 ]be a square matrix of order n, and let B be the matrix obtained from A by multiplying
each element of a row (column) of A by a scalar k, then |𝑩| = 𝒌|𝑨|. Conventionally this property is
also stated as: If any two element of a row (column) of determinant is multiplied by a constant k,
then the value of the new determinant is k times the original determinant. If 𝑨 = [𝒂𝒊𝒋 ]be a square
matrix of order n, then |𝒌𝑨| = 𝒌𝒏 |𝑨|.
vii) Let A be a square matrix such that each element of a row (column) of A is expressed as the sum of
rqo or more terms. Then the determinant of A can be expressed as the sum of the determinants o
two of more matrices of the same order. conventionally This property also stated as: If each
element of a row (column) of a determinant is expressed as a sum of two or more terms, the
determinant can be expressed as the sum of two or more determinants.
viii) Let A be a square matrix and B be a matrix obtained from A by adding to a row (column) of A
a scalar multiple of another row (column) of A, then |𝑩| = |𝑨|. This property is conventionally
stated as: If each element of a row (column) of a determinant is multiplied by the same constant
and then added to the corresponding elements of some other row |(column), then the value of the
determinant remains same.
ix) Let A be a square matrix of order n (≥ 𝟐) such that each element in a row (column0 of A is zero,
then |𝑨| = 𝟎. Conventionally this property is also stated as: If each element of a row (column) of a
determinant is zero, then its value is zero.
x) If 𝑨 = [𝒂𝒊𝒋 ] is a diagonal matrix of order n (≥ 𝟐), then |𝑨| = 𝒂𝟏𝟏 ∙ 𝒂𝟐𝟐 ∙ 𝒂𝟑𝟑 ⋯ 𝒂𝒏𝒏.
xi) If A and B are square matrices of the same order, then |𝑨𝑩| = |𝑨| |𝑩|.
xii) If 𝑨 = [𝒂𝒊𝒋 ] is a triangular matrix of order n, then |𝑨| = 𝒂𝟏𝟏 ∙ 𝒂𝟐𝟐 ∙ 𝒂𝟑𝟑 ⋯ 𝒂𝒏𝒏 .
𝒙 𝟏 𝒚𝟏 𝟏
𝟏
Area of a triangle with vertices (𝒙𝟏 , 𝒚𝟏 ), (𝒙𝟐 , 𝒚𝟐 )𝒂𝒏𝒅(𝒙𝟑 , 𝒚𝟑 )is given by ∆= 𝟐 |𝒙𝟐 𝒚𝟐 𝟏|
𝒙 𝟑 𝒚𝟑 𝟏
(i) if A is a skew-symmetric matrix of odd order, then |𝑨| = 𝐎.
(ii) The determinant of a skew-symmetric matrix of even order is a perfect square.
Consider a system of simultaneous linear equations given by
𝒂𝟏 𝒙 + 𝒃𝟏 𝒚 + 𝒄𝟏 𝒛 = 𝒅𝟏
𝒂𝟐 𝒙 + 𝒃𝟐 𝒚 + 𝒄𝟐 𝒛 = 𝒅𝟐
𝒂𝟑 𝒙 + 𝒃𝟑 𝒚 + 𝒄𝟑 𝒛 = 𝒅𝟑
A set of values of the variables 𝒙, 𝒚, 𝒛 which simultaneously satisfy these three equations is called a
solution.
A system of linear equations may have a unique solution, or many solutions, or no solution no solution, it
is called an inconsistent system.

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## If 𝒅𝟏 = 𝒅𝟐 = 𝒅𝟑 = 𝟎 in (i), then the system of equations is said to be a homogeneous system. Otherwise

it is called a non-homogeneous system of equations.
(i) (𝑪𝒓𝒂𝒎𝒆𝒓′𝒔𝒓𝒖𝒍𝒆) The solution of the system of simultaneous linear equations
𝒂𝟏 𝒙 + 𝒃𝟏 𝒚 = 𝒄𝟏
𝒂𝟐 𝒙 + 𝒃𝟐 𝒚 = 𝒄𝟐
𝑫𝟏 𝑫
Is given by 𝒙 =, 𝒚 = 𝑫𝟐 , where
𝑫
𝒂 𝒃𝟏 𝒄 𝒃𝟏 𝒂𝟏 𝒄𝟏
𝑫=| 𝟏 | , 𝑫𝟏 = | 𝟏 | 𝒂𝒏𝒅 𝑫𝟐 = |𝒂 𝒄 | 𝒑𝒓𝒐𝒗𝒊𝒆𝒅𝒆 𝒕𝒉𝒂𝒕 𝑫 ≠ 𝟎.
𝒂𝟐 𝒃𝟐 𝒄𝟐 𝒃𝟐 𝟐 𝟐
( ′ )
(ii) 𝑪𝒓𝒂𝒎𝒆𝒓 𝒔𝒓𝒖𝒍𝒆 The solution of the system linear equations
𝒂𝟏 𝒙 + 𝒃𝟏 𝒚 + 𝒄𝟏 𝒛 = 𝒅𝟏
𝒂𝟐 𝒙 + 𝒃𝟐 𝒚 + 𝒄𝟐 𝒛 = 𝒅𝟐
𝒂𝟑 𝒙 + 𝒃𝟑 𝒚 + 𝒄𝟑 𝒛 = 𝒅𝟑
𝑫 𝑫 𝑫
Is given by 𝒙 = 𝑫𝟏 , 𝒚 = 𝑫𝟐 𝒂𝒏𝒅 𝒛 = 𝑫𝟑, where
𝒂𝟏 𝒃𝟏 𝒄𝟏 𝒅𝟏 𝒃𝟏 𝒄𝟏 𝒂𝟏 𝒅𝟏 𝒄𝟏 𝒂𝟏 𝒃𝟏 𝒅𝟏
𝑫 = |𝒂𝟐 𝒃𝟐 𝒄𝟐 | , 𝑫𝟏 = |𝒅𝟐 𝒃𝟐 𝒄𝟐 | , 𝑫𝟐 = |𝒂𝟐 𝒅𝟐 𝒄𝟐 | 𝒂𝒏𝒅 𝑫 = |𝒂𝟐 𝒃𝟐 𝒅𝟐 |,
𝒂𝟑 𝒃𝟑 𝒄𝟑 𝒅𝟑 𝒃𝟑 𝒄𝟑 𝒂𝟑 𝒅𝟑 𝒄𝟑 𝒂𝟑 𝒃𝟑 𝒅𝟑
Provided that 𝑫 ≠ 𝟎.
(a) For a system of 2 simultaneous linear equations with 2 unknowns:
i) If 𝑫 ≠ 𝟎, then the given system of equations is consistent and has a unique solution given by 𝒙 =
𝑫𝟏 𝑫𝟐
,𝒚 =
𝑫 𝑫
ii) If 𝑫 ≠ 𝟎 and 𝑫𝟏 = 𝑫𝟐 = 𝟎, then the system is consistent and has infinitely many solutions.
iii) If 𝑫 ≠ 𝟎 and one of 𝑫𝟏 and 𝑫𝟐 is non-zero, then the system is inconsistent.
b) For a system of 3 simultaneous linear equations in three unknowns
i) If 𝑫 ≠ 𝟎,then the given system of equations is consistent and has a unique solution given by
𝑫𝟏 𝑫𝟐 𝑫𝟑
𝒙= ,𝒚 = 𝒂𝒏𝒅 𝒛 =
𝑫 𝑫 𝑫
ii) If 𝑫 = 𝟎 and 𝑫𝟏 = 𝑫𝟐 = 𝑫𝟑 = 𝟎, then the given system of equations is consistent with infinitely
many solutions.
iii) If 𝑫 = 𝟎 and at least one of the determinants 𝑫𝟏 , 𝑫𝟐 , 𝑫𝟑 is non-zero, then the given system of
equations is inconsistent.

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CHAP:7
ADJOINT AND INVERSE OF A MATRIX
If 𝑨 = [𝒂𝒊𝒋 ] is a square matrix of order n and 𝑪𝒊𝒋 denote the cofactor of 𝒂𝒊𝒋 in A, then he transpose of
𝑻
the cofactors of elements of A is called the adjoint of A and is denoted by adj A i.e. adj 𝑨 = [ 𝑪𝒊𝒋 ] .
𝒂𝟏𝟏 𝒂𝟏𝟐 𝒂𝟏𝟑 𝑪𝟏𝟏 𝑪𝟐𝟏 𝑪𝟑𝟏
If 𝑨 = [𝒂𝟐𝟏 𝒂𝟐𝟐 𝒂𝟐𝟑 ] , 𝒕𝒉𝒆𝒏 𝒂𝒅𝒋𝑨 = [𝑪𝟏𝟐 𝑪𝟐𝟐 𝑪𝟑𝟐 ] .
𝒂𝟑𝟏 𝒂𝟑𝟐 𝒂𝟑𝟑 𝑪𝟏𝟑 𝑪𝟐𝟑 𝑪𝟑𝟑
The adjoint of a square matrix of order can be obtained by interchanging the diagonal elements and
changing the signs of off-diagonal elements.
𝒂 𝒃 𝒅 −𝒃
i.e. If 𝑨 = [ ] , 𝒕𝒉𝒆𝒏 𝒂𝒅𝒋 𝑨 = [ ].
𝒄 𝒅 −𝒄 𝒂
If A is a square matrix of order n, then 𝑨(𝒂𝒅𝒋𝑨) = |𝑨|𝑰𝒏 = (𝒂𝒅𝒋𝑨)𝑨.
Following are some properties of adjoint of a square matrix:
If A and B are square matrices of the same order n, then
(i) 𝒂𝒅𝒋 (𝑨𝑩) = (𝒂𝒅𝒋 𝑩)(𝒂𝒅𝒋 𝑨) (𝒊𝒊) 𝒂𝒅𝒋𝑨𝑻 = (𝒂𝒅𝒋 𝑨)𝑻 (𝒊𝒊𝒊)𝒂𝒅𝒋(𝒂𝒅𝒋 𝑨) = |𝑨|𝒏−𝟐𝑨
𝟐
(𝒊𝒗)|𝒂𝒅𝒋 𝑨| = |𝑨|𝒏−𝟐 (𝒗) |𝒂𝒅𝒋(𝒂𝒅𝒋 𝑨)| = |𝑨|(𝒏−𝟏)
A square matrix A of order n is invertible if there exists a square matrix B of the same order such that
𝑨𝑩 = 𝑰𝒏 = 𝑩𝑨.
In such a case, we say that the inverse of matrix A is B and we write 𝑨−𝟏 = 𝑩.
Following are some properties of inverse of a matrix:
i) Every invertible matrix possesses a unique inverse.
ii) If A is an invertible matrix, then(𝑨−𝟏 )−𝟏 = 𝑨
iii) A square matrix is invertible iff it is non-singular.
𝟏
iv) If A is a non-singular matrix, then 𝑨−𝟏 = |𝑨| (𝒂𝒅𝒋 𝑨).
v) If A and B are two invertible matrices of the same order, then (𝑨𝑩)−𝟏 = 𝑩−𝟏 𝑨−𝟏 .
vi) If A is an invertible matrix, then (𝑨𝑻 )−𝟏 = (𝑨−𝟏 )𝑻 .
vii) The inverse of an invertible symmetric matrix is a symmetric matrix.
𝟏
viii) If A is a non-singular matrix, then |𝑨−𝟏 | = |𝑨|.
The following are three operations applied on the rows (columns) of a matrix:
i) Interchange of any two rows (columns).
ii) Multiplying all elements of a row (columns) of a matrix by a non-zero scalar.
iii) Adding to the elements of a row (columns), the corresponding elements of any other row
(columns) multiplied by any scalar.
A matrix obtained from an identity matrix by a single elementary operation is called an elementary
matrix.
Every elementary row (columns) operation on an 𝒎 × 𝒏 matrix (not identity matrix) can be obtained by
pre-multiplication (post-multiplication) aith the corresponding elementary matrix obtained from the
identity matrix 𝑰𝒎 (𝑰𝒏 ) by subjecting it to the same elementary row (columns) operation.
In order to find the inverse of a non-singular square matrix A by elementary operations, we write A=IA.
Now we perform a sequence of elementary row operations successively on A on the LHS and the pre-
factor I on RHS till we obtain I=BA.
The matrix B, so obtained, is the desired inverse of matrix A.

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CHAP:8
SOLUTION OF SIMULTANEOUS LINEAT EQUATIONS
A system of n simultaneous linear equations in n unknowns 𝒙𝟏 , 𝒙𝟐 , 𝒙𝟑 , … , 𝒙𝒏 𝒊𝒔
𝒂𝟏𝟏 𝒙𝟏 + 𝒂𝟏𝟐 𝒙𝟐 + … + 𝒂𝟏𝒏 𝒙𝒏 = 𝒃𝟏
𝒂𝟐𝟏 𝒙𝟏 + 𝒂𝟐𝟐 𝒙𝟐 + … + 𝒂𝟐𝒏 𝒙𝒏 = 𝒃𝟐
⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯
⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯
𝒂𝒏𝟏 𝒙𝟏 + 𝒂𝒏𝟐 𝒙𝟐 + … + 𝒂𝒏𝒏 𝒙𝒏 = 𝒃𝒏
This system of equations can be written, in matrix form, as
𝒂𝟏𝟏 𝒂𝟏𝟐 ⋯ 𝒂𝟏𝒏 𝒙𝟏 𝒃𝟏
𝒂𝟐𝟏 𝒂𝟐𝟐⋯ 𝒂𝟐𝒏 𝒙𝟐 𝒃𝟐
[ ⋮ ⋮ . ][ ⋮ ] = [ ⋮ ]
𝒂𝒏𝟏 𝒂𝒏𝟐 ⋯ 𝒂𝒏𝒏 𝒙𝒏 𝒃𝒏
𝒂𝟏𝟏 𝒂𝟏𝟐 ⋯ 𝒂𝟏𝒏 𝒙𝟏 𝒃𝟏
𝒂𝟐𝟏 𝒂𝟐𝟐⋯ 𝒂𝟐𝒏 𝒙𝟐 𝒃𝟐
Or, 𝑸𝑨𝑿 = 𝑩 𝒘𝒉𝒆𝒓𝒆 𝑨 = [ ⋮ ⋮ . ] , 𝑿 = [ ⋮ ] 𝒂𝒏𝒅 𝑩 = [ ]

𝒂𝒏𝟏 𝒂𝒏𝟐 ⋯ 𝒂𝒏𝒏 𝒙𝒏 𝒃𝒏
A set of values of the variable 𝒙𝟏 , 𝒙𝟐 , … , 𝒙𝒏 satisfying all the equations simultaneously is called a
solution of the system.

If a system of equations has one or more solutions, then it is said to a consistent system of equations,
otherwise it is an inconsistent system of equations.

## A system of equations 𝑨𝑿 = 𝑩 is called a homogeneous system, if B=O. Otherwise, it is called a non-

homogeneous system of equations.

## A system 𝑨𝑿 = 𝑩 of n linear equations in n equations has a unique solution given by 𝑿 =

𝑨−𝟏 𝑩, 𝒊𝒇 |𝑨| ≠ 𝟎.
If|𝑨| = 𝟎and(𝒂𝒅𝒋 𝑨)𝑩 = 𝑶, then the system is consistent and has infinitely many solutions.
If|𝑨| = 𝟎and(𝒂𝒅𝒋 𝑨)𝑩 = 𝑶, then the system is inconsistent.

## A homogeneous system of n linear equations in n unknowns is expressible in the form = 𝑶 .

𝒊𝒇 |𝑨| ≠ 𝟎 then 𝑨𝑿 = 𝑶 has unique solution 𝑿 = 𝟎𝒊. 𝒆. 𝒙𝟏 = 𝒙𝟐 = ⋯ = 𝒙𝒏 = 𝟎. This solution is called
the trivial solution.
𝒊𝒇 |𝑨| ≠ 𝟎 then 𝑨𝑿 = 𝑶 has infinitely many solutions.

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CHAP: 9
CONTINUITY
𝒍𝒊𝒎 ( )
A real valued function 𝒇(𝒙) is continuous at a point ‘a’ in its domain iff 𝒇 𝒙 = 𝒇(𝒂) .
𝒙→𝒂
i.e. the limit of the function at x = a is equal to the value of the function at x = a.

## A function 𝒇(𝒙) is said to be continuous if it is continuous at every point of its domain.

Sum, difference, product and quotient of continuous functions are continuous i.e, if 𝒇(𝒙) and 𝒈(𝒙) are
𝒇
continuous functions on their common domain, then 𝒇 ± 𝒈, 𝒇𝒈, 𝒈 , 𝒌𝒇(𝒌 𝒊𝒔 𝒂 constant) are continuous.

Let 𝒇 𝒂𝒏𝒅 𝒈 be real functions such that fog is defined. If g is continuous at 𝒙 = 𝒂 and f is continuous at g
(a), then fog is continuous at x = a.

## Following functions are every where continuous:

(𝒊) A constant function (𝒊𝒊) The identity function (𝒊𝒊𝒊) A polynomial function (𝒊𝒗) Modulus function
(𝒗)Exponential function (𝒗𝒊) Sine and Cosine functions

## Following functions are continuous in their domains:

(i)A logarithmic function
(ii)A rational function
(iii)Tangent, cotangent, secant and cosecant functions.

𝟏
If f is continuous function, then |𝒇|𝒂𝒏𝒅 𝒇 are continuous in their domains.

𝐬𝐢𝐧−𝟏 𝒙 , 𝐜𝐨𝐬−𝟏 𝒙 , 𝐭𝐚𝐧−𝟏 𝒙 , 𝐜𝐨𝐭 −𝟏 𝒙 , 𝐜𝐨𝐬𝐞𝐜 −𝟏 𝒙 𝒂𝒏𝒅 𝐬𝐞𝐜 −𝟏 𝒙 are continuous functions on their
respective domains.

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CHAP:10
DIFFERENTIABILITY
A real valued function 𝒇(𝒙) defines on (𝒂, 𝒃) is said to be differentiable at 𝒙 = 𝒄 ∈ (𝒂, 𝒃), iff
𝒇(𝒙)−𝒇(𝒄)
𝐥𝐢𝐦 𝒆𝒙𝒊𝒔𝒕𝒔 𝒇𝒊𝒏𝒊𝒕𝒆𝒍𝒚
𝒏→𝒄 𝒙−𝒄
𝒇(𝒙)−𝒇(𝒄) 𝒇(𝒙)−𝒇(𝒄)
⇔ 𝐥𝐢𝐦 = 𝐥𝐢𝐦+
𝒏→𝒄 𝒙−𝒄 𝒉→𝒄 𝒙−𝒄
𝒇(𝒄−𝒉)−𝒇(𝒄) 𝒇(𝒄+𝒉)−𝒇(𝒄)
⇔ 𝐥𝐢𝐦 = 𝐥𝐢𝐦 ⇔ (𝑳𝑯𝑫 𝒂𝒕 𝒙 = 𝒄) = (𝑹𝑯𝑫 𝒂𝒕 𝒙 = 𝒄)
𝒉→𝟎 −𝒉 𝒉→𝟎 𝒉

## A function is said to be differentiable, if it is differentiable at every point in its domain.

Every differentiable function is continuous but, the converse is not necessarily true.

## Following are some results on differentiability:

(i) Every polynomial function is differentiable at each 𝒙 ∈ 𝑹.
(ii) The exponential function 𝒂𝒙 , 𝒂 > 𝟎, 𝒂 ≠ 𝟏 is differentiable at each 𝒙 ∈ 𝑹.
(iii) Every constant function is differentiable at each 𝒙 ∈ 𝑹.
(iv) The logarithmic function is differentiable at each point in its domain.
(v) Trigonometric and inverse-trigonometric functions are differentiable in their respective domains.
(vi) The sum, difference, product and quotient of two differentiable functions is differentiable.
(vii) The composition of differentiable function is a differentiable function.
(viii) If a function 𝒇(𝒙) is differentiable at every point in its domain,
𝒇(𝒄+𝒉)−𝒇(𝒄) 𝒇(𝒄−𝒉)−𝒇(𝒄)
then 𝐥𝐢𝐦 𝒐𝒓, 𝐥𝐢𝐦 is called the derivative or differentiation of 𝒇 𝒂𝒕𝒙
𝒉→𝟎 𝒉 𝒉→𝟎 −𝒉
𝒅
and is denoted by 𝒇′(𝒙) 𝒐𝒓 (𝒇(𝒙)).
𝒅𝒙

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CHAP: 11
DIFFERENTIATION
Let 𝒇(𝒙) be a differentiable or derivable function on [𝒂, 𝒃].
𝒇(𝒙+𝒉)−𝒇(𝒄) 𝒇(𝒙−𝒉)−𝒇(𝒄)
Then, 𝐥𝐢𝐦 𝒐𝒓, 𝐥𝐢𝐦
𝒉→𝟎 𝒉 𝒉→𝟎 −𝒉
Is called the derivative or differentiation of 𝒇(𝒙) with respect to x and is denoted by
𝒅 𝒅
𝒇′(𝒙)𝒐𝒓, (𝒇(𝒙)) or,𝑫𝒇(𝒙), 𝒘𝒉𝒆𝒓𝒆 𝑫
𝒅𝒙 𝒅𝒙
𝒅𝒚
If 𝒚 = 𝒇(𝒙), 𝒕𝒉𝒆𝒏 (𝒅𝒙) gives the slope of the tangent to the curve 𝒚 = 𝒇(𝒙) at point P.
𝑷
Following are derivatives of some standard functions:
𝒅
i) (𝒙𝒏 ) = 𝒏𝒙𝒏−𝟏
𝒅𝒙
𝒅
ii) (𝒆 𝒙 ) = 𝒆𝒙
𝒅𝒙
𝒅
iii) (𝒂𝒙 ) = 𝒂𝒙 𝒍𝒐𝒈𝒆 𝒂
𝒅𝒙
𝒅 𝟏
iv) (𝒍𝒐𝒈𝒆 𝒙) =
𝒅𝒙 𝒙
𝒅 𝟏
v) (𝒍𝒐𝒈𝒆 𝒙) =
𝒅𝒙 𝒙𝒍𝒐𝒈𝒆 𝒂
𝒅
vi) (𝐬𝐢𝐧 𝒙) = 𝐜𝐨𝐬 𝒙
𝒅𝒙
𝒅
vii) (𝐜𝐨𝐬 𝒙) = − 𝐬𝐢𝐧 𝒙
𝒅𝒙
𝒅
viii) (𝐭𝐚𝐧 𝒙) = 𝐬𝐞𝐜 𝟐 𝒙
𝒅𝒙
𝒅
ix) (𝐜𝐨𝐬 𝒙) = − 𝐜𝐨𝐬𝐞𝐜 𝟐 𝒙
𝒅𝒙
𝒅
x) (𝐬𝐞𝐜 𝒙) = 𝐬𝐞𝐜 𝒙 𝐭𝐚𝐧 𝒙
𝒅𝒙
𝒅
xi) (𝐜𝐨𝐬𝐞𝐜 𝐱) = −𝐜𝐨𝐬𝐞𝐜 𝐱 𝐜𝐨𝐭 𝒙
𝒅𝒙
𝒅 𝟏
xii) 𝒅𝒙 (𝐬𝐢𝐧−𝟏 𝒙) = , −𝟏 < 𝒙 < 𝟏
√𝟏−𝒙𝟐
𝒅 𝟏
xiii) (𝐜𝐨𝐬−𝟏 𝒙) = − , −𝟏 < 𝒙 < 𝟏
𝒅𝒙 √𝟏−𝒙𝟐
𝒅 𝟏
xiv)𝒅𝒙 (𝐭𝐚𝐧−𝟏 𝒙) = − , −∞ < 𝒙 < ∞
√𝟏−𝒙𝟐
𝒅 𝟏
xv) 𝒅𝒙 (𝐜𝐨𝐭 −𝟏 𝒙) = − , −∞ < 𝒙 < ∞
√𝟏−𝒙𝟐
𝒅 𝟏
xvi)𝒅𝒙 (𝐬𝐞𝐜 −𝟏 𝒙) = , |𝒙 | > 𝟏
|𝒙|√𝒙𝟐 −𝟏
𝒅 −𝟏
xvii) (𝐜𝐨𝐬𝐞𝐜 −𝟏 𝒙) = , |𝒙 | > 𝟏
𝒅𝒙 |𝒙|√𝒙𝟐 −𝟏
𝟐
− 𝟏+𝒙𝟐 , 𝒙 > 𝟏
𝒅 𝟐𝒙 𝟐
xviii) {𝐬𝐢𝐧−𝟏 ( )} = , −𝟏 < 𝒙 < 𝟏
𝒅𝒙 𝟏+𝒙𝟐 𝟏+𝒙𝟐
𝟐
{ − 𝟏+𝒙𝟐 , 𝒙 < −𝟏
𝟐
𝒅 𝟏−𝒙𝟐
,𝒙 > 𝟎
𝟏+𝒙𝟐
xix)𝒅𝒙 {𝐜𝐨𝐬 −𝟏 (𝟏+𝒙𝟐)} = { −𝟐
,𝒙 < 𝟎
𝟏+𝒙𝟐
𝟐
𝒅 𝟐𝒙 𝟐 , 𝒙 < −𝟏 𝒐𝒓 𝒙 > 𝟏
xx) 𝒅𝒙 {𝒕𝒂𝒏−𝟏 (𝟏+𝒙𝟐)} = {𝟏+𝒙 𝟐
, −𝟏 < 𝒙 < 𝟏
𝟏+𝒙𝟐

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−𝟑 𝟏 𝟏
; < 𝒙 < 𝟏 𝒐𝒓, −𝟏 < 𝒙 < − 𝟐
𝒅 √𝟏+𝒙𝟐 𝟐
xxi)𝒅𝒙 {𝐬𝐢𝐧−𝟏 (𝟑𝒙 − 𝟒𝒙𝟑 )} = { 𝟑 𝟏 𝟏
;−𝟐 < 𝒙 < 𝟐
√𝟏+𝒙𝟐
−𝟑 𝟏
, <𝒙<𝟏
𝒅 √𝟏+𝒙𝟐 𝟐
xxii) {𝐜𝐨𝐬−𝟏 (𝟒𝒙𝟑 − 𝟑𝒙)} = { 𝟑 𝟏 𝟏 𝟏
𝒅𝒙
, 𝒊𝒇 − 𝟐 < 𝒙 < 𝟐 𝒐𝒓, −𝟏 < 𝒙 < − 𝟐
√𝟏+𝒙𝟐
𝟑 𝟏 𝟏
𝒅 𝟑𝒙−𝒙𝟑 𝟐 ,< − 𝒐𝒓 𝒙 >
xxiii) {𝒕𝒂𝒏−𝟏 ( )} = {𝟏+𝒙𝟑 √𝟑
𝟏 𝟏
√𝟑
𝒅𝒙 𝟏−𝟑𝒙𝟐
,− <𝒙<
𝟏+𝒙𝟐 √𝟑 √𝟑
𝒅 −𝟏
xxiv) {𝐬𝐢𝐧(𝐬𝐢𝐧 𝒙)} = 𝟏, 𝒊𝒇 − 𝟏 < 𝒙 < 𝟏
𝒅𝒙
𝒅
xxv) {𝐜𝐨𝐬(𝐜𝐨𝐬−𝟏 𝒙)} = 𝟏, 𝒊𝒇 − 𝟏 < 𝒙 < 𝟏
𝒅𝒙
𝒅
xxvi) {𝐭𝐚𝐧(𝐭𝐚𝐧−𝟏 𝒙)} = 𝟏 𝒇𝒐𝒓 𝒂𝒍𝒍 𝒙 ∈ 𝑹
𝒅𝒙
𝒅
xxvii) {𝐜𝐨𝐬𝐞𝐜(𝐜𝐨𝐬𝐞𝐜 −𝟏 𝒙)} = 𝟏 𝒇𝒐𝒓 𝒂𝒍𝒍 𝒙 ∈ 𝑹 − (−𝟏, 𝟏)
𝒅𝒙
𝒅
xxviii) {𝐬𝐞𝐜(𝐬𝐞𝐜 −𝟏 𝒙)} = 𝟏 𝒇𝒐𝒓 𝒂𝒍𝒍 𝒙 ∈ 𝑹 − (−𝟏, 𝟏)
𝒅𝒙
𝒅
xxix) {𝐜𝐨𝐭(𝐜𝐨𝐭 −𝟏 𝒙)} = 𝟏 𝒇𝒐𝒓 𝒂𝒍𝒍 𝒙 ∈ 𝑹
𝒅𝒙
−𝟏, −𝟑𝝅 /𝟐 < 𝒙 < −𝝅/𝟐
𝒅 −𝟏, −𝝅 /𝟐 < 𝒙 < −𝝅/𝟐
xxx) {𝐬𝐢𝐧−𝟏 𝐬𝐢𝐧 𝒙} = { and so on
𝒅𝒙 −𝟏, 𝝅 /𝟐 < 𝒙 < −𝟑𝝅/𝟐
𝟏, 𝟑𝝅 /𝟐 < 𝒙 < 𝟓𝝅/𝟐
𝒅 𝟏, 𝟎 < 𝒙 < 𝝅
xxxi) {𝐜𝐨𝐬−𝟏 𝐜𝐨𝐬 𝒙} = { and so on
𝒅𝒙 −𝟏, 𝝅 < 𝒄 < 𝟐/𝝅
𝒅 𝝅 𝝅
xxxii) {𝐭𝐚𝐧−𝟏 𝐭𝐚𝐧 𝒙} = {𝟏, 𝒏𝝅 − < 𝒙 < + 𝒏𝝅, 𝒏 ∈ 𝒁
𝒅𝒙 𝟐 𝟐
𝒅 𝟏, −𝝅/𝟐 < 𝒙 < 𝟎𝒐𝒓, 𝒐 𝒙 < 𝝅/𝟐
xxxiii) 𝒅𝒙 {𝐜𝐨𝐬𝐞𝐜 −𝟏(𝐜𝐨𝐬𝐞𝐜 𝐱)} = { and so on
−𝟏, −𝝅 /𝟐 < 𝒙 < 𝝅 𝒐𝒓, 𝝅 < 𝒙 < 𝟑𝝅/𝟐
𝝅
𝒅
𝟏, 𝟎 < 𝒙 < 𝝅 𝟐 𝒐𝒓, 𝝅/𝟐 < 𝒙 < 𝝅
xxxiv) 𝒅𝒙 {𝐬𝐞𝐜 −𝟏 𝐬𝐞𝐜 𝒙} = { 𝟑𝝅
−𝟏, 𝝅 < 𝒙 < 𝟐 𝒐𝒓𝟑𝝅/𝟐 < 𝒙 < 𝟐𝝅,
𝒅
xxxv) {𝐜𝐨𝐭 −𝟏 𝐜𝐨𝐭 𝒙} = 𝟏, (𝒏 − 𝟏)𝝅 < 𝒙 < 𝒏𝝅, 𝒏 ∈ 𝒁
𝒅𝒙
Following are the fundamental rules for differentiation:
𝒅
i) (𝑪𝒐𝒏𝒔𝒕𝒂𝒏𝒕) = 𝟎
𝒅𝒙
𝒅 𝒅
ii) {𝒄𝒇(𝒙)} = 𝒄 {𝒇(𝒙)}
𝒅𝒙 𝒅𝒙
𝒅 𝒅 𝒅
iii) {𝒇(𝒙) ± 𝒈(𝒙)} = {𝒇(𝒙)} ± {𝒈(𝒙)}
𝒅𝒙 𝒅𝒙 𝒅𝒙
𝒅 𝒅 𝒅
iv) {𝒇(𝒙)𝒈(𝒙)} = 𝒇(𝒙) {𝒈(𝒙)} + 𝒈(𝒙) {𝒇(𝒙)}
𝒅𝒙 𝒅𝒙 𝒅𝒙
𝒅 𝒅
𝒅 𝒇(𝒙) 𝒈(𝒙) {𝒇(𝒙)}−𝒇(𝒙) {𝒈(𝒙)}
𝒅𝒙 𝒅𝒙
v) { }= {𝒈(𝒙)}𝟐
𝒅𝒙 𝒈(𝒙)
𝒅𝒚 𝟏
vi) = 𝒅𝒚
𝒅𝒙
𝒅𝒙
𝒅 𝒈(𝒙) 𝒅 𝒅
vii) 𝒅𝒙 [{𝒇(𝒙)}{𝒈(𝒙)}] = {𝒇(𝒙)}𝒈(𝒙) { 𝒇(𝒙) 𝒅𝒙 {𝒇(𝒙)} + 𝐥𝐨𝐠 𝒇(𝒙) ∙ 𝒅𝒙 {𝒈(𝒙)}}
𝒅𝒚 𝒅𝒚/𝒅𝒕
viii) 𝑰𝒇 𝒙 = 𝝓(𝒕) 𝒂𝒏𝒅 𝒕 = 𝝍(𝒕), 𝒕𝒉𝒆𝒏 = 𝒅𝒙/𝒅𝒕
𝒅𝒙
𝒅𝒖 𝒅𝒖/𝒅𝒙
ix) 𝒊𝒇 𝒖 𝒂𝒏𝒅 𝒗 𝒂𝒓𝒆 𝒇𝒖𝒏𝒅𝒄𝒕𝒊𝒐𝒏𝒔 𝒐𝒇 𝒙, 𝒕𝒉𝒆𝒏 𝒅𝒗
= 𝒅𝒗/𝒅𝒙.
If 𝒇(𝒙), 𝒈(𝒙)𝒂𝒏𝒅 𝒗(𝒙) are function of x and 𝚫 is a determinant given by
𝒇 (𝒙 ) 𝒈 ( 𝒙 )
𝚫 (𝒙 ) = | |. Then,
𝒖(𝒙) 𝒗(𝒙)
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𝒅 𝒇′(𝒙) 𝒈′(𝒙) 𝒇 ( 𝒙 ) 𝒈 (𝒙 )
{𝚫(𝒙)} = | |+| |
𝒅𝒙 𝒖(𝒙) 𝒗(𝒙) 𝒖′(𝒙) 𝒗′(𝒙)
𝒅 𝒇′(𝒙) 𝒈(𝒙) 𝒇(𝒙) 𝒈′(𝒙)
Also, 𝒅𝒙 {𝚫(𝒙)} = | |+| |
𝒖(𝒙) 𝒗(𝒙) 𝒖(𝒙) 𝒗′(𝒙)
Similar results hold for he differentiation of determinants of higher order.

CHAP:12
HIGHER ORDER DERIVATIVES
𝒅 𝒅𝒚
If 𝒚 = 𝒇(𝒙), 𝒅𝒙 (𝒅𝒙)is called second order derivative of y with respect to x and is denoted by
𝒅𝟐 𝒚
𝒐𝒓, 𝒚′′.Similarly, third and higher order derivatives are defined.
𝒅𝒙𝟐

𝒅𝟐 𝒚 𝒅 𝒈′(𝒕)
If 𝒙 = 𝒇(𝒕), 𝒂𝒏𝒅 𝒚 = 𝒈(𝒕), 𝒕𝒉𝒆𝒏 𝒅𝒙𝟐 = 𝒅𝒙 { 𝒇′(𝒕) }
𝒅𝟐 𝒚 𝒅 𝒈′(𝒕) 𝒅𝒕 𝒅𝟐 𝒚 𝒇′(𝒕) 𝒈′′(𝒕) −𝒈′(𝒕)𝒇′′(𝒕)
Or, = { }∙ or, =
𝒅𝒙𝟐 𝒅𝒙 𝒇′(𝒕) 𝒅𝒙 𝒅𝒙𝟐 {𝒇′(𝒕)}𝟑

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CHAP: 13
DERIVATIVE AS A RATE MEASURER
𝒅𝒚
If 𝒚 = 𝒇(𝒙), 𝒕𝒉𝒆𝒏 measures the rate of change of y with respect to x.
𝒅𝒙

𝒅𝒚
(𝒅𝒙) represents the rate of change of y with respect to 𝒙 𝒂𝒕 𝒙 = 𝒙𝟎 .
𝒙=𝒙𝟎

If the displacement of a particle moving in a straight line at time t is given by 𝒔 = 𝒇(𝒕), then
𝒅𝒔 𝒅𝒗 𝒅𝟐 𝒔 𝒅𝒗
i) 𝒗 = 𝑽𝒆𝒍𝒐𝒄𝒊𝒕𝒚 𝒂𝒕 𝒕𝒊𝒎𝒆 𝒕 = , 𝒂 = 𝑨𝒄𝒄𝒆𝒍𝒆𝒓𝒂𝒕𝒊𝒐𝒏 𝒂𝒕 𝒕𝒊𝒎𝒆 𝒕 = 𝒅𝒙 = = 𝒗 𝒅𝒔.
𝒅𝒕 𝒅𝒕𝟐
ii) 𝑰𝒇 𝒂 𝒑𝒂𝒓𝒕𝒊𝒄𝒍𝒆 𝒎𝒐𝒗𝒊𝒏𝒈 𝒊𝒏 𝒂 𝒔𝒕𝒓𝒂𝒊𝒈𝒉𝒕 𝒍𝒊𝒏𝒆 𝒄𝒐𝒎𝒆𝒔 𝒕𝒐 𝒓𝒆𝒔𝒕, 𝒕𝒉𝒆𝒏
𝒅𝒔 𝒅𝟐 𝒔
= 𝟎 𝒂𝒏𝒅 = 𝟎.
𝒅𝒕 𝒅𝒕𝟐
iii) 𝑰𝒇 𝒂 𝒑𝒂𝒓𝒕𝒊𝒄𝒍𝒆 𝒎𝒐𝒗𝒊𝒏𝒈 𝒊𝒏 𝒂 𝒔𝒕𝒓𝒂𝒊𝒈𝒉𝒕 𝒍𝒊𝒏𝒆 𝒊𝒔 𝒊𝒏𝒔𝒕𝒂𝒏𝒕𝒂𝒏𝒆𝒐𝒖𝒔𝒍𝒚 𝒂𝒕 𝒓𝒆𝒔𝒕, 𝒕𝒉𝒆𝒏
𝒅𝒔 𝒅𝟐 𝒔
= 𝟎 𝒂𝒏𝒅 𝟐 ≠ 𝟎.
𝒅𝒕 𝒅𝒕

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CHAP: 14
DIFFERENTIALS, ERRORS AND APPROXIMATIONS
Let 𝒚 = 𝒇(𝒙) be a function of x, and let ∆𝒙 be a small change in x and ∆𝒚 be the corresponding change
𝒅𝒚
in 𝒚. 𝒕𝒉𝒆𝒏 ∆𝒚 = 𝒅𝒙 ∆𝒙 𝒂𝒑𝒑𝒓𝒐𝒙𝒊𝒎𝒂𝒕𝒆𝒍𝒚.
𝒅𝒚
∆𝒙 is called differential of y and is denoted by dy.
𝒅𝒙

## Following are some useful results on differentials:

i) 𝑰𝒇 𝒇(𝒙) 𝒊𝒔 𝒂 𝒄𝒐𝒏𝒔𝒕𝒂𝒏𝒕 𝒇𝒖𝒏𝒄𝒕𝒊𝒐𝒏, 𝒕𝒉𝒆𝒏 𝒊𝒕𝒔 𝒅𝒊𝒇𝒇𝒆𝒓𝒆𝒏𝒕𝒊𝒂𝒍 𝒊𝒔 𝒛𝒆𝒓𝒐.
ii) 𝑰𝒇 𝒚 = 𝒄𝒖, 𝒕𝒉𝒆𝒏 𝒅𝒚 = 𝒄 𝒅𝒖, 𝒄 𝒊𝒔 𝒂 𝒄𝒐𝒏𝒔𝒕𝒂𝒏𝒕.
iii) 𝑰𝒇 𝒚 = 𝒖 ± 𝒗, 𝒕𝒉𝒆𝒏 𝒅𝒚 = 𝒅𝒖 ± 𝒅𝒗
iv) 𝑰𝒇 𝒚 = 𝒖𝒗, 𝒕𝒉𝒆𝒏 𝒅𝒚 = 𝒖 𝒅𝒗 + 𝒗 𝒅𝒖
𝒖 𝒗 𝒅𝒖−𝒖 𝒅𝒗
v) 𝑰𝒇 𝒚 = 𝒗 , 𝒕𝒉𝒆𝒏 𝒅𝒚 = 𝒗𝟐
′(𝒙)
vi) 𝑰𝒇 𝒚 = 𝒇(𝒙), 𝒕𝒉𝒆𝒏 𝒅𝒚 = 𝒇 𝒅𝒙.

(𝒊) 𝑳𝒆𝒕 𝒚 = 𝒇(𝒙) be a given function of 𝒙 . 𝑰𝒇 ∆𝒙 is an error in x, then the corresponding error
𝒅𝒚
∆𝒚 𝒊𝒏 𝒚 𝒊𝒔 𝒈𝒊𝒗𝒆𝒏 𝒃𝒚 ∆𝒚 = 𝒅𝒙 ∆𝒙. The error ∆𝒙 𝒊𝒏 𝒙 𝒂𝒏𝒅 ∆𝒚 𝒂𝒓𝒆 𝒌𝒏𝒐𝒘𝒏 𝒂𝒔 𝒂𝒃𝒔𝒐𝒍𝒖𝒕𝒆 𝒆𝒓𝒓𝒐𝒓𝒔.
∆𝒙
ii) 𝑰𝒇 ∆𝒙 𝒊𝒔 𝒂𝒏 𝒆𝒓𝒓𝒐𝒓 𝒊𝒏 𝒙, 𝒕𝒉𝒆𝒏 𝒊𝒔 𝒄𝒂𝒍𝒍𝒆𝒅 𝒓𝒆𝒍𝒂𝒕𝒊𝒗𝒆 𝒆𝒓𝒓𝒐𝒓 𝒊𝒏 𝒙.
𝒙
∆𝒙
iii) 𝑰𝒇 ∆𝒙 𝒊𝒔 𝒂𝒏 𝒆𝒓𝒓𝒐𝒓 𝒊𝒏 𝒙, 𝒕𝒉𝒆𝒏 × 𝟏𝟎𝟎 𝒊𝒔 𝒄𝒂𝒍𝒍𝒆𝒅 𝒕𝒉𝒆 𝒑𝒆𝒓𝒄𝒆𝒏𝒕𝒂𝒈𝒆 𝒆𝒓𝒓𝒐𝒓 𝒊𝒏 𝒙.
𝒙

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CHAP: 15
MEAN VALUE THEOREMS
𝑹𝒐𝒍𝒍𝒆′ 𝒔 𝑻𝒉𝒆𝒐𝒓𝒆𝒎: Let 𝒇 be a real value of function defined of the closed interval [𝒂, 𝒃] such
that (i) it is continuous on [𝒂, 𝒃](ii) it is differentiable on (𝒂, 𝒃) and , (iii) 𝒇(𝒂) = 𝒇(𝒃) .
Then, there exists a real number 𝒄 ∈ (𝒂, 𝒃)such that 𝒇′ (𝒄) = 𝟎.
𝑮𝒆𝒐𝒎𝒆𝒕𝒓𝒊𝒄𝒂𝒍 𝑰𝒏𝒕𝒆𝒓𝒑𝒓𝒆𝒕𝒂𝒕𝒊𝒐𝒏: Let 𝒇(𝒙) be a real valued function defined on [𝒂, 𝒃]such the curve
𝒚 = 𝒇(𝒙) is a continuous curve between points 𝑨(𝒂, 𝒇(𝒂))𝒂𝒏𝒅𝑩(𝒃, 𝒇(𝒃))and the curve has a unique
tangent at every point between A and B. Also, the ordinates at the end points of the interval [𝒂, 𝒃]are
equal. Then there exists at least one point (𝒄, 𝒇(𝒄))between A and B on the curve where tangent is
parallel to x-axis.
𝑨𝒍𝒈𝒆𝒃𝒓𝒂𝒊𝒄 𝑰𝒏𝒕𝒆𝒓𝒑𝒓𝒆𝒕𝒂𝒕𝒊𝒐𝒏:Between any two roots of a polynomial 𝒇(𝒙), there is always a root of its
derivative.

𝑳𝒂𝒓𝒈𝒂𝒏𝒈𝒆′𝒔𝑴𝒆𝒂𝒏 𝑽𝒂𝒍𝒖𝒆 𝑻𝒉𝒆𝒐𝒓𝒆𝒎:Let 𝒇(𝒙) be a function defined on [𝒂, 𝒃]such that it is continuous
𝒇(𝒃)−𝒇(𝒂)
on [𝒂, 𝒃] and differentiable on (𝒂, 𝒃) . Then, there exists 𝒄 ∈ (𝒂, 𝒃)such that 𝒇′(𝒄) = .
𝒃−𝒂
𝑮𝒆𝒐𝒎𝒆𝒕𝒓𝒊𝒄𝒂𝒍 𝑰𝒏𝒕𝒆𝒓𝒑𝒓𝒆𝒕𝒂𝒕𝒊𝒐𝒏: Let 𝒇(𝒙) be a function defined on [𝒂, 𝒃] such that the curve 𝒚 =
𝒇(𝒙) is a continuous curve between points 𝑨(𝒂, 𝒇(𝒂))𝒂𝒏𝒅𝑩(𝒃, 𝒇(𝒃))and at every point on the curve,
except at the end-points, it is possible to draw a unique tangent. Then there exists a point on the curve
such that tangent at it is parallel to the chord joining the end points of the curve.

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CHAP:16
TANGENTS AND NORMALS
𝒅𝒚
If 𝒚 = 𝒇(𝒙), then (𝒅𝒙) = 𝑺𝒍𝒐𝒑𝒆 𝒐𝒇 𝒕𝒉𝒆 𝒕𝒂𝒏𝒈𝒆𝒏𝒕 𝒕𝒐 𝒚 = 𝒇(𝒙) 𝒂𝒕 𝒑𝒐𝒊𝒏𝒕 𝑷.
𝑷
−𝟏
𝒅𝒚 = 𝑺𝒍𝒐𝒑𝒆 𝒐𝒇 𝒕𝒉𝒆 𝒏𝒐𝒓𝒎𝒂𝒍 𝒕𝒐 𝒚 = 𝒇(𝒙) 𝒂𝒕 𝒑𝒐𝒊𝒏𝒕 𝑷.
( )
𝒅𝒙 𝑷
𝒅𝒚
If the tangent is parallel to x-axis, then 𝒅𝒙 = 𝟎.
𝒅𝒚
If the tangent is parallel to y-axis, then 𝒅𝒙 = 𝟎.

## 𝑰𝒇 𝑷(𝒙𝟏 , 𝒚𝟏 )is a point on the curve 𝒚 = 𝒇(𝒙), then

𝒅𝒚
𝒚 − 𝒚𝟏 = (𝒅𝒙) (𝒙 − 𝒙𝟏 )is the equation of tangent at P.
𝑷
𝟏
𝒚 − 𝒚𝟏 = 𝒅𝒚 (𝒙 − 𝒙𝟏 )is the equation of normal at P.
( )
𝒅𝒙 𝑷

The angle between the tangents to two given curves at their point of intersection is defined as the angle
of intersection of two curves.
If 𝑪𝟏 𝒂𝒏𝒅 𝑪𝟐 are two curves having equations 𝒚 = 𝒇(𝒙) 𝒂𝒏𝒅𝒚 = 𝒈(𝒙) respectively such that they
intersect at point P. The angle 𝜽 of intersection of these two curves is given by
𝒅𝒚 𝒅𝒚
( ) −( )
𝒅𝒙 𝑪 𝒅𝒙 𝑪
𝟏 𝟐
𝐭𝐚𝐧 𝜽 = 𝒅𝒚 𝒅𝒚 If the angle of intersection of two curves is a right angle, then the curves are
𝟏+( ) ( )
𝒅𝒙 𝑪 𝒅𝒙 𝑪
𝟏 𝟐
said to intersect orthogonally. The condition for orthogonality of two curves 𝑪𝟏 𝒂𝒏𝒅 𝑪𝟐 is
𝒅𝒚 𝒅𝒚
(𝒅𝒙) × (𝒅𝒙) = -1
𝑪𝟏 𝑪𝟐

𝟐 𝟐 𝟏 𝟏 𝟏 𝟏
Two curves 𝒂𝒙𝟐 + 𝒃𝒚𝟐 = 𝟏 𝒂𝒏𝒅 𝒙′𝒙 + 𝒃′𝒚 = 𝟏 will intersect orthogonally , if 𝒂 − 𝒃 = 𝒂′ − 𝒃′

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CHAP: 17
INCREASING AND DECREASING FUNCTIONS
A function 𝒇(𝒙)is said to be a strictly increasing function on (𝒂, 𝒃) if
𝒙𝟏 < 𝒙𝟐 ⟹ 𝒇(𝒙𝟏 ) < 𝒇(𝒙𝟐) for all 𝒙𝟏 , 𝒙𝟐 ∈ (𝒂, 𝒃)
If 𝒙𝟏 > 𝒙𝟐 ⟹ 𝒇(𝒙𝟏 ) > 𝒇(𝒙𝟐) for all 𝒙𝟏 , 𝒙𝟐 ∈ (𝒂, 𝒃), then 𝒇(𝒙) is said to be stricity decreasing on
(𝒂, 𝒃)

A function 𝒇(𝒙) is said to be monotonic on (𝒂, 𝒃) if it is either strictly increasing or strictly decreasing on
(𝒂, 𝒃).

## A function 𝒇(𝒙) is said to be increasing (decreasing) at a point 𝒙𝟎 , if there is an interval (𝒙𝟎 − 𝒉, 𝒙𝟎 + 𝒉)

containing 𝒙𝟎 such that 𝒇(𝒙) is increasing (decreasing) on (𝒙𝟎 − 𝒉, 𝒙𝟎 + 𝒉).

A function 𝒇(𝒙) is said to be increasing (decreasing) on [𝒂, 𝒃],if it is increasing (decreasing) on (𝒂, 𝒃) and
it is increasing (decreasing) at 𝒙 = 𝒂 𝒂𝒏𝒅 𝒙 = 𝒃.

The necessary and sufficient condition for a differentiable function defined on (𝒂, 𝒃)to be strictly
increasing on (𝒂, 𝒃) is that 𝒇′(𝒙) > 𝟎 𝒇𝒐𝒓 𝒂𝒍𝒍 𝒙 ∈ (𝒂, 𝒃).

The necessary and sufficient condition for a differentiable function defined on (𝒂, 𝒃)to be strictly
decreasing on (𝒂, 𝒃) is that 𝒇′(𝒙) > 𝟎 𝒇𝒐𝒓 𝒂𝒍𝒍 𝒙 ∈ (𝒂, 𝒃).

## Let 𝒇(𝒙) be a function defines on (𝒂, 𝒃).

a) 𝑰𝒇 𝒇′(𝒙) > 𝟎 𝒇𝒐𝒓 𝒂𝒍𝒍 𝒙 ∈ (𝒂, 𝒃)except for a finite number of points, where 𝒇′(𝒙) = 𝟎, 𝒕𝒉𝒆𝒏 𝒇(𝒙) is
increasing on (𝒂, 𝒃).
b) 𝑰𝒇 𝒇′(𝒙) > 𝟎 𝒇𝒐𝒓 𝒂𝒍𝒍 𝒙 ∈ (𝒂, 𝒃)except for a finite number of points, where 𝒇′(𝒙) = 𝟎, 𝒕𝒉𝒆𝒏 𝒇(𝒙) is
decreasing on (𝒂, 𝒃).

(i) If 𝒇(𝒙) is strictly increasing function on an interval [𝒂, 𝒃], then 𝒇−𝟏 exists and it is also a strictly
increasing function.
i) If 𝒇(𝒙) is strictly increasing function on an interval [𝒂, 𝒃] such that it is continuous, then 𝒇−𝟏 is
continuous on [𝒇(𝒂), 𝒇(𝒃)].
ii) If 𝒇(𝒙) is continuous on [𝒂, 𝒃] such that 𝒇′(𝒄) ≥ 𝟎(𝒇(𝒄) > 𝟎) for each 𝒄 ∈ (𝒂, 𝒃), 𝒕𝒉𝒆𝒏 𝒇(𝒙) is
monotonically (strictly) increasing function on [𝒂, 𝒃].
iii) If 𝒇(𝒙) is continuous on [𝒂, 𝒃] such that 𝒇′(𝒄) ≥ 𝟎(𝒇(𝒄) > 𝟎) for each 𝒄 ∈ (𝒂, 𝒃), 𝒕𝒉𝒆𝒏 𝒇(𝒙) is
monotonically (strictly) decreasing function on [𝒂, 𝒃].
iv) If 𝒇(𝒙) and g(𝒙) are monotonically (or strictly) increasing (or decreasing) functions on [𝒂, 𝒃],
then go 𝒇(𝒙)is a monotonically (or strictly) increasing functions on [𝒂, 𝒃].
v) If one of the two function 𝒇(𝒙) and g(𝒙) is strictly (or monotonically) increasing and other a
strictly (monotonically) decreasing , then go 𝒇(𝒙) is strictly (𝐦𝐨𝐧𝐨𝐭𝐨𝐧𝐢𝐜𝐚𝐥𝐥𝐲) decreasing on
[𝒂, 𝒃].

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CHAP: 18
MAXIMA AND MINIMA
.
i) Let 𝒇(𝒙) be a function with domain 𝑫 ⊂ 𝑹. Then, 𝒇(𝒙) is said to attain the maximum value at a
point 𝒂 ∈ 𝑫, 𝒊𝒇 𝒇(𝒙) ≤ 𝒇(𝒂) 𝒇𝒐𝒓 𝒂𝒍𝒍 𝒙 ∈ 𝑫.
In such a case, a is called the point of maximum and 𝒇(𝒂)is known as the maximum value or the
greatest value or the absolute maximum value of 𝒇(𝒙).
ii) Let 𝒇(𝒙) be a function with domain 𝑫 ⊂ 𝑹. Then, 𝒇(𝒙) is said to attain the minimum value at a
point 𝒂 ∈ 𝑫, 𝒊𝒇 𝒇(𝒙) ≥ 𝒇(𝒂) 𝒇𝒐𝒓 𝒂𝒍𝒍 𝒙 ∈ 𝑫.
In such a case, the point a is called the point of minimum and 𝒇(𝒂) is known as the minimum value or
the least value or the absolute minimum value of 𝒇(𝒙).
iii) A function 𝒇(𝒙) is said to attain a local maximum at 𝒙 = 𝒂 if there exists a neighbourhood
(𝒂 − 𝜹, 𝒂 + 𝜹) of a such that 𝒇(𝒙) < 𝒇(𝒂) 𝒇𝒐𝒓 𝒂𝒍𝒍 𝒙 ∈ (𝒂 − 𝜹, 𝒂 + 𝜹), 𝒙 ≠ 𝒂.
In such a case 𝒇(𝒂)is called the local maximum value of 𝒇(𝒙) 𝒂𝒕 𝒙 = 𝒂.
iv) A function 𝒇(𝒙) is said to attain a local minimum at 𝒙 = 𝒂 if there exists a neighbourhood
(𝒂 − 𝜹, 𝒂 + 𝜹) 𝒐𝒇 𝒂 𝒔𝒖𝒄𝒉 𝒕𝒉𝒂𝒕 𝒇(𝒙) > 𝒇(𝒂) 𝒇𝒐𝒓 𝒂𝒍𝒍 𝒙 ∈ (𝒂 − 𝜹, 𝒂 + 𝜹), 𝒙 ≠ 𝒂 𝒐𝒓, 𝒇(𝒙) −
𝒇(𝒂) > 𝟎 𝒇𝒐𝒓 𝒂𝒍𝒍 𝒙 ∈ (𝒂 − 𝜹, 𝒂 + 𝜹), 𝒙 ≠ 𝒂.
The value of the function at 𝒙 = 𝒂 𝒊. 𝒆. 𝒇(𝒂) is called the local minimum value of 𝒇(𝒙) 𝒂𝒕 𝒙 = 𝒂. the
points at which a function attains either the local maximum values or local minimum values are known
as the extreme points or turning points and both local maximum and local minimum values are called
the extreme values of 𝒇(𝒙).
Thus, a function attains an extreme value at 𝒙 = 𝒂 𝒊𝒇 𝒇(𝒂) is either a local maximum value or a local
minimum value. Consequently, at an extreme point ‘a’, 𝒇(𝒙) − 𝒇(𝒂)keeps the same sign for all values
of x in a deleted neighbourhood of a.
A necessary condition for 𝒇(𝒂) to be an extreme value of a function 𝒇(𝒙) is that 𝒇′ (𝒂) = 𝟎,in case it
exists. A bove result states that if the derivative exists, it must be zero at the extreme points. A
function may however attain an extreme value at a point without being derivable there at. For example,
the function 𝒇(𝒙) = |𝒙| attains the minimum value at the origin even though it is not derivable at 𝒙 =
𝟎. This condition is only a necessary condition for the point 𝒙 = 𝒂 to be an extreme point. It is not
sufficient i.e., 𝒇′ (𝒂) = 𝟎 does not necessarily imply that 𝒙 = 𝒂 is an extreme point. There are functions
for which the derivatives vanish at a point but do not have an extreme value thereat. For example, for
the function 𝒇(𝒙) = 𝒙𝟑 , 𝒇′(𝟎) = 𝟎 𝒃𝒖𝒕 𝒂𝒕 𝒙 = 𝒐 the function does not attain an extreme value.
Geometrically the above condition means that the tangent to the curve 𝒚 = 𝒇(𝒙) at a point where the
ordinate is maximum or minimum is parallel to the x-axis. As discussed in Remark 2 that all x, for which
𝒇′ (𝒙) = 𝟎, do not give us the extreme values. The values of x for which 𝒇′ (𝒙) = 𝟎 are called stationary
values or critical values of x and the corresponding values of 𝒇(𝒙) are called stationary or turning values
of 𝒇(𝒙).
(𝑭𝒊𝒓𝒔𝒕 𝒅𝒆𝒓𝒊𝒗𝒂𝒕𝒊𝒗𝒆 𝒕𝒆𝒔𝒕 𝒇𝒐𝒓 𝒍𝒐𝒄𝒂𝒍 𝒎𝒂𝒙𝒊𝒎𝒂 𝒂𝒏𝒅 𝒎𝒊𝒏𝒊𝒎𝒂 ) Let 𝒇(𝒙) be a function differentiable at
𝒙 = 𝒂. Then,
a) 𝒙 = 𝒂 𝒊𝒔 𝒂 𝒑𝒐𝒊𝒏𝒕 𝒐𝒇 𝒍𝒐𝒄𝒂𝒍 𝒎𝒂𝒙𝒊𝒎𝒖𝒎 𝒐𝒇 𝒇(𝒙), 𝒊𝒇
i) 𝒇′(𝒂) = 𝟎 𝒂𝒏𝒅,
ii) 𝒇′ (𝒙) changes sign from positive to negative as x passes through 𝒂 𝒊. 𝒆. , 𝒇′ (𝒙) > 𝟎 at every
point in the left neighbourhood (𝒂 − 𝜹, 𝒂) of a and 𝒇′ (𝒙) < 𝟎 at every point in the right
neighbourhood (𝒂 − 𝒂 + 𝜹) of a.
b) 𝒙 = 𝒂 𝒊𝒔 𝒂 𝒑𝒐𝒊𝒏𝒕 𝒐𝒇 𝒍𝒐𝒄𝒂𝒍 𝒎𝒊𝒏𝒊𝒎𝒖𝒎 𝒐𝒇 𝒇(𝒙), 𝒊𝒇
i) 𝒇′(𝒂) = 𝟎 𝒂𝒏𝒅
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ii) 𝒇′ (𝒙) changes sign from positive to negative as x passes through 𝒂 𝒊. 𝒆. , 𝒇′ (𝒙) < 𝟎 at every
point in the left neighbourhood (𝒂 − 𝜹, 𝒂) of a and 𝒇′ (𝒙) > 𝟎 at every point in the right
neighbourhood (𝒂 − 𝒂 + 𝜹) of a.

c) If 𝒇′(𝒂) = 𝟎 but 𝒇′ (𝒙) does not change sign, that is , 𝒇′ (𝒂) has the same sign in the complete
neighbourhood of a, then a is neither a point of local maximum nor a point of local minimum.
(𝑯𝒊𝒈𝒉𝒆𝒓 𝒐𝒓𝒅𝒆𝒓 𝒅𝒆𝒓𝒊𝒗𝒂𝒕𝒊𝒗𝒆 𝒕𝒆𝒔𝒕 ) Let 𝒇 be a differentiable function on an interval I and let c be an
interior point of I such that
i) 𝒇′(𝒄) = 𝒇′′(𝒄) = 𝒇′′′(𝒄) = ⋯ = 𝒇𝒏−𝟏 (𝒄) = 𝟎, 𝒂𝒏𝒅
ii) 𝒇𝒏 (𝒄) exists and is non-zero.
then,
a) 𝒊𝒇 𝒏 𝒊𝒔 𝒆𝒗𝒆𝒏 𝒂𝒏𝒅 𝒇𝒏 (𝒄) < 𝟎 ⟹ 𝒙 = 𝒄 𝒊𝒔 𝒂 𝒑𝒐𝒊𝒏𝒕 𝒐𝒇 𝒍𝒐𝒄𝒂𝒍 𝒎𝒂𝒙𝒊𝒎𝒖𝒎
b) 𝒊𝒇 𝒏 𝒊𝒔 𝒆𝒗𝒆𝒏 𝒂𝒏𝒅 𝒇𝒏 (𝒄) < 𝟎 ⟹ 𝒙 = 𝒄 𝒊𝒔 𝒂 𝒑𝒐𝒊𝒏𝒕 𝒐𝒇 𝒍𝒐𝒄𝒂𝒍 𝒎𝒊𝒏𝒊𝒎𝒖𝒎
c) 𝒊𝒇 𝒏 𝒊𝒔 odd, 𝒙 = 𝒄 is neither a point of local maximum nor a point of local minimum. In order to
find the points of local maximum/ minimum of a function, we may use the following steps:
STEP I𝒇𝒊𝒏𝒅 𝒇′ (𝒙)
STEP II 𝑷𝒖𝒕 𝒇′ (𝒙) = 𝒐 𝒂𝒏𝒅 𝒔𝒐𝒍𝒗𝒆 𝒕𝒉𝒊𝒔 𝒆𝒒𝒖𝒂𝒕𝒊𝒐𝒏 𝒇𝒐𝒓 𝒄. 𝑳𝒆𝒕 𝑪𝟏 , 𝑪𝟐 , … , 𝑪𝒏 be the roots of this equation.
𝑪𝟏 , 𝑪𝟐 , … , 𝑪𝒏 are stationary values of x and these are the possible points where the function can attain a
local maximum or a local minimum. So, we test the function at each one of these points.
STEP III 𝒇𝒊𝒏𝒅 𝒇′′(𝒙). 𝑪𝒐𝒏𝒔𝒊𝒅𝒆𝒓 𝒙 = 𝑪𝟏 .
𝑰𝒇 𝒇′′(𝑪𝟏 ) < 𝟎, 𝒕𝒉𝒆𝒏𝒙 = 𝑪𝟏 𝒊𝒔 𝒂 𝒑𝒐𝒊𝒏𝒕 𝒐𝒇 𝒍𝒐𝒄𝒂𝒍 𝒎𝒂𝒙𝒊𝒎𝒖𝒎.
𝑰𝒇 𝒇′′(𝑪𝟏 ) > 𝟎, 𝒕𝒉𝒆𝒏𝒙 = 𝑪𝟏 𝒊𝒔 𝒂 𝒑𝒐𝒊𝒏𝒕 𝒐𝒇 𝒍𝒐𝒄𝒂𝒍 𝒎𝒊𝒏𝒊𝒎𝒖𝒎.
𝑰𝒇 𝒇′′(𝑪𝟏 ) = 𝟎, 𝒘𝒆 𝒎𝒖𝒔𝒕 𝒇𝒊𝒏𝒅 𝒇′′′ (𝒙) 𝒂𝒏𝒅 𝒔𝒖𝒃𝒔𝒕𝒊𝒕𝒖𝒕𝒆 𝒊𝒏 𝒊𝒕 𝑪𝟏 𝒇𝒐𝒓 𝒙.
𝑰𝒇 𝒇′′(𝑪𝟏 ) 𝟎, 𝒕𝒉𝒆𝒏 𝒙𝑪𝟏 𝒊𝒔 𝒏𝒆𝒊𝒕𝒉𝒆𝒓 𝒂 𝒑𝒐𝒊𝒏𝒕 𝒐𝒇 𝒍𝒐𝒄𝒂𝒍 𝒎𝒂𝒙𝒊𝒎𝒖𝒎 𝒏𝒐𝒓 𝒂 𝒑𝒐𝒊𝒏𝒕 𝒐𝒇 𝒍𝒐𝒄𝒂𝒍 𝒎𝒊𝒏𝒊𝒎𝒖𝒎 𝒂𝒏𝒅 𝒊𝒔
𝒄𝒂𝒍𝒍𝒆𝒅 𝒕𝒉𝒆 𝒑𝒐𝒊𝒏𝒕 𝒐𝒇 𝒊𝒏𝒇𝒍𝒆𝒄𝒕𝒊𝒐𝒏.
𝑰𝒇 𝒇′′(𝑪𝟏 ) = 𝟎, 𝒘𝒆 𝒎𝒖𝒔𝒕 𝒇𝒊𝒏𝒅 𝒇𝑰𝑽 (𝒙) 𝒂𝒏𝒅 𝒔𝒖𝒃𝒔𝒕𝒊𝒕𝒖𝒕𝒆 𝒊𝒏 𝒊𝒕 𝑪𝟏 𝒇𝒐𝒓 𝒙.
𝒇𝑰𝑽 (𝑪𝟏) < 𝟎, 𝒕𝒉𝒆𝒏 𝒙 = 𝑪𝟏 𝒊𝒔 𝒂 𝒑𝒐𝒊𝒏𝒕 𝒐𝒇 𝒍𝒐𝒄𝒂𝒍 𝒎𝒂𝒙𝒊𝒎𝒖𝒎 𝒂𝒏𝒅 𝒊𝒇𝒇𝑰𝑽(𝑪𝟏 )
< 𝟎, 𝒕𝒉𝒆𝒏 𝒙 = 𝑪𝟏 𝒊𝒔 𝒂 𝒑𝒐𝒊𝒏𝒕 𝒐𝒇 𝒍𝒐𝒄𝒂𝒍 𝒎𝒊𝒏𝒊𝒎𝒖𝒎 .
𝑰𝑽 (
𝒇 𝑪𝟏 )
= 𝟎, 𝒘𝒆 𝒎𝒖𝒔𝒕 𝒇𝒊𝒏𝒅 𝒇𝑽 (𝒙), 𝒂𝒏𝒅 𝒔𝒐 𝒐𝒏. 𝑺𝒊𝒎𝒊𝒍𝒂𝒓𝒍𝒚, 𝒕𝒉𝒆 𝒗𝒂𝒍𝒖𝒆𝒔 𝒐𝒇 𝑪𝟐 , 𝑪𝟑 , … , 𝒎𝒂𝒚 𝒃𝒆 𝒕𝒆𝒔𝒕𝒆𝒅.
Following are some properties of maxima and minima:
i) If 𝒇(𝒙) is continuous function in its domain, then at least one maxima and one minima must lie
between two equal values of x.
ii) Maxima and Minima occur alternately, that is, between two maxima there is one minimum and
vice-versa.
iii) If𝒇(𝒙) → ∞𝒂𝒔 𝒙 →
𝒂 𝒐𝒓 𝒃 𝒂𝒏𝒅 𝒇′(𝒙)𝒐 𝒐𝒏𝒍𝒚 𝒇𝒐𝒓 𝒐𝒏𝒆 𝒗𝒂𝒍𝒖𝒆 𝒐𝒇 𝒙 (𝒔𝒂𝒚) 𝒃𝒆𝒕𝒘𝒆𝒆𝒏 𝒂 𝒂𝒏𝒅 𝒃, 𝒕𝒉𝒆𝒏 𝒇(𝒄)
Is necessarily the minimum and the least value.
If𝒇(𝒙) → ∞𝒂𝒔 𝒙 → 𝒂 𝒐𝒓 𝒃 , 𝒕𝒉𝒆𝒏 𝒇(𝒄) 𝒊𝒔 𝐧𝐞𝐜𝐞𝐬𝐬𝐚𝐫𝐢𝐥𝐲 𝐭𝐡𝐞 𝐦𝐚𝐱𝐢𝐦𝐮𝐦 𝐚𝐧𝐬 𝐭𝐡𝐞 𝐠𝐫𝐞𝐚𝐭𝐞𝐬𝐭 𝐯𝐚𝐥𝐮𝐞.
The maximum and minimum values of a function defined on a closed interval may be obtained by using
the following steps.
Let 𝒇(𝒙) be a function with defined on [𝒂, 𝒃].
𝒅𝒚
STEP I 𝒇𝑰𝑵𝑫 = 𝒇 ′ (𝒙 )
𝒅𝒙
′(
STEP II 𝑷𝒖𝒕 𝒇 𝒙) = 𝟎 𝒂𝒏𝒅 𝒇𝒊𝒏𝒅 𝒗𝒂𝒍𝒖𝒆𝒔 𝒐𝒇 𝒙. 𝑳𝒆𝒕 𝑪𝟏 , 𝑪𝟐 , … , 𝑪𝒏 𝒃𝒆 𝒕𝒉𝒆 𝒗𝒂𝒍𝒖𝒆𝒔 𝒐𝒇 𝒙.
STEP III Take the maximum and minimum values out of the values 𝒇(𝒂) 𝒇(𝑪𝟏), 𝒇(𝑪𝟐 ), . . , 𝒇(𝑪𝒏 ), 𝒇(𝒃).
The maximum and minimum values obtained in step III are respectively the largest or absolute
maximum and the smallest or absolute minimum values of the function.

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CHAP: 19
INDEFINITE INTEGRALS
S.n f(x) 𝒇(𝒙)𝒅𝒙

o. (𝒂𝒍𝒘𝒂𝒚𝒔 𝒂𝒅𝒅 𝒂 𝒄𝒐𝒏𝒔𝒕𝒂𝒏𝒕 )
1. 0 C

2. 𝒙𝒏 (𝒏 ≠ −𝟏) 𝟏
𝒙𝒏+𝟏
𝒏+𝟏

3. 𝟏 log|𝒙|
𝒙
4. 𝒆𝒙 𝒆𝒙

5. 𝒂𝒙 (a> 𝟎, 𝒂 ≠ 𝟏) 𝒂𝒙
𝒍𝒐𝒈𝒆 𝒂

6. 𝐜𝐨𝐬 𝒙 𝐬𝐢𝐧 𝒙

7. 𝐬𝐢𝐧 𝒙 −𝐜𝐨𝐬 𝒙

8. 𝒔𝒆𝒄𝟐 𝒙 𝐭𝐚𝐧 𝒙

9. 𝒄𝒐𝒔𝒆𝒄𝟐 𝒙 −𝐜𝐨𝐭 𝒙

## 13. 𝒄𝒐𝒕𝒙 log|𝒔𝒊𝒏𝒙| 𝒐𝒓 − 𝐥𝐨𝐠|𝐜𝐨𝐬𝐞𝐜 𝒙|

14. 𝒔𝒆𝒄𝒙 𝒙 𝝅
log|𝒔𝒆𝒄𝒙 + 𝒕𝒂𝒏𝒙| 𝒐𝒓 𝐥𝐨𝐠 |𝐭𝐚𝐧(𝟐 + 𝟒 )|

15. 𝒄𝒐𝒔𝒆𝒄𝒙 𝒙
log|𝒄𝒐𝒔𝒆𝒄𝒙 − 𝒄𝒐𝒕𝒙| 𝒐𝒓 𝐥𝐨𝐠 |𝐭𝐚𝐧 𝟐|

## 16. (𝒂𝒙 + 𝒃)𝒏 𝟏 (𝒂𝒙 + 𝒃)𝒏

𝒂 𝒏+𝟏

17. 𝟏 𝟏
log|𝒂𝒙 + 𝒃|
𝒂
𝒂𝒙 + 𝒃
18. 𝒂𝒃𝒙+𝒄(b> 𝟎, 𝒃 ≠ 𝟏) 𝟏 𝒂𝒃𝒙+𝒄
𝒃 𝒍𝒐𝒈𝒆 𝒂

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## 19. 𝒆𝒃𝒙+𝒄 𝟏 𝒃𝒙+𝒄

𝒆
𝒃

20. 𝐜𝐨𝐬(𝒂𝒙 + 𝒃) 𝟏
𝐬𝐢𝐧(𝒂𝒙 + 𝒃)
𝒂

21. 𝐬𝐢𝐧(𝒂𝒙 + 𝒃) 𝟏
− 𝐜𝐨𝐬(𝒂𝒙 + 𝒃)
𝒂

22. 𝐭𝐚𝐧(𝒂𝒙 + 𝒃) 𝟏
log|𝐬𝐞𝐜(𝒂𝒙 + 𝒃)|
𝒂

23. 𝐜𝐨𝐭(𝒂𝒙 + 𝒃) 𝟏
log|𝐬𝐢𝐧(𝒂𝒙 + 𝒃)|
𝒂

𝐭𝐚𝐧(𝒂𝒙 + 𝒃)
𝒂

− 𝐜𝐨𝐭(𝒂𝒙 + 𝒃)
𝒂

𝐬𝐞𝐜(𝒂𝒙 + 𝒃)
𝒃) 𝒂

## 27. 𝒄𝒐𝒔𝒆𝒄(𝒂𝒙 + 𝒃). 𝒄𝒐𝒕(𝒂𝒙 𝟏

− 𝐜𝐨𝐬𝐞𝐜(𝒂𝒙 + 𝒃)
+ 𝒃) 𝒂

28. 𝒔𝒆𝒄(𝒂𝒙 + 𝒃) 𝟏
log|𝒔𝒆𝒄(𝒂𝒙 + 𝒃) + 𝒕𝒂𝒏(𝒂𝒙 + 𝒃)|
𝒂
.

29. 𝒄𝒐𝒔𝒆𝒄(𝒂𝒙 + 𝒃) 𝟏
log|𝒄𝒐𝒔𝒆𝒄(𝒂𝒙 + 𝒃 − 𝒄𝒐𝒕(𝒂𝒙 + 𝒃)|
𝒂

30. 𝟏 𝒙
𝐬𝐢𝐧−𝟏 ( )
√𝒂𝟐 − 𝒙𝟐 𝒂

√𝒙𝟐 + 𝒂𝟐

## 32. 𝟏 log|𝒙 + √𝒙𝟐 − 𝒂𝟐 |

√𝒙𝟐 − 𝒂𝟐

33. √𝒂𝟐 − 𝒙𝟐 𝒙 𝟏 𝒙
√𝒙𝟐 − 𝒂𝟐 + 𝒂𝟐 𝐬𝐢𝐧−𝟏 ( )
𝟐 𝟐 𝒂

34. √𝒙𝟐 + 𝒂𝟐 𝒙 𝟏
√𝒙𝟐 + 𝒂𝟐 + 𝒂𝟐 𝒍𝒐𝒈 |𝒙 + √𝒙𝟐 + 𝒂𝟐 |
𝟐 𝟐

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35. √𝒙𝟐 − 𝒂𝟐 𝒙 𝟏
√𝒙𝟐 − 𝒂𝟐 − 𝒂𝟐 𝒍𝒐𝒈 |𝒙 + √𝒙𝟐 − 𝒂𝟐 |
𝟐 𝟐

36. 𝟏 𝟏 𝒙−𝒂
𝒍𝒐𝒈 | |
𝒙 − 𝒂𝟐
𝟐 𝟐𝒂 𝒙+𝒂

37. 𝟏 𝟏 𝒂+𝒙
𝒍𝒐𝒈 | |
𝒂𝟐 − 𝒙𝟐 𝟐𝒂 𝒂−𝒙

38. 𝟏 𝟏 𝒙
𝐭𝐚𝐧−𝟏 ( )
𝒂𝟐 + 𝒙𝟐 𝒂 𝒂

## 39. Integration by parts 𝒅𝒖

u∫ 𝒗 𝒅𝒙 − ∫ {𝒅𝒙 ∫ 𝒗 𝒅𝒙} 𝒅𝒙
∫ 𝒖. 𝒗 𝒅𝒙

## Choose I & IInd fn

according to
ILATE
I-Inverse trigonometric
Fn
L-Log Fns
A-Algebraic Fns
T-Trigonometric fns
E-exponential fns

## Remember formula 33,34,35

𝒙 𝒂𝟐 𝒅𝒙
∫ 𝒊𝒏𝒕𝒆𝒈𝒓𝒂𝒏𝒅 𝒅𝒙 = (𝒊𝒏𝒕𝒆𝒈𝒓𝒂𝒏𝒅) ± ∫
𝟐 𝟐 𝒊𝒏𝒕𝒆𝒈𝒓𝒂𝒏𝒅
use 𝒂 𝒐𝒓 − 𝒂 𝒂𝒔 𝒈𝒊𝒗𝒆𝒏 𝒊𝒏 𝒊𝒏𝒕𝒆𝒈𝒓𝒂nd
𝟐 𝟐

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CHAP: 20
DEFINITE INTEGRALS
𝒅
Let 𝝓(𝒙) be the primitive or anti-derivative of a function 𝒇(𝒙) defined on [𝒂, 𝒃] i.e., 𝒅𝒙 (𝝓(𝒙)) =
𝒃
𝒇(𝒙). Then the definite integral of 𝒇(𝒙) over [𝒂, 𝒃] is denoted by ∫𝒂 𝒇(𝒙) 𝒅𝒙 and is defined as
𝒃
[𝝓(𝒃) − 𝝓(𝒂)] i.e., ∫𝒂 𝒇(𝒙) 𝒅𝒙 = 𝝓(𝒃) − 𝝓(𝒂)
The numbers a and b are called the limits of integration, ‘a’ is called the lower limit and ‘b’ the
upper limit. The interval [𝒂, 𝒃]is called the interval of integration.

Following are some fundamental properties of definite integrals which are very useful in evaluating
integrals:
𝒃 𝒃
i) ∫𝒂 𝒇(𝒙) 𝒅𝒙 = ∫𝒂 𝒇(𝒕) 𝒅𝒕 i.e., integration is independent of the change of variable.
𝒃 𝒂
ii) ∫𝒂 𝒇(𝒙) 𝒅𝒙 = ∫𝒃 𝒇(𝒙) 𝒅𝒙 i.e., if the limits of a definite integral are interchanged then its value
changes by minus sing only.
𝒃 𝒄 𝒃
iii) ∫𝒂 𝒇(𝒙) 𝒅𝒙 = ∫𝒂 𝒇(𝒙) 𝒅𝒙 + ∫𝒄 𝒇(𝒙) 𝒅𝒙 𝒘𝒉𝒆𝒓𝒆 𝒂 < 𝒄 < 𝒃.
The above property can be generalized into the following form
𝒃 𝟏 𝑪 𝟐 𝑪 𝒃
∫𝒂 𝒇(𝒙) 𝒅𝒙 = ∫𝒂 𝒇(𝒙) 𝒅𝒙 + ∫𝒂 𝒇(𝒙) 𝒅𝒙 + ⋯ + ∫𝑪𝒏 𝒇(𝒙) 𝒅𝒙 , 𝒘𝒉𝒆𝒓𝒆 𝒂 < 𝑪𝟏 < 𝑪𝟐 < 𝑪𝟑 … <
𝑪𝒏 − 𝟏 < 𝑪𝒏 < 𝒃.
𝒂 𝒂
iv) ∫𝟎 𝒇(𝒙) 𝒅𝒙 = ∫𝟎 𝒇(𝒂 − 𝒙) 𝒅𝒙
𝒂
𝒂 𝟐 ∫ 𝒇(𝒙) 𝒅𝒙 , 𝒊𝒇 𝒇(𝒙) 𝒊𝒔 𝒂𝒏 𝒆𝒗𝒆𝒏 𝒇𝒖𝒏𝒄𝒕𝒊𝒐𝒏
v) ∫−𝒂 𝒇(𝒙)
𝒅𝒙 = { 𝟎
𝟎, 𝒊𝒇 𝒇(𝒙) 𝒊𝒔 𝒂𝒏 𝒐𝒅𝒅 𝒇𝒖𝒏𝒄𝒕𝒊𝒐𝒏
𝒂 𝒂
vi) ∫−𝒂 𝒇(𝒙) 𝒅𝒙 = ∫𝟎 {𝒇(𝒙) + 𝒇(−𝒙)} 𝒅𝒙
𝒂
𝟐𝒂 𝟐 ∫ 𝒇(𝒙) 𝒅𝒙 , 𝒊𝒇 (𝟐𝒂 − 𝒙) = 𝒇(𝒙)
vii) ∫𝟎 𝒇(𝒙) 𝒅𝒙 = { 𝟎
𝟎, 𝒊𝒇 (𝟐𝒂 − 𝒙) = −𝒇(𝒙)
𝟐𝒂 𝟐𝒂
viii) ∫𝟎 𝒇(𝒙) 𝒅𝒙 = ∫𝟎 {𝒇(𝒙) + 𝒇(𝟐𝒂 − 𝒙)} 𝒅𝒙
𝒃 𝒃
ix) ∫𝒂 𝒇(𝒙) 𝒅𝒙 = ∫𝒂 𝒇(𝒂 + 𝒃 − 𝒙) 𝒅𝒙
𝒃 𝒃
x) ∫𝒂 𝒇(𝒙) 𝒅𝒙 = (𝒃 − 𝒂) ∫𝒂 𝒇{(𝒃 − 𝒂)𝒙 + 𝒂} 𝒅𝒙

𝒊𝒇 𝒇(𝒙) is a real valued continuous function defined on [𝒂, 𝒃] which is divided into n equal parts each
of width h by inserting (𝒏 − 𝟏) points 𝒂 + 𝒉, 𝒂 + 𝟐𝒉, … , 𝒂 + (𝒏 − 𝟏)𝒉 𝒃𝒆𝒕𝒘𝒆𝒆𝒏 𝒂 𝒂𝒏𝒅 𝒃.
𝒃
Then, ∫𝒂 𝒇(𝒙) 𝒅𝒙 = 𝐥𝐢𝐦 𝒉[𝒇(𝒂) + 𝒇(𝒂 + 𝒉) + 𝒇(𝒂 + 𝟐𝒉) + ⋯ + 𝒇{𝒂 + (𝒏 − 𝟏)𝒉}], 𝒘𝒉𝒆𝒓𝒆 𝒉 =
𝒉→𝟎
𝒃−𝒂
.
𝒉

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CHAP: 21
AREAS OF BOUNDED REGIONS
𝑰𝒇 𝒇(𝒙) be a continuous function defined on [𝒂, 𝒃]. Then, the area bounded by the curve 𝒚 =
𝒃 𝒃
𝒇(𝒙), the x-axis and the ordinates 𝒙 = 𝒂 𝒂𝒏𝒅 𝒙 = 𝒃 is given by ∫𝒂 𝒇(𝒙) 𝒅𝒙 𝒐𝒓, ∫𝒂 𝒚 𝒅𝒙

If the curve 𝒚 = 𝒇(𝒙) lies below x-axis, then the area bounded by the curve 𝒚 = 𝒇(𝒙), the x-axis
𝒃
and the ordinates 𝒙 = 𝒂 𝒂𝒏𝒅 𝒙 = 𝒃𝒊𝒔 𝒏𝒆𝒈𝒂𝒕𝒊𝒗𝒆. 𝑺𝒐, 𝒂𝒓𝒆𝒂 𝒊𝒔 𝒈𝒊𝒗𝒆𝒏 𝒃𝒚 |∫𝒂 𝒚 𝒅𝒙|

The area bounded by the curve 𝒙 = 𝒇(𝒚), 𝒕𝒉𝒆 𝒚 − 𝒂𝒙𝒊𝒔 𝒂𝒏𝒅 𝒕𝒉𝒆 𝒂𝒃𝒔𝒄𝒊𝒔𝒔𝒂𝒆 𝒚 = 𝒄 𝒂𝒏𝒅 𝒚 =
𝒅 𝒅
𝒅 𝒊𝒔 𝒈𝒊𝒗𝒆𝒏 𝒃𝒚 ∫𝒂 𝒇(𝒚) 𝒅𝒚 𝒐𝒓, ∫𝒂 𝒙 𝒅𝒚

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CHAP: 22
DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
.
i) An equation containing an independent variable, dependent variable and differential
coefficients of dependent variable with respect to independent variable is called a differential
equation.
ii) The order of a differential equation is the order of the highest order derivative appearing in
the equation.
iii) The degree of a differential equation is the degree of the highest order derivative, when
differential coefficients are made free from radicals and fractions. In other words, the degree
of a differential equation is the power of the highest order derivative occurring in a
differential equation when it is written as a polynomial in differential coefficients.
A differential equation is a linear differential equation if it is expressible in the form
𝒅𝒏 𝒚 𝒅𝒏−𝟏 𝒚 𝒅𝒏−𝟐 𝒚 𝒅𝒚
𝑷𝟎 𝒅𝒙𝒏 + 𝑷𝟏 𝒅𝒙𝒏−𝟏 + 𝑷𝟐 𝒅𝒙𝒏−𝟐 + ⋯ + 𝑷𝒏−𝟏 𝒅𝒙 + 𝑷𝒏 𝒚 = 𝑸
Where 𝑷𝟎 , 𝑷𝟏 , 𝑷𝟐 , … , 𝑷𝒏−𝟏 , 𝑷𝒏 and Q are either constants or functions of independent variable x.
Thus, if a differential equation when expressed in the form of a polynomial involves the derivatives
and dependent variable in the first power and there are no product of these, and also the coefficient
of the various terms are either constants or functions of the independent variable, equation.
It follows from the above definition that a differential equation will be non-linear differential
equation, if
i) Its degree is more than one.
ii) Any of the differential coefficient has exponent more than one.
iii) Exponent of the dependent variable is more than one.
iv) Products containing dependent variable and its differential coefficients are present.
The solution of a differential equation is a relation between the variables involved which satisfies
the differential equation. Such a relation and the derivatives obtained therefrom when substituted
in the differential equation, makes left hand, and right hand sides identically equal. The solution
which contains as many arbitrary constants as the order of the differential equation is called the
general solution of the differential equation. Solution of a differential equation is called a particular
solution.
A differential equation is said to be in the variable separable form if it is expressible in the form
𝒇(𝒙)𝒅𝒙 = 𝒈(𝒚)𝒅𝒚. The solution of this equation is given by ∫ 𝒇(𝒙)𝒅𝒙 = ∫ 𝒈(𝒚)𝒅𝒚 + 𝑪, where Cis a
constant.
𝒅𝒚
A differential equation of the form𝒅𝒙 = 𝒇(𝒂𝒙 + 𝒃𝒚 + 𝒄)can be reduced to variable separable form by
the substitution 𝒂𝒙 + 𝒃𝒚 + 𝒄 = 𝒗.
𝒅𝒚 𝒇(𝒙,𝒚)
If a first order first degree differential equation is expressible in the form 𝒅𝒙 = 𝒈(𝒙,𝒚), where
𝒇(𝒙, 𝒚) 𝒂𝒏𝒅 𝒈(𝒙, 𝒚)are homogeneous functions of the same degree, then it is called a homogeneous
differential equation. Such type of equations can be reduced to variable separable form by the
substitution 𝒚 = 𝒗𝒙 𝒐𝒓, 𝒙 = 𝒗𝒚.

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𝒅𝒚
If a differential equation is expressible in the form + 𝑷𝒚 + 𝑸,where P and Q are functions of x,
𝒅𝒙
then it is called a linear differential equation. The solution of this equation is given by
𝒚(𝒆∫ 𝑷 𝒅𝒙) = ∫(𝑸𝒆∫ 𝑷 𝒅𝒙 ) 𝒅𝒙 + 𝑪
𝒅𝒚
Sometimes a linear differential equation is in the form 𝒅𝒙 + 𝑹𝒙 =
𝑺, 𝒘𝒉𝒆𝒓𝒆 𝑹 𝒂𝒏𝒅 𝑺 𝒂𝒓𝒆 𝒇𝒖𝒏𝒄𝒕𝒊𝒐𝒏𝒔 𝒐𝒇 𝒚. 𝑻𝒉𝒆 𝒔𝒐𝒍𝒖𝒕𝒊𝒐𝒏 𝒐𝒇 𝒕𝒉𝒊𝒔 𝒆𝒒𝒖𝒂𝒕𝒊𝒐𝒏 𝒊𝒔 𝒈𝒊𝒗𝒆𝒏 𝒃𝒚
(𝒆∫ 𝑹 𝒅𝒚 ) = ∫(𝑺𝒆∫ 𝑹 𝒅𝒚 ) 𝒅𝒙 + 𝑪

CHAP:23
ALGEBRA OF VECTORS
A vector is a physical quantity having both magnitude and direction.

⃗ , ⃗𝒃, 𝒄
If 𝒂 ⃗ + ⃗𝒃 + 𝒄
⃗ are the vectors represented by the sides of a triangle taken in order, then 𝒂 ⃗ = ⃗𝟎.
Conversely, if 𝒂 ⃗ ,𝒄
⃗ ,𝒃 ⃗ are three non-collinear vectors, such that 𝒂 ⃗ +𝒄
⃗ +𝒃 ⃗ =𝟎⃗ , then they form the
sides of a triangle taken in order.

⃗ 𝐚𝐫𝐞 𝐜𝐨𝐥𝐥𝐢𝐧𝐞𝐚𝐫 iff there exist non-zero scalars x and y such that
⃗⃗⃗ 𝒂𝒏𝒅𝒃
𝐓𝐰𝐨 𝐧𝐨𝐧 − 𝐳𝐞𝐫𝐨 𝐯𝐞𝐜𝐭𝐨𝐫𝐬 𝒂
⃗ = ⃗𝟎.
⃗ + 𝒚𝒃
𝒙𝒂

## ⃗ are two non-zero collinear vectors, then 𝒙𝒂

⃗⃗⃗ 𝒂𝒏𝒅 𝒃
𝑰𝒇 𝒂 ⃗ =𝟎
⃗ + 𝒚𝒃 ⃗ ⟹ 𝒙 = 𝒚 = 𝟎.

## 𝑰𝒇 𝒂 ⃗ are two non-zero vectors, then any vector 𝒓

⃗⃗⃗ 𝒂𝒏𝒅 𝒃 ⃗ coplanar with 𝒂 ⃗ can be uniquely
⃗ and 𝒃
expressed as 𝒓 ⃗ = 𝒙𝒂⃗ + 𝒚𝒃⃗ , where 𝒙, 𝒚 are scalars.
Also, 𝒓⃗ = {𝒙|𝒂
⃗ |}𝒂 ⃗ |}𝒃
̂ + {𝒚|𝒃 ̂

If 𝒂 ⃗ ,𝒄
⃗ ,𝒃 ⃗ are three given non-coplanar vectors, then every vector 𝒓 ⃗ in space can be uniquely
expressed as 𝒓 ⃗ = 𝒙𝒂 ⃗ + 𝒚𝒃 ⃗ + 𝒛𝒄⃗ for some scalars 𝒙, 𝒚 𝒂𝒏𝒅 𝒛.
Or, , 𝒓⃗ = {𝒙|𝒂⃗ |}𝒂
̂ + {𝒚|𝒃 ⃗ |}𝒃
̂ + {𝒛|𝒄⃗ |}𝒄̂
Here, vectors 𝒙𝒂 ⃗⃗⃗ 𝒂𝒏𝒅 𝒛𝒄
⃗ , 𝒚𝒃 ⃗ are called the components of 𝒓 ⃗ , ⃗𝒃 and 𝒄
⃗ in the directions of 𝒂 ⃗
respectively and the scalars 𝒙, 𝒚 𝒂𝒏𝒅 𝒛 are known as the coordinates of 𝒓 ⃗ relative to the triad of non-
coplanar vectors 𝒂 ⃗ , ⃗𝒃, 𝒄
⃗ . The triad of non-coplanar vectors 𝒂⃗ , ⃗𝒃, 𝒄
⃗ relative to which we decompose
any vector 𝒓⃗ is called a base.
The scalars 𝒙|𝒂
⃗ |, 𝒚|𝒃⃗ |, 𝒛|𝒄 ⃗ | are known as the projections of 𝒓
⃗ in the directions of 𝒂 ⃗ ,𝒄
⃗ ,𝒃 ⃗ respectively.

It 𝒂 ⃗ ,𝒄
⃗ ,𝒃 ⃗ are three non-zero non-coplanar vectors and 𝒙, 𝒚, 𝒛 are three scalars, then
𝒙𝒂⃗ + 𝒚𝒃 ⃗ + 𝒛𝒄⃗ = ⃗𝟎 ⟹ 𝒙 = 𝒚 = 𝟎.

⃗ (= ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
If 𝑰, 𝒎, 𝒏 are direction cosines of a vector 𝒓 𝑶𝑷), where O is the origin and the point P has
(𝒙, 𝒚, 𝒛)as its coordinates, then
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i) 𝑰𝟐 + 𝒎𝟐 + 𝒏𝟐 = 𝟏
ii) 𝒙 = 𝑰|𝒓⃗ |, 𝒚 = 𝒎 |𝒓
⃗ |, 𝒛 = 𝒏 |𝒓
⃗|
iii) ⃗ = |𝒓
𝒓 ⃗ |(𝑰𝒊̂ + 𝒎𝒋̂ + 𝒏𝒌) ̂
iv) ⃗ = 𝑰𝒊̂ + 𝒎𝒋̂ + 𝒏𝒌
𝒓 ̂

̂, 𝒕𝒉𝒆𝒏 𝒂, 𝒃, 𝒄 are proportional to its direction ratios and its direction cosines are
⃗ = 𝒂𝒊̂ + 𝒃𝒋̂ + 𝒄𝒌
If 𝒓
±𝒂 ±𝒃 ±𝒄
, ,
√𝒂𝟐 +𝒃𝟐 +𝒄𝟐 √𝒂𝟐 +𝒃𝟐 +𝒄𝟐 √𝒂𝟐 +𝒃𝟐 +𝒄𝟐

## (i) A set of non-zero vectors ⃗⃗⃗⃗ 𝒂𝟏 , ⃗⃗⃗⃗

𝒂𝟐 , ⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝒂𝟑 , … , ⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝒂𝒏 is linearly independent, if
i) 𝒙𝟏 ⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝒂𝟏 + 𝒙𝟐 ⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝒂𝟐 + ⋯ + 𝒙𝒏 ⃗⃗⃗⃗ 𝒂𝒏 = ⃗𝟎 ⟹ 𝒙𝟏 = 𝒙𝟐 = ⋯ = 𝒙𝒏 = 𝟎
ii) A set of vectors 𝒂 ⃗⃗⃗⃗𝟏 , ⃗⃗⃗⃗ ⃗⃗⃗⃗𝟑 , … , 𝒂
𝒂𝟐 , 𝒂 ⃗⃗⃗⃗𝒏 is linearly dependent, if there exist scalars 𝒙𝟏 , 𝒙𝟐 , … , 𝒙𝒏
not all zero such that 𝒙𝟏 ⃗⃗⃗⃗ 𝒂𝟏 + 𝒙𝟐 ⃗⃗⃗⃗ 𝒂𝟐 + ⋯ + 𝒙𝒏 ⃗⃗⃗⃗𝒂𝒏 = ⃗𝟎.
iii) Any two non-zero, non-collinear vectors are linearly independent.
iv) Any two collinear vectors are linearly dependent.
v) Any three non-coplanar vectors are linearly independent.
vi) Any three coplanar vectors are linearly dependent.
vii) Any set of four or more vectors in three dimensional space is linearly dependent set.

## ⃗ 𝒂𝒏𝒅 ⃗𝒃 respectively, then the position vector of

If A and B are two points with position vectors 𝒂
⃗ +𝒏𝒂
𝒎𝒃 ⃗ ⃗ +𝒏𝒂
𝒎𝒃 ⃗
a point C dividing AB in the ratio 𝒎: 𝒏 internally and externally are 𝒂𝒏𝒅 respectively.
𝒎+𝒏 𝒎−𝒏

If A and B are two points with position vectors 𝒂 ⃗ 𝒂𝒏𝒅 ⃗𝒃 𝐫𝐞𝐬𝐩𝐞𝐜𝐭𝐢𝐯𝐞𝐥𝐲 and 𝒎, 𝒏 are positive real
numbers, then 𝒎𝑶𝑨 ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗ + 𝒏𝑶𝑩
⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗ = (𝒎 + 𝒏)𝑶𝑪,
⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗ where C is a point on AB dividing it in the ratio
𝒏: 𝒎. 𝑨𝒍𝒔𝒐, ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑶𝑨 + ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑶𝑩 = 𝟐𝑶𝑪, ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗ 𝐰𝐡𝐞𝐫𝐞 𝐂 𝐢𝐬 𝐭𝐡𝐞 𝐦𝐢𝐝 − 𝐩𝐨𝐢𝐧𝐭 𝐨𝐟 𝐀𝐁.

⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗ + 𝑺𝑩
If S is any point in the plane of a triangle ABC, then 𝑺𝑨 ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗ + 𝑺𝑪
⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗ = 𝟑 𝑺𝑮,
⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗ where G is the the
centroid of ∆𝑨𝑩𝑪.

The necessary and sufficient condition for three points with position vectors 𝒂 ⃗ , ⃗𝒃, 𝒄
⃗ to be collinear
is that there exist scalars 𝒙, 𝒚, 𝒛 𝒏𝒐𝒕 𝒂𝒍𝒍 𝒛𝒆𝒓𝒐 𝒔𝒖𝒄𝒉 𝒕𝒉𝒂𝒕 𝒙𝒂⃗ , ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝒚𝒃, 𝒛𝒄⃗ = ⃗𝟎, where 𝒙 + 𝒚 + 𝒛 = 𝟎.

The necessary and sufficient condition for four points with position vectors ⃗𝒂, ⃗𝒃, ⃗𝒄, ⃗𝒅 to be
⃗ , ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
coplanar is that there exist scalars 𝒙, 𝒚, 𝒛 𝒏𝒐𝒕 𝒂𝒍𝒍 𝒛𝒆𝒓𝒐 𝒔𝒖𝒄𝒉 𝒕𝒉𝒂𝒕 𝒙𝒂 𝒚𝒃, 𝒛𝒄 ⃗ = 𝟎,
⃗ , 𝒕𝒅 ⃗⃗⃗ where 𝒙 + 𝒚 +
𝒛 + 𝒕 = 𝟎.

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CHAP: 24
SCALAR OR DOT PRODUCT
⃗ , 𝒂𝒏𝒅 ⃗𝒃 are two non-zero vectors inclined at an angle 𝜽, then
If 𝒂
i) 𝒂 ⃗ = |𝒂
⃗ .𝒃 ⃗ | 𝐜𝐨𝐬 𝜽
⃗ | |𝒃
⃗ .𝒃
𝒂 ⃗
⃗ 𝒐𝒏 ⃗𝒃 = ⃗ = 𝒂
ii) Projection of 𝒂 ̂
⃗ .𝒃
|𝒃|
⃗ .𝒃
𝒂 ⃗
iii) Projection of ⃗𝒃 𝒐𝒏 𝒂
⃗ = |𝒂⃗| = ⃗𝒃. 𝒂
̂
𝒂 ⃗
⃗ .𝒃 ⃗
⃗ .𝒃
𝒂
⃗ = { }𝒃
⃗ 𝒐𝒏 𝒃
iv) Projection vector of 𝒂 ̂={ 𝟐

}𝒃
⃗|
|𝒃 ⃗|
|𝒃

𝒂 ⃗
⃗ .𝒃 ⃗
⃗ .𝒃
𝒂
⃗ 𝒐𝒏 ⃗𝒂 = {{ }} 𝒂
v) Projection vector of𝒃 ̂ = {|𝒂⃗|𝟐 } ⃗𝒂
⃗|
|𝒃

## vi) 𝒂⃗ .𝒃 ⃗ =𝟎⇔𝒂 ⃗ is perpendicular to 𝒃 ⃗

⃗ . ⃗𝒃 = ⃗𝒃. 𝒂
vii) 𝒂 ⃗
viii) 𝒂 ⃗ .𝒂 ⃗ |𝟐
⃗ = |𝒂
ix) 𝒎𝒂 ⃗ . ⃗𝒃 = 𝒎(𝒂 ⃗ . ⃗𝒃) = 𝒂 ⃗ , 𝒇𝒐𝒓 𝒂𝒏𝒚 𝒔𝒄𝒂𝒍𝒂𝒓 𝒎
⃗ . 𝒎𝒃
x) 𝒎𝒂 ⃗ . 𝒏𝒃⃗ = 𝒎𝒏(𝒂 ⃗ . ⃗𝒃) = 𝒎𝒏(𝒂 ⃗ . ⃗𝒃) = 𝒂
⃗ . 𝒎𝒏 ⃗𝒃, 𝒇𝒐𝒓 𝒂𝒏𝒚 𝒔𝒄𝒂𝒍𝒂𝒓 𝒎, 𝒏
xi) |𝒂⃗ ± ⃗𝒃| ≤ |⃗𝒂| + |𝒃⃗|
xii) |𝒂
⃗ −𝒃 ⃗ | ≥ |𝒂 ⃗|
⃗ | − |𝒃
𝟐 𝟐
xiii) ⃗ ± ⃗𝒃| = |𝒂
|𝒂 ⃗ | ± 𝟐(𝒂
⃗ |𝟐 + |𝒃 ⃗ . ⃗𝒃)
𝟐
xiv)(𝒂
⃗ +𝒃 ⃗ ). (𝒂 ⃗ ) = |𝒂
⃗ −𝒃 ⃗|
⃗ |𝟐 − |𝒃
⃗ . ⃗𝒃 > 𝟎 𝒊𝒇𝒇 𝜽 𝒊𝒔 𝒂𝒄𝒖𝒕𝒆
xv) 𝒂
⃗ .𝒃
xvi)𝒂 ⃗ < 𝟎 𝒊𝒇𝒇 𝜽 𝒊𝒔 obtuse
𝟐 𝟐
⃗ , ⃗𝒃, 𝒄
If 𝒂 ⃗ . ⃗𝒃 = 𝒂𝟏 𝒃𝟏 + 𝒂𝟐 𝒃𝟐 + 𝒂𝟑 𝒃𝟑 |𝒂
⃗ are three vectors, then 𝒂 ⃗ + ⃗𝒃 + 𝒄 ⃗ | + |𝒄
⃗ |𝟐 +|𝒃
⃗ | = |𝒂 ⃗ |𝟐 +
𝟐(𝒂 ⃗ .𝒃⃗ +𝒃 ⃗ .𝒄
⃗ +𝒄
⃗.𝒂
⃗)

̂ 𝒂𝒏𝒅 𝒃
⃗ = 𝒂𝟏 𝒊̂ + 𝒂𝟐 𝒋̂ + 𝒂𝟑 𝒌
If 𝒂 ⃗ 𝒃𝟏 𝒊̂ + 𝒃𝟐 𝒋̂ + 𝒃𝟑 𝒌
̂ 𝒕𝒉𝒆𝒏 𝒂 ⃗ = 𝒂𝟏 𝒃𝟏 + 𝒂𝟐 𝒃𝟐 + 𝒂𝟑 𝒃𝟑 .
⃗ .𝒃

⃗ .𝒃
𝒂 ⃗
⃗ , 𝒂𝒏𝒅 ⃗𝒃 are two vectors inclined at an angel 𝜽, 𝒕𝒉𝒆𝒏 𝐜𝐨𝐬 𝜽 =
If 𝒂 ⃗ |.
|𝒂
⃗ | |𝒃

⃗ , ⃗𝒃, 𝒄
If 𝒂 ⃗ are non-coplanar vectors in space and 𝒓 ⃗ is any vector in space, then
⃗ = (𝒓.
𝒓 ̂ )𝒂
⃗⃗ 𝒂 ̂ + (𝒓. ̂)𝒃
⃗⃗ 𝒃 ̂ + (𝒓.
⃗⃗ 𝒄̂)𝒄̂
where𝒂 ̂, 𝒄̂ are unit vectors in the directions of 𝒂
̂ ,𝒃 ⃗ , ⃗𝒃, 𝒄
⃗ respectively.
⃗⃗ 𝒂
𝒓. ̂ 𝒓. ̂
⃗⃗ 𝒃 ⃗⃗ 𝒄̂
𝒓.
𝒓 ⃗ + {|𝒂⃗|𝟐 } ⃗𝒃 + {|𝒄⃗|𝟐 } 𝒄
⃗ = {|𝒂⃗|𝟐 } 𝒂 ⃗
⃗ = (𝒓
In particular, 𝒓 ⃗ . 𝒊̂)𝒊̂ + (𝒓
⃗ 𝒋̂)𝒋̂ + (𝒓
⃗𝒌̂)𝒌
̂.

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CHAP: 25
CECTOR OR CROSS PRODUCT
⃗ , ⃗𝒃 are two vectors inclined at an angel 𝜽, 𝒕𝒉𝒆𝒏 𝒂
If 𝒂 ⃗ × ⃗𝒃 =
|𝒂 ⃗ | 𝐬𝐢𝐧 𝜽𝜼,
⃗ | |𝒃 ̂ 𝒘𝒉𝒆𝒓𝒆 ̂ ⃗
⃗ , 𝒂𝒏𝒅 𝒃
𝜼 𝒊𝒔 𝒂 𝒖𝒏𝒊𝒕 𝒗𝒆𝒕𝒐𝒓 𝒑𝒆𝒓𝒑𝒆𝒏𝒅𝒊𝒄𝒖𝒍𝒂𝒓 𝒕𝒐 𝒕𝒉𝒆 𝒑𝒍𝒂𝒏𝒆 𝒐𝒇 𝒂
𝒔𝒖𝒄𝒉 𝒕𝒉𝒂𝒕 𝒂 ⃗,̂
⃗ ,𝒃 𝜼 from a right handed system.

⃗ × ⃗𝒃 = ⃗⃗⃗
𝒂 ⃗ , 𝒂𝒏𝒅 ⃗𝒃 are 𝒑𝒂𝒓𝒂𝒍𝒍𝒆𝒍.
𝟎 𝒊𝒇𝒇 𝒂

⃗ × ⃗𝒃 gives the vector area of the parallelogram having two adjacent sides as 𝒂
𝒂 ⃗ , 𝒂𝒏𝒅 ⃗𝒃.

⃗𝒂×𝒃⃗
⃗ 𝒂𝒓𝒆 ±
⃗ , 𝒂𝒏𝒅 𝒃
The unit vectors perpendicular to the plane of 𝒂 |𝒂 ⃗|
⃗ ×𝒃

⃗ × ⃗𝒃 = −(𝒂
𝒂 ⃗ × ⃗𝒃)

## (i) 𝒎(𝒂⃗ × ⃗𝒃) = 𝒎𝒂

⃗ × ⃗𝒃 = 𝒂
⃗ × 𝒎𝒃⃗ , 𝒇𝒐𝒓 𝒂𝒏𝒚 𝒔𝒄𝒂𝒍𝒂𝒓 𝒎
⃗ × 𝒏𝒃
(ii) 𝒎𝒂 ⃗ = 𝒎𝒏(𝒂
⃗ ×𝒃 ⃗ ) = 𝒏𝒂
⃗ × 𝒎𝒃 ⃗ = 𝒎𝒏𝒂⃗ ×𝒃⃗ =𝒂 ⃗ 𝒇𝒐𝒓 𝒔𝒄𝒂𝒍𝒂𝒓𝒔 𝒎, 𝒏.
⃗ × 𝒎𝒏𝒃

𝒊̂ 𝒋̂ ̂
𝒌
⃗ = |𝒂𝟏
⃗ ×𝒃
𝒂 𝒂𝟐 𝒂𝟑 | , 𝒘𝒉𝒆𝒓𝒆 𝒂 ̂ 𝒂𝒏𝒅 𝒃
⃗ = 𝒂𝟏 𝒊̂ + 𝒂𝟐 𝒋̂ + 𝒂𝟑 𝒌 ⃗ 𝒃𝟏 𝒊̂ + 𝒃𝟐 𝒋̂ + 𝒃𝟑 𝒌
̂
𝒃𝟏 𝒃𝟐 𝒃𝟑

𝟐 𝟐 𝟐
⃗ : |𝒂
⃗ , 𝒂𝒏𝒅 𝒃
For any two vectors 𝒂 ⃗ | + (𝒂
⃗ ±𝒃 ⃗ ) = |𝒂
⃗ .𝒃 ⃗|
⃗ |𝟐 |𝒃

𝟐
⃗ × 𝒊̂|𝟐 + |𝒂
⃗ ; |𝒂
For any vector 𝒂 ⃗ × 𝒋̂|𝟐 + |𝒂 ̂ | = 𝟐 |𝒂
⃗ ×𝒌 ⃗ |𝟐

𝟏 𝟏 𝟏
⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗ × 𝑨𝑪
(i) Area of ∆𝑨𝑩𝑪 = 𝟐 |𝑨𝑩 ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗ | = |𝑩𝑪
⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗ × 𝑩𝑨
⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗ | = |𝑪𝑩
⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗ × 𝑪𝑨
⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗ |
𝟐 𝟐
𝟏
⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗ × ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
(ii) Area of a plane convex quadrilateral 𝑨𝑩𝑪𝑫 𝒊𝒔 𝟐 |𝑨𝑪 𝑩𝑫|, 𝒘𝒉𝒆𝒓𝒆 𝑨𝑪 𝒂𝒏𝒅 𝑩𝑫 𝒂𝒓𝒆 𝒅𝒊𝒂𝒈𝒐𝒏𝒂𝒍.

If 𝒂 ⃗ ,𝒄
⃗ ,𝒃 ⃗ are the position vectors of the vertices A,B,C,D of ∆𝑨𝑩𝑪, 𝒕𝒉𝒆𝒏
𝟏
Area of ∆𝑨𝑩𝑪 = |𝒂 ⃗ ×𝒃 ⃗ ×𝒃⃗ ×𝒃 ⃗ ×𝒄⃗ ×𝒂 ⃗|
𝟐
⃗⃗⃗ ×⃗⃗⃗𝒃 + 𝒃
|𝒂 ⃗ ×𝒃
⃗⃗⃗ + 𝒄 ⃗|
⃗ ×𝒂
Length of the perpendicular from C on AB = ⃗
|𝒃−𝒂⃗|
⃗⃗⃗ ×⃗⃗⃗𝒃 + 𝒃
|𝒂 ⃗ ×𝒃
⃗⃗⃗ + 𝒄 ⃗|
⃗ ×𝒂
Length of the perpendicular from Aon BC = ⃗
|𝒃×𝒄⃗|
⃗⃗⃗ ×⃗⃗⃗𝒃 + 𝒃
|𝒂 ⃗ ×𝒃
⃗⃗⃗ + 𝒄 ⃗|
⃗ ×𝒂
Length of the perpendicular from Bon AC= |𝒄 ⃗|
⃗ ×𝒂

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CHAP: 27
DIRECTIONS COSINES AND DIRECTION RATIOS
If (𝒙𝟏, 𝒚𝟏 , 𝒛𝟏 ) 𝒂𝒏𝒅 𝑸(𝒂𝟐 , 𝒚𝟐 , 𝒛𝟐 ) 𝒂𝒓𝒆 𝒕𝒘𝒐 𝒑𝒐𝒊𝒏𝒕𝒔 𝒊𝒏 𝒔𝒑𝒂𝒄𝒆, 𝒕𝒉𝒆𝒏 𝑷𝑸 =
√(𝒙𝟐 − 𝒙𝟏 )𝟐 + (𝒚𝟐 − 𝒚𝟏 )𝟐 + (𝒛𝟐 − 𝒛𝟏 )𝟐

The distance of a point 𝑷(𝒙, 𝒚, 𝒛)from the origin O is given by OP= √𝒙𝟐 + 𝒚𝟐 + 𝒛𝟐

If 𝑷(𝒙𝟏 , 𝒚𝟏 , 𝒛𝟏 ) 𝒂𝒏𝒅 𝑸(𝒂𝟐 , 𝒚𝟐 , 𝒛𝟐 ) 𝒂𝒓𝒆 𝒕𝒘𝒐 𝒑𝒐𝒊𝒏𝒕𝒔, then the coordinates of a point dividing PQ
𝒎𝒙𝟐 +𝒏𝒙𝟏 𝒎𝒚𝟐+𝒏𝒚𝟏 𝒎𝒛𝟐 +𝒏𝒛𝟏
internally in the ratio m:n are ( , 𝒎+𝒏 , 𝒎+𝒏 )
𝒎+𝒏
𝒎𝒙𝟐 +𝒏𝒙𝟏 𝒎𝒚𝟐 +𝒏𝒚𝟏 𝒎𝒛𝟐 +𝒏𝒛𝟏
If R divides PQ externally in the ratio m:n then its coordinates are ( , 𝒎+𝒏 , 𝒎+𝒏 )
𝒎+𝒏
𝒙𝟐 +𝒙𝟏 𝒚𝟐 +𝒚𝟏 𝒛𝟐 +𝒛𝟏
The coordinates of the mid-point of PQ are ( , , )
𝟐 𝟐 𝟐

## The line segment joining 𝑷(𝒙𝟏 , 𝒚𝟏 , 𝒛𝟏 ) 𝒂𝒏𝒅 𝑸(𝒂𝟐 , 𝒚𝟐 , 𝒛𝟐 ) is divided by

i) 𝒀𝒁 − 𝒑𝒍𝒂𝒏𝒆 𝒊𝒏 𝒕𝒉𝒆 𝒓𝒂𝒕𝒊𝒐 − 𝒙𝟏 : 𝒙𝟐
ii) 𝒁𝑿 − 𝒑𝒍𝒂𝒏𝒆 𝒊𝒏 𝒕𝒉𝒆 𝒓𝒂𝒕𝒊𝒐 − 𝒚𝟏 : 𝒚𝟐
iii) 𝑿𝒀 − 𝒑𝒍𝒂𝒏𝒆 𝒊𝒏 𝒕𝒉𝒆 𝒓𝒂𝒕𝒊𝒐 − 𝒛𝟏 : 𝒛𝟐

The coordinates of the centroid of the triangle formed by the points (𝒙𝟏 , 𝒚𝟏 , 𝒛𝟏 ) 𝒂𝒏𝒅 (𝒂𝟐 , 𝒚𝟐 , 𝒛𝟐 )are
𝒙𝟏 +𝒙𝟐 +𝒙𝟑 𝒚𝟏 +𝒚𝟐+𝒚𝟑 𝒛𝟏 +𝒛𝟐 +𝒛𝟑
( , , )
𝟑 𝟑 𝟑

## The coordinates of the centroid of the tetrahedron formed by the point

(𝒙𝟏 , 𝒚𝟏 , 𝒛𝟏 ), (𝒙𝟐 , 𝒚𝟐 , 𝒛𝟐 ), (𝒙𝟑 , 𝒚𝟑 , 𝒛𝟑 )𝒂𝒏𝒅(𝒙𝟒, 𝒚𝟒 , 𝒛𝟒 )𝒂𝒓𝒆
𝒙𝟏 +𝒙𝟐 +𝒙𝟑 +𝒙𝟒 𝒚𝟏 +𝒚𝟐+𝒚𝟑+𝒚𝟒 𝒛𝟏 +𝒛𝟐 +𝒛𝟑 +𝒛𝟒
( 𝟒
, 𝟒
, 𝟒
)

The distances of point 𝑷(𝒙, . 𝒚, 𝒛)𝒇𝒓𝒐𝒎 𝒙, 𝒚 𝒂𝒏𝒅 𝒛 𝒂𝒙𝒆𝒔 𝒂𝒓𝒆 √𝒚𝟐 + 𝒛𝟐 , √𝒛𝟐 + 𝒙𝟐 𝒂𝒏𝒅 √𝒙𝟐 + 𝒚𝟐
respectively.

If a directed line segment OP makes angles 𝜶, 𝜷, 𝜸 with OX,OY and OZ respectively, then
𝐜𝐨𝐬 𝜶 , 𝐜𝐨𝐬 𝜷 , 𝐜𝐨𝐬 𝜸 are known as the direction cosines of OP and are generally denoted by
𝒍, 𝒎, 𝒏, . 𝑻𝒉𝒆𝒏, 𝒘𝒆 𝒉𝒂𝒗𝒆 𝒍 = 𝐜𝐨𝐬 𝜶, 𝒎 = 𝐜𝐨𝐬 𝜷 , 𝒏 = 𝐜𝐨𝐬 𝜸
Direction cosines of PO are −𝒍, − 𝒎, − 𝒏.
If 𝑶𝑷 = 𝒓 𝒂𝒏𝒅 𝒕𝒉𝒆 𝒄𝒐𝒐𝒓𝒅𝒊𝒏𝒂𝒕𝒆𝒔 𝒐𝒇 𝑷 𝒂𝒓𝒆 (𝒙, . 𝒚, 𝒛), 𝒕𝒉𝒆𝒏 𝒙 = 𝒍𝒓, 𝒚 = 𝒎𝒓, 𝒛 = 𝒏𝒓.

## If 𝒍, 𝒎, 𝒏 are direction cosines of a vector 𝒓 ⃗ , 𝒕𝒉𝒆𝒏

i) 𝒓 ⃗ = |𝒓 ̂
⃗ |(𝒍𝒊̂, 𝒎𝒋̂, 𝒏𝒌 ) 𝒂𝒏𝒅, |𝒓 ̂)
⃗ |(𝒍𝒊̂, 𝒎𝒋̂, 𝒏𝒌
ii) 𝒍𝟐 + 𝒎𝟐 + 𝒏𝟐 = 𝟏
iii) Projections of 𝒓 ⃗ on the coordinates axes are 𝒍|𝒓
⃗ |, 𝒎 |𝒓
⃗ | , 𝒏 |𝒓
⃗|

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iv) |𝒓
⃗ | = √𝑺𝒖𝒎 𝒐𝒇 𝒕𝒉𝒆 𝒔𝒒𝒖𝒂𝒓𝒆𝒔 𝒐𝒇 𝒑𝒓𝒐𝒋𝒆𝒄𝒕𝒊𝒐𝒏𝒔 𝒐𝒇 |𝒓
⃗ | 𝒐𝒏 𝒕𝒉𝒆 𝒄𝒐𝒐𝒓𝒅𝒊𝒏𝒂𝒕𝒆 𝒂𝒙𝒆𝒔
If 𝑷(𝒙𝟏 , 𝒚𝟏 , 𝒛𝟏 ) 𝒂𝒏𝒅 𝑸(𝒂𝟐 , 𝒚𝟐 , 𝒛𝟐 ) 𝒂𝒓𝒆 𝒕𝒘𝒐 𝒑𝒐𝒊𝒏𝒕𝒔, such that the direction cosines of ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑷𝑸 are
𝒍, 𝒎, 𝒏, . 𝑻𝒉𝒆𝒏, 𝒙𝟐 + 𝒙𝟏 = 𝒍|𝑷𝑸⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗ |, 𝒚𝟐 + 𝒚𝟏 = 𝒎|𝑷𝑸
⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗ |, 𝒛𝟐 + 𝒛𝟏 = 𝒏|𝑷𝑸
⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗ |

𝒍 𝒎 𝒏
⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗ 𝒐𝒏 𝑿 , 𝒀 𝒂𝒏𝒅 𝒂, 𝒃, 𝒄 𝒂𝒓𝒆 𝒕𝒉𝒓𝒆𝒆 𝒏𝒖𝒎𝒃𝒆𝒓𝒔 𝒔𝒖𝒄𝒉 𝒕𝒉𝒂𝒕
These are projections of 𝑷𝑸 = =
𝒂 𝒃 𝒄
⃗ are proportional to a, b, c.
Then, we say that the direction ratios of 𝒓
𝒂 𝒃 𝒄
Also, 𝒍 = ,𝒎 = ,𝒏 =
√𝒂𝟐+𝒃𝟐 +𝒄𝟐 √𝒂𝟐 +𝒃𝟐 +𝒄𝟐 √𝒂𝟐 +𝒃𝟐+𝒄𝟐

## If 𝜽 is the angle between two lines having direction cosines

𝒍𝟏 , 𝒎𝟏 , 𝒏𝟏 , 𝒂𝒏𝒅 𝒍𝟐 , 𝒎𝟐 , 𝒏𝟐 , 𝒕𝒉𝒆𝒏 𝐜𝐨𝐬 𝜽 = 𝒍𝟏 𝒍𝟐 + 𝒎𝟏 𝒎𝟐 + 𝒏𝟏 𝒏𝟐
𝒍𝟏 𝒎 𝒏
i) Lines are parallel, iff = 𝒎𝟏 = 𝒏𝟏
𝒍𝟐 𝟐 𝟐
ii) Lines are perpendicular, iff 𝒍𝟏 𝒍𝟐 + 𝒎𝟏 𝒎𝟐 + 𝒏𝟏 𝒏𝟐 = 𝟎

If 𝜽 is the angle between two lines whose direction ratios are proportional to
𝒂𝟏 , 𝒃𝟏 , 𝒄𝟏 𝒂𝒏𝒅 𝒂𝟐 , 𝒃𝟐 , 𝒄𝟐 respectively, then angle 𝜽 between them is given by 𝐜𝐨𝐬 𝜽 =
𝒂𝟏 𝒂𝟐+𝒃𝟏 𝒃𝟐+𝒄𝟏𝒄𝟐

## √𝒂𝟏 𝟐 +𝒃𝟏 𝟐 +𝒄𝟏 𝟐 √𝒂𝟐 𝟐 +𝒃𝟐 𝟐 +𝒄𝟐 𝟐

𝒂 𝒃 𝒄
Lines are parallel, iff 𝒂𝟏 = 𝒃𝟏 = 𝒄𝟏 .
𝟐 𝟐 𝟐
Lines are perpendicular, iff𝒂𝟏 𝒂𝟐 + 𝒃𝟏 𝒃𝟐 + 𝒄𝟏 𝒄𝟐 = 𝟎

The projection of the line segment joining points 𝑷(𝒙𝟏 , 𝒚𝟏 , 𝒛𝟏 ) 𝒂𝒏𝒅 𝑸(𝒙𝟐 , 𝒚𝟐 , 𝒛𝟐 ) to the line
having direction cosines 𝒍, 𝒎, 𝒏, |(𝒙𝟐 − 𝒙𝟏 )𝒍 + (𝒚𝟐 − 𝒚𝟏 )𝒎 + (𝒛𝟐 − 𝒛𝟏 )𝒏|.

The direction ratios of the line passing through point 𝑷(𝒙𝟏 , 𝒚𝟏 , 𝒛𝟏 ) 𝒂𝒏𝒅 𝑸(𝒙𝟐 , 𝒚𝟐 , 𝒛𝟐 )are
proportional to 𝒙𝟐 − 𝒙𝟏 , 𝒚𝟐 − 𝒚𝟏 , 𝒛𝟐 − 𝒛𝟏
𝒙 −𝒙 𝒚 −𝒚 𝒛 −𝒛
Direction cosines of ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑷𝑸 𝒂𝒓𝒆 𝟐 𝟏 , 𝟐 𝟏 , 𝟐 𝟏
𝑷𝑸 𝑷𝑸 𝑷𝑸

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CHAP: 28
STRALGHT LINE IN SPACE
Two non-parallel planes always intersect in a straight line. Thus, if 𝒂𝟏 𝒙 + 𝒃𝟏 𝒚 + 𝒄𝟏 𝒛 + 𝒅𝟏 = 𝟎 and
𝒂𝟐 𝒙 + 𝒃𝟐 𝒚 + 𝒄𝟐 𝒛 + 𝒅𝟐 = 𝟎 are equations of two non-parallel planes, then these two equations
taken together represent a line. i.e., 𝒂𝟏 𝒙 + 𝒃𝟏 𝒚 + 𝒄𝟏 𝒛 + 𝒅𝟏 = 𝟎 = 𝒂𝟐 𝒙 + 𝒃𝟐 𝒚 + 𝒄𝟐 𝒛 + 𝒅𝟐 = 𝟎 is the
equation of a line.
This is known as an un-symmetrical form of a line.
The equations of line passing through a point (𝒙𝟏 , 𝒚𝟏 , 𝒛𝟏 ) and having direction cosines (or direction
𝒙−𝒙 𝒚−𝒚 𝒛−𝒛
ratios) 𝒍, 𝒎, 𝒏 are given by 𝒍 𝟏 = 𝒎 𝟏 = 𝒏 𝟏.
The coordinates of an arbitrary point on this line are (𝒙𝟏 + 𝒍𝒓, 𝒚𝟏 + 𝒎𝒓, 𝒛𝟏 + 𝒏𝒓), where r is a
parameter. This is known as symmetrical form of a line.
⃗ and parallel to vector
The vector equation of a line passing through a point having position vector 𝒂
⃗⃗⃗ ⃗ =𝒂
𝒃 𝒊𝒔 𝒓 ⃗ , 𝒘𝒉𝒆𝒓𝒆 𝝀 𝒊𝒔 𝒂 𝒑𝒂𝒓𝒂𝒎𝒆𝒕𝒆𝒓.
⃗ + 𝝀𝒃
The equations of a line passing through a point (𝒙𝟏 , 𝒚𝟏 , 𝒛𝟏 )𝒂𝒏𝒅(𝒙𝟐 , 𝒚𝟐 , 𝒛𝟐 ) are given by
𝒙−𝒙𝟏 𝒚−𝒚 𝒛−𝒛
𝒙 +𝒙
= 𝒚 +𝒚𝟏 = 𝒛 +𝒛𝟏
𝟐 𝟏 𝟐 𝟏 𝟐 𝟏

The vector equation of a line passing through points having position vectors 𝒂 ⃗⃗⃗ is 𝒓
⃗ 𝒂𝒏𝒅 𝒃 ⃗ =𝒂
⃗ +
⃗ −𝒂
𝝀(𝒃 ⃗ ), 𝒘𝒉𝒆𝒓𝒆 𝝀 𝒊𝒔 𝒂 𝒑𝒂𝒓𝒂𝒎𝒆𝒕𝒆𝒓.
If 𝒍, 𝒎, 𝒏 are the direction cosines of the line of intersection of panes 𝒂𝟏 𝒙 + 𝒃𝟏 𝒚 + 𝒄𝟏 𝒛 + 𝒅𝟏 = 𝟎
and𝒂𝟐 𝒙 + 𝒃𝟐 𝒚 + 𝒄𝟐 𝒛 + 𝒅𝟐 = 𝟎, 𝒕𝒉𝒆𝒏 𝒂𝟏 𝒍 + 𝒃𝟏 𝒎 + 𝒄𝟏 𝒏 = 𝟎 𝒂𝒏𝒅 𝒂𝟐 𝒍 + 𝒃𝟐 𝒎 + 𝒄𝟐 𝒏 = 𝟎
𝒍 𝒎 𝒏
∴ = =
𝒃𝟏 𝒄𝟐 − 𝒃𝟐 𝒄𝟏 𝒄𝟏 𝒂𝟐 − 𝒄𝟐 𝒂𝟏 𝒂𝟏 𝒃𝟐 − 𝒂𝟐 𝒃𝟏
So, 𝒍, 𝒎, 𝒏 𝒂𝒓𝒆 𝒑𝒓𝒐𝒑𝒐𝒓𝒕𝒐𝒐𝒏𝒂𝒍 𝒕𝒐 𝒃𝟏 𝒄𝟐 − 𝒃𝟐 𝒄𝟏 , 𝒄𝟏 𝒂𝟐 − 𝒄𝟐 𝒂𝟏 , 𝒂𝟏 𝒃𝟐 − 𝒂𝟐 𝒃𝟏
The lenth of the perpendicular from a point 𝑷( 𝒂 ⃗ ) on the line 𝒓
⃗ =𝒂 ⃗ is given by
⃗ + 𝝀𝒃

(𝒂 ⃗ ).𝒃
⃗ −𝒂 ⃗⃗⃗ 𝟐
√| 𝒂
⃗ − ⃗𝒂|𝟐 − { ⃗⃗⃗ }
|𝒃 |
𝒙−𝒂 𝒚−𝒃 𝒛−𝒄
The length of the perpendicular from a point 𝑷(𝒙𝟏 , 𝒚𝟏 , 𝒛𝟏 ) on the line = = 𝒊𝒔 𝒈𝒊𝒗𝒆𝒏 𝒃𝒚
𝒍 𝒎 𝒏
√{(𝒂 − 𝒙𝟏 )𝟐 + (𝒃 − 𝒚𝟏 )𝟐 + (𝒄 − 𝒛𝟏 )𝟐 }{(𝒂 − 𝒙𝟏 )𝒍 + (𝒃 − 𝒚𝟏 )𝒎 + (𝒄 − 𝒛𝟏 )𝒏}𝟐 , where, 𝒍, 𝒎, 𝒏 are
direction cosines of the line.
Two straight lines in space are said to be skew lines if they are neither parallel nor intersecting.

If 𝒍𝟏 𝒂𝒏𝒅 𝒍𝟐 are two skew lines, then a line perpendicular to each of lines 𝒍𝟏 𝒂𝒏𝒅 𝒍𝟐 is known as the
line of shortest distance. If the line of shortest distance intersects lines 𝒍𝟏 𝒂𝒏𝒅 𝒍𝟐 at P and Q
respectively, then the distance PQ between points P and Q is known as the shortest distance
between 𝒍𝟏 𝒂𝒏𝒅 𝒍𝟐 .
The shortest distance between lines 𝒓 ⃗ = ⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝒂𝟏 + 𝝀𝒃 ⃗⃗⃗⃗𝟏 𝒂𝒏𝒅 𝒓
⃗ = ⃗⃗⃗⃗ ⃗⃗⃗⃗𝟐 is given by 𝒅 =
𝒂𝟐 + 𝝁𝒃
⃗⃗⃗⃗𝟏 ×𝒃
(𝒃 ⃗⃗⃗⃗𝟐 )∙(𝒂 ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗𝟐 )
⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗𝟏 ×𝒂
| ⃗⃗⃗⃗𝟏 ×𝒃⃗⃗⃗⃗𝟐 |
|
|𝒃

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## 𝟏 𝒙−𝒙𝟏 𝒚−𝒚 𝟏 𝒛−𝒛 𝟐 𝒙−𝒙 𝟐 𝒚−𝒚 𝟐 𝒛−𝒛

The shortest distance between the lines = = and = = is given by
𝒍𝟏 𝒎𝟏 𝒏𝟏 𝒍𝟐 𝒎𝟐 𝒏𝟐
𝒙𝟐 − 𝒙𝟏 𝒚𝟐 − 𝒚𝟏 𝒛𝟐 − 𝒛𝟏
| 𝒍𝟏 𝒎𝟏 𝒏𝟏 |
𝒍𝟐 𝒎𝟐 𝒏𝟐
𝒅=
√(𝒎𝟏 𝒏𝟐 − 𝒎𝟐 𝒏𝟏 ) + (𝒏𝟏 𝒍𝟐 − 𝒏𝟐 𝒍𝟏 ) + (𝒍𝟏 𝒎𝟐 − 𝒍𝟐 𝒎𝟏 )𝟐
𝟐 𝟐

⃗ = ⃗⃗⃗⃗
The shortest distance between parallel lines 𝒓 𝒂𝟏 + 𝝀𝒃 ⃗ 𝒂𝒏𝒅 𝒓 ⃗ = ⃗⃗⃗⃗ ⃗ is given by 𝒅 =
𝒂𝟐 + 𝝁𝒃
(𝒂
⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗𝟏 −𝒂 ⃗
⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗𝟏 )×𝒃
| ⃗|
|
|𝒃

⃗ =𝒂
Lines 𝒓 ⃗⃗⃗⃗𝟏 𝒂𝒏𝒅 𝒓
⃗⃗⃗⃗𝟏 + 𝝀𝒃 ⃗ = ⃗⃗⃗⃗ ⃗⃗⃗⃗𝟐 are intersecting lines, iff (𝒃
𝒂𝟐 + 𝝁𝒃 ⃗⃗⃗⃗𝟏 × ⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝒃𝟐 ) ∙ (⃗⃗⃗⃗ 𝒂𝟐 ) = 𝟎.
𝒂𝟏 × ⃗⃗⃗⃗

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CHAP: 29
THE PLANE
The general equation of first degree in , 𝒙, 𝒚, 𝒛, 𝒊. 𝒆. , 𝒂𝒙 + 𝒃𝒚 + 𝒄𝒛 + 𝒅 = 𝟎 always represents a
plane.
In the equation 𝒂𝒙 + 𝒃𝒚 + 𝒄𝒛 + 𝒅 = 𝟎 the direction ratios of normal to the plane are proportional
to 𝒂, 𝒃, 𝒄 .
⃗ = 𝒂𝒊
A vector normal to the plane 𝒂𝒙 + 𝒃𝒚 + 𝒄𝒛 + 𝒅 = 𝟎 is 𝒏 ̂ + 𝒃𝒋̂ + 𝒄𝒌
̂.
If 𝒍, 𝒎, 𝒏 are the direction cosines of normal to a plane which is at a distance P from the origin, then
the Cartesian equation of the plane is 𝒍𝒙, 𝒎𝒚, 𝒏𝒛 = 𝒑. This is known as the normal form of a plane .
⃗ and normal to
The vector equation of a plane passing through a point having position vector 𝒂
⃗⃗ 𝒊𝒔 (𝒓
𝒏 ⃗ ). 𝒏
⃗ −𝒂 ⃗⃗ = 𝟎 𝒐𝒓, 𝒓
⃗ .𝒏
⃗ =𝒂
⃗ .𝒏
⃗.
The Cartesian equation of a plane passing through (𝒙𝟏 , 𝒚𝟏 , 𝒛𝟏 ) and having direction ratios
proportional to 𝒂, 𝒃, 𝒄 for its normal is 𝒂(𝒙 − 𝒙𝟏 ), 𝒃(𝒚 − 𝒚𝟏 ), 𝒄(𝒛 − 𝒛𝟏 ) = 𝟎.
The vector equation of a plane having 𝒏 ̂ as a unit vector normal to it and at a distance ‘d’ from the
origin is 𝒓⃗ .𝒏
⃗ = 𝒅. If 𝒍, 𝒎, 𝒏 are direction cosines of the normal to the plane, then its vector equations
⃗ . (𝒍𝒊̂ + 𝒎𝒋̂ + 𝒏𝒌
𝒓 ̂) = 𝒅. This is the vector equation of the normal form of a plane.
The vector equation of a plane passing through point having position vectors 𝒂 ⃗ 𝒂𝒏𝒅 𝒄
⃗ ,𝒃 ⃗⃗ 𝒊𝒔
𝒓 ⃗⃗⃗ × ⃗⃗⃗𝒃 + ⃗𝒃 × 𝒄⃗⃗ + 𝒄
⃗ . (𝒂 ⃗ × 𝒂⃗)=𝒂 ⃗ ×𝒄
⃗ . (𝒃 ⃗⃗ ).
A vector normal to the plane passing through points 𝑨(𝒂 ⃗ ) 𝒂𝒏𝒅 𝑪(𝒄
⃗ ), 𝑩(𝒃 ⃗⃗ )is ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑨𝑩 × 𝑨𝑪⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗ 𝒐𝒓, ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑩𝑪 ×
⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗ 𝒐𝒓, 𝑪𝑩
𝑩𝑨 ⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗ × 𝑪𝑨 ⃗⃗⃗ × ⃗⃗⃗𝒃 + 𝒃
⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗ 𝒊. 𝒆. , 𝒂 ⃗ × 𝒄⃗⃗ + 𝒄
⃗ × 𝒂

The Cartesian equation of a plane intercepting lengths 𝒂, 𝒃, 𝒂𝒏𝒅 𝒄 𝒘𝒊𝒕𝒉 𝑿, 𝒀 𝒂𝒏𝒅 𝒁 𝒂𝒙𝒆𝒔
𝒙 𝒚 𝒛
respectively is 𝒂 + 𝒃 + 𝒄 = 𝟏.
The Cartesian equation of a plane passing through point (𝒙𝟏 , 𝒚𝟏 , 𝒛𝟏 ), (𝒙𝟐 , 𝒚𝟐 , 𝒛𝟐 ) and
𝒙 𝒚 𝒛 𝟏 𝒙 − 𝒙𝟏 𝒚 − 𝒚𝟏 𝒛 − 𝒛𝟏
𝒙𝟏 𝒚𝟏 𝒛𝟏 𝟏
(𝒙𝟑 , 𝒚𝟑 , 𝒛𝟑 )is | 𝒙
| = 𝟎 𝒐𝒓 | 𝟐 + 𝒙 𝟏 𝒚 𝟐 + 𝒚 𝟏 𝒛𝟐 + 𝒛𝟏 | = 𝟎
𝒙𝟐 𝒚𝟐 𝒛𝟐 𝟏
𝒙𝟑 + 𝒙𝟏 𝒚𝟑 + 𝒚𝟏 𝒛𝟑 + 𝒛𝟏
𝒙𝟑 𝒚𝟑 𝒛𝟑 𝟏
The angle between two planes is defined as the angle between their normal.
⃗ .𝒏
𝒏 ⃗
⃗ .𝒏
(i) If 𝒓 ⃗⃗ 𝟏 = 𝒅𝟏 𝒂𝒏𝒅 𝒓 ⃗⃗ 𝟐 = 𝒅𝟐 are two planes inclined at an angle 𝜽, then 𝐜𝐨𝐬 𝜽 = |𝒏⃗𝟏 ⃗ 𝟐|
⃗ .𝒏
𝒏 𝟏 𝟐

⃗ 𝟏 is parallel to 𝒏
These planes are parallel, if 𝒏 ⃗ 𝟐 and perpendicular, if 𝒏
⃗ 𝟏. 𝒏
⃗ 𝟐=𝟎

## (ii) If 𝒂𝟏 𝒙 + 𝒃𝟏 𝒚 + 𝒄𝟏 𝒛 + 𝒅𝟏 = 𝟎 & 𝒂𝟐 𝒙 + 𝒃𝟐 𝒚 + 𝒄𝟐 𝒛 + 𝒅𝟐 = 𝟎 are Cartesian equations of two

planes inclined at an angle 𝜽, then
𝒂𝟏 𝒂𝟐 + 𝒃𝟏 𝒃𝟐 + 𝒄𝟏 𝒄𝟐
𝐜𝐨𝐬 𝜽 =
√𝒂𝟏 𝟐 + 𝒃𝟏 𝟐 + 𝒄𝟏 𝟐 √𝒂𝟐 𝟐 + 𝒃𝟐 𝟐 + 𝒄𝟐 𝟐

𝒂 𝒃 𝒄
The planes are parallel, if 𝒂𝟏 = 𝒃𝟏 = 𝒄𝟏 and perpendicular if 𝒂𝟏 𝒂𝟐 + 𝒃𝟏 𝒃𝟐 + 𝒄𝟏 𝒄𝟐 = 𝟎
𝟐 𝟐 𝟐
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⃗ and parallel to
The vector equation of the plane passing through a point having position vector 𝒂
vectors ⃗𝒃 𝒂𝒏𝒅 𝒄
⃗ 𝒊𝒔 𝒓
⃗ =𝒂
⃗ + 𝒎𝒃⃗ + 𝒏𝒄⃗ , where m and n are parameters or 𝒓 ⃗ ×𝒄
⃗ . (𝒃 ⃗)=𝒂 ⃗ ×𝒄
⃗ . (𝒃 ⃗)
⃗ , ⃗𝒃 & 𝒄
The vector equation of the plane passing through points having position vectors 𝒂 ⃗ is

⃗ = (𝟏 − 𝒎 − 𝒏 ) 𝒂
𝒓 ⃗ + 𝒏𝒄
⃗ + 𝒎𝒃 ⃗ [Parametric form]

Or 𝒓 ⃗ × ⃗𝒃) + 𝒓
⃗ . (𝒂 ⃗ ×𝒄
⃗ . (𝒃 ⃗ . (𝒄
⃗)+𝒓 ⃗)=𝒂
⃗ ×𝒂 ⃗ ×𝒄
⃗ . (𝒃 ⃗) [Non parametric form]

## The equation of a plane parallel to the plane

⃗ .𝒏
(a) 𝒓 ⃗⃗ = 𝒅 𝒊𝒔 𝒓
⃗ .𝒏
⃗ = 𝒅𝟏

(b) 𝒂𝒙 + 𝒃𝒚 + 𝒄𝒛 + 𝒅 = 𝟎 𝒊𝒔 𝒂𝒙 + 𝒃𝒚 + 𝒄𝒛 + 𝝀 = 𝟎

The length of the perpendicular from the point (𝒙𝟏 , 𝒚𝟏 , 𝒛𝟏 ) to the plane 𝒂𝒙 + 𝒃𝒚 + 𝒄𝒛 + 𝒅 = 𝟎 is
𝒂𝒙𝟏 +𝒃𝒚𝟏 +𝒄𝒛𝟏 +𝒅
| | and the coordinates (𝜶, 𝜷, 𝜸) of the foot of the perpendicular are given by
√𝒂𝟐+𝒃𝟐 +𝒄𝟐
𝜶 − 𝒙𝟏 𝜷 − 𝒚𝟏 𝜸 − 𝒛𝟏 𝒂𝒙𝟏 + 𝒃𝒚𝟏 + 𝒄𝒛𝟏 + 𝒅
= = = −( )
𝒂 𝒃 𝒄 √𝒂𝟐 + 𝒃𝟐 + 𝒄𝟐
The coordinates (𝜶, 𝜷, 𝜸) of the image of the point(𝒙𝟏 , 𝒚𝟏 , 𝒛𝟏 ) in the plane 𝒂𝒙 + 𝒃𝒚 + 𝒄𝒛 + 𝒅 = 𝟎
𝜶−𝒙𝟏 𝜷−𝒚𝟏 𝜸−𝒛𝟏 𝒂𝒙𝟏 +𝒃𝒚𝟏+𝒄𝒛𝟏+𝒅
are given by = = = −( )
𝒂 𝒃 𝒄 √𝒂𝟐 +𝒃𝟐+𝒄𝟐

|𝒅𝟏 −𝒅𝟐 |
𝟎is given by .
√𝒂𝟐 +𝒃𝟐 +𝒄𝟐

## The equation of the family of planes containing the line 𝒂𝟏 𝒙 + 𝒃𝟏 𝒚 + 𝒄𝟏 𝒛 + 𝒅𝟏 = 𝟎 = 𝒂𝟐 𝒙 +

𝒃𝟐 𝒚 + 𝒄𝟐 𝒛 + 𝒅𝟐 = 𝟎is
(𝒂𝟏 𝒙 + 𝒃𝟏 𝒚 + 𝒄𝟏 𝒛 + 𝒅𝟏 ) + 𝝀(𝒂𝟐 𝒙 + 𝒃𝟐 𝒚 + 𝒄𝟐 𝒛 + 𝒅𝟐 ) = 𝟎, 𝒘𝒉𝒆𝒓𝒆 𝝀 𝒊𝒔 𝒂 𝒑𝒂𝒓𝒂𝒎𝒆𝒕𝒆𝒓.
The Equation of the planes bisecting the angles between the planes 𝒂𝟏 𝒙 + 𝒃𝟏 𝒚 + 𝒄𝟏 𝒛 + 𝒅𝟏 =
𝟎 𝒂𝒏𝒅 𝒂𝟐 𝒙 + 𝒃𝟐 𝒚 + 𝒄𝟐 𝒛 + 𝒅𝟐 = 𝟎 are given by
𝒂𝒙𝟏 + 𝒃𝒚𝟏 + 𝒄𝒛𝟏 + 𝒅 𝒂𝟐 𝒙 + 𝒃𝟐 𝒚 + 𝒄𝟐 𝒛 + 𝒅𝟐

√𝒂𝟐 + 𝒃𝟐 + 𝒄𝟐
√𝒂𝟐 𝟐 + 𝒃𝟐 𝟐 + 𝒄𝟐 𝟐
𝒙−𝒙𝟏 𝒚−𝒚𝟏 𝒛−𝒛𝟏
The angle 𝜽 between a line = = and a plane 𝒂𝒙 + 𝒃𝒚 + 𝒄𝒛 + 𝒅 = 𝟎 is the
𝒍 𝒎 𝒏
complement of the angle between the line and normal to the plane and is given by
𝒂𝒍+𝒃𝒎+𝒄𝒏
𝐬𝐢𝐧 𝜽 =
√𝒂𝟐 +𝒃𝟐+𝒄𝟐√𝒍𝟐+𝒎𝟐+𝒏𝟐
⃗𝒃.𝒏

⃗ =𝒂
The angle 𝜽 between a line 𝒓 ⃗ and the plane 𝒓
⃗ + 𝝀𝒃 ⃗ .𝒏
⃗ = 𝒅 is given by 𝐬𝐢𝐧 𝜽 = ⃗ |
|𝒃||𝒏

A line is parallel to a plane if it is perpendicular to the normal to the plane.
A line is perpendicular to a plane if it is parallel to the normal to the plane.
⃗ =𝒂
The line 𝒓 ⃗ + 𝝀𝒃⃗ lies in the plane 𝒓
⃗ .𝒏
⃗ = 𝒅, 𝒊𝒇 𝒂 ⃗ = 𝒅 𝒂𝒏𝒅 ⃗𝒃. 𝒏
⃗ .𝒏 ⃗ = 𝟎.
𝒙−𝒙𝟏 𝒚−𝒚𝟏 𝒛−𝒛𝟏
The line = = lies in the plane 𝒙 + 𝒃𝒚 + 𝒄𝒛 + 𝒅 = 𝟎 , if 𝒂𝒙 + 𝒃𝒚 + 𝒄𝒛 + 𝒅 = 𝟎 and
𝒍 𝒎 𝒏
𝒂𝒍 + 𝒃𝒎 + 𝒄𝒏 = 𝟎
𝒙−𝒙𝟏 𝒚−𝒚𝟏 𝒛−𝒛𝟏
The equation of a plane containing the lies = = is
𝒍 𝒎 𝒏

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## 𝒂(𝒙 − 𝒙𝟏 ) + 𝒃(𝒚 − 𝒚𝟏 ) + 𝒄(𝒛 − 𝒛𝟏 ) = 𝟎, where 𝒂𝒍 + 𝒃𝒎 + 𝒄𝒏 = 𝟎.

𝒙−𝒙 𝒚−𝒚 𝒛−𝒛 𝒙−𝒙 𝒚−𝒚 𝒛−𝒛
Two lines 𝒍 𝟏 = 𝒎 𝟏 = 𝒏 𝟏 𝒂𝒏𝒅, 𝒍 𝟐 = 𝒎 𝟐 = 𝒏 𝟐 are coplanar, if
𝟏 𝟏 𝟏 𝟐 𝟐 𝟐
𝒙𝟐 − 𝒙𝟏 𝒚𝟐 − 𝒚𝟏 𝒛𝟐 − 𝒛𝟏
| 𝒍𝟏 𝒎𝟏 𝒏𝟏 | = 𝟎 and the equation of the plane containing them is
𝒍𝟐 𝒎𝟐 𝒏𝟐
𝒙 − 𝒙𝟏 𝒚 − 𝒚𝟏 𝒛 − 𝒛𝟏 𝒙 − 𝒙𝟐 𝒚 − 𝒚𝟐 𝒛 − 𝒛𝟐
| 𝒍𝟏 𝒎𝟏 𝒏𝟏 | = 𝟎 𝒐𝒓, | 𝒍𝟏 𝒎𝟏 𝒏𝟏 | = 𝟎
𝒍𝟐 𝒎𝟐 𝒏𝟐 𝒍𝟐 𝒎𝟐 𝒏𝟐
⃗ =𝒂
Two lines 𝒓 ⃗ 𝟏 + 𝝀𝒃⃗ 𝟏 𝒂𝒏𝒅 𝒓
⃗ =𝒂 ⃗ 𝟏 are coplanar, if 𝒂
⃗ 𝟐 + 𝝀𝒃 ⃗⃗⃗⃗𝟏 × 𝒃
⃗ 𝟏 . (𝒃 ⃗⃗⃗⃗𝟐 ) = 𝒂 ⃗⃗⃗⃗𝟏 × ⃗⃗⃗⃗
⃗ 𝟏 . (𝒃 𝒃𝟐 ).

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CHAP: 30
LINEAR PROGRAMMING
Steps for Solving LPP as follows
1) Find the feasible region of the linear programming problem and determine its corner points
(𝒗𝒆𝒓𝒕𝒊𝒄𝒆𝒔 ) either by inspection or by solving the two equations of the lines intersecting at that
point.

2) Evaluate the objective function 𝒁 = 𝒂𝒙 + 𝒃𝒚 at each corner point. Let M and m, respectively denote
the largest and smallest values of these points.

3) (i) when the feasible region is bounded, M and m are the maximum and minimum values of Z.
(ii) In case, the feasible region is unbounded, we have:

4) (a) M is the maximum value of Z, if the open half plane determined by 𝒂𝒙 + 𝒃𝒚 > 𝑴 has no point in
common with the feasible region. Otherwise Z has no maximum value.
(b) Similarly, m is the minimum value of Z, if the open half plane determined by 𝒂𝒙 + 𝒃𝒚 < 𝑴 has co
point in common with the feasible region. Otherwise, Z has no minimum value.

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CHAP: 31
PROBABILITY
PROBABILITY: Probability is a branch of mathematics in which the chance of an event happening is
assigned a numerical value that predicts how likely that event is to occur.
RANDOM EXPERIMENT: the experiment, in which the outcomes may not be same even if the
experiment is performed in identical condition, is called random experiment. e. g. ,Tossing a coin is a
random experiment because if we toss a coin in identical condition, outcomes may be head or tail.
OUTCOME: An outcome is a result of some activity or experiment.
SAMPLE SPACE:A sample space is a set of all possible outcomes for a random experiment.
EVENT: An event is a subset of the sample space.
THEORETICAL PROBABILITY: The theoretical probability of an event is the number of ways that the
event can occur, divided by the total number of possibilities in the sample space.
𝒏(𝑬)
Symbolically, we write 𝑷(𝑬) = (𝒏(𝑺) ), where 𝑷(𝑬) represents the probability of the event E.
In general, for any sample space S containing k possible outcomes, we say 𝒏(𝑺) = 𝒌. When the event
E is certain, every possible outcome for the sample is also an outcome for event E, or 𝒏(𝑬) = 𝒌.
𝒏(𝑬) 𝒌
Thus, the probability of a certain or sure event is given as 𝑷(𝑬) = 𝒏(𝑺) = 𝒌 = 𝟏.
Note: (i) The probability of an event that is certain to occur is 1.
(ii) The probability of any event E must be equal to or greater than 0; and less than or equal to 1,
i.e.,𝟎 ≤ 𝑷(𝑬) ≤ 𝟏
Another way of expressing probability is in term of axioms, laid by Russian mathematician A.N.
Kolmogorov.
If S is a sample space, then probability P is a real valued function defined on S and take values
[𝟎, 𝟏], satisfying following axiom
Probability of any event ≥ 𝟎.
Sum of Probabilities assigned to all members of S is 1.
For any two mutually exclusive events E and F, 𝑷(𝑬 ∪ 𝑭) = 𝑷(𝑬) + 𝑷(𝑭).
THEOREMS OF PROBABILITY:
When the events are not mutually exclusive: The probability that at least one of the two events A
and B which are not mutually exclusive will occur is given
Symbolically: 𝑷(𝑨 ∪ 𝑩) = 𝑷(𝑨) + 𝑷(𝑩) − 𝑷(𝑨 ∩ 𝑩)
In the case of three events: 𝑷(𝑨 ∪ 𝑩 ∪ 𝑪) = 𝑷(𝑨) + 𝑷(𝑩) + 𝑷(𝑪) − 𝑷(𝑨 ∩ 𝑩) − 𝑷(𝑩 ∩ 𝑪) −
𝑷(𝑪 ∩ 𝑨) + 𝑷(𝑨 ∩ 𝑩 ∩ 𝑪)
When A and B are mutually exclusive : The addition theorem states that if two events A and B are
mutually exclusive, the probability of the occurrence of either A or B is the sum of the individual
probability of A and B.
Symbolically, 𝑷(𝑨 ∩ 𝑩) = 𝑷(𝑨). 𝑷(𝑩)
The theorem can be extended to three or more independent events
thus, 𝑷(𝑨 ∪ 𝑩 ∪ 𝑪) = 𝑷(𝑨). 𝑷(𝑩). 𝑷(𝑪)
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Note: If A and B mutually exclusive and exhaustive, then 𝑷(𝑨 ∪ 𝑩) = 𝑷(𝑨) + 𝑷(𝑩) = 𝟏
A rule for the probability of the event not A: If 𝑷(𝑨) is the probability that some given event will
occur, and 𝑷(𝒏𝒐𝒕𝑨)𝒂𝒔(𝑨 ̅ ).
Problems, related to withdrawal of balls, cards, letters, etc. with replacement and without
replacement:
𝑰𝒏 𝒔𝒖𝒄𝒉 𝒕𝒚𝒑𝒆 𝒐𝒇 𝒑𝒓𝒐𝒃𝒍𝒆𝒎𝒔, 𝒕𝒉𝒆 𝒔𝒂𝒎𝒑𝒍𝒆 𝒔𝒑𝒂𝒄𝒆 𝒘𝒊𝒍𝒍 𝒏𝒐𝒕 𝒄𝒉𝒂𝒏𝒈𝒆 𝒘𝒉𝒆𝒏 𝒕𝒉𝒆 𝒂𝒓𝒕𝒊𝒄𝒍𝒆𝒔
(𝒃𝒂𝒍𝒍𝒔, 𝒄𝒂𝒓𝒅𝒔, 𝒍𝒆𝒕𝒕𝒆𝒓𝒔, 𝒆𝒕𝒄. )𝒂𝒓𝒆𝒓𝒆𝒑𝒍𝒂𝒄𝒆𝒅 𝒂𝒇𝒕𝒆𝒓 𝒆𝒂𝒄𝒉 𝒘𝒊𝒕𝒉𝒅𝒓𝒂𝒘𝒂𝒍. 𝒘𝒉𝒊𝒍𝒆 𝒊𝒏 𝒄𝒂𝒔𝒆 𝒘𝒉𝒆𝒏 𝒕𝒉𝒆 𝒂𝒓𝒕𝒊𝒄𝒍𝒆
𝒊𝒔 𝒏𝒐𝒕 𝒓𝒆𝒑𝒍𝒂𝒄𝒆𝒅 (𝒘𝒊𝒕𝒉𝒐𝒖𝒕 𝒓𝒆𝒑𝒍𝒂𝒄𝒆𝒎𝒆𝒏𝒕), 𝒕𝒉𝒆 𝒔𝒂𝒎𝒑𝒍𝒆 𝒔𝒑𝒂𝒄𝒆 𝒘𝒊𝒍𝒍 𝒄𝒉𝒂𝒏𝒈𝒆 𝒂𝒇𝒕𝒆𝒓 𝒆𝒂𝒄𝒉 𝒘𝒊𝒕𝒉𝒅𝒓𝒂𝒘𝒂𝒍.
Note:
If the problem does not specifically mention ”with replacement” or ” without replacement” ask
yourself: “is this problem with or without replacement?”
For many compound event, the probability can be determined most easily by using the counting
principle I . c ., permutations and combinations.
Every probability problem can always be solved by
Counting the number of elements in the sample space n(𝑺);
Counting the number of outcomes in the events,𝒏(𝑬);
𝒏(𝑬)
And substituting these numbers in the probability formula.𝑷(𝑬) = 𝒏(𝑺).
Taking out 2 or more objects (e.g. balls) randomly from a bag one by one without replacement is
same as taking out 2 or more objects is same as taking out 2, or more objects simultaneously.
𝒏!
The number of ways in which r objects can be taken out of n objects is 𝒏𝑪𝒓 𝒐𝒓(𝒏, 𝒓) = (𝒏,𝒓)!.𝒓!.

Conditional probability: If A and B are two events associated with the same random experiment,
then the probability of occurrence of event A, when the event B has already occurred is called
conditional probability of A when B is given. It is represented by 𝑷(𝑨/𝑩) and is given by
𝑨
𝑷 (𝑩) = probability of event A when B has already occurred
= probability of event ‘𝑨 ∩ 𝑩’ when B behave like sample space
𝒏(𝑨∩𝑩)
=
𝒏(𝑩)
𝒏(𝑨∩𝑩)
𝒏(𝑺)
= 𝒏(𝑩) [𝑫𝒊𝒗𝒊𝒅𝒊𝒏𝒈 𝑵𝒓 , 𝑫𝒓 𝒃𝒚 𝒏(𝑺)]
𝒏(𝑺)
𝑷(𝑨∩𝑩)
= 𝑷(𝑩)
𝑩 𝑷(𝑨∩𝑩)
Similarly, 𝑷 (𝑨) = 𝑷(𝑨)
Theorem of total probability: Let 𝑬𝟏 , 𝑬𝟐 , … , 𝑬𝒏 be the events of a sample space ‘S’ such that they are
pair wise disjoint, exhaustive and have non-zero probabilities. If A is any event associated with S,
𝑨 𝑨 𝑨
then 𝑷(𝑨) = 𝑷(𝑬𝟏 ). 𝑷 (𝑬 ) + 𝑷(𝑬𝟐 ). 𝑷 (𝑬 ) + ⋯ + 𝑷(𝑬𝒏 ). 𝑷 (𝑬 )
𝟏 𝟐 𝒏

Bay’s theorem: If 𝑩𝟏 , 𝑩𝟐 , … , 𝑩𝒏 are mutually exclusive and exhaustive events and A is any event
𝑷(𝑩𝒊 ).𝑷(𝑨/𝑩𝒊)
that occurs with 𝑩𝟏 𝒐𝒓 𝑩𝟐 𝒐𝒓 𝑩𝒏, then 𝑷(𝑩𝒊 /𝑨) = ∑𝒏 ,𝒊 = 𝟏, 𝟐, … , 𝒏.
𝒊=𝟏 𝑷(𝑩𝒊).𝑷(𝑨/𝑩𝒊 )
Note: The probabilities 𝑷(𝑩𝒊 ) 𝒊 = 𝟏, 𝟐, … , 𝒏 which were already know before performing an
experiment are known as prior probabilities and conditional probabilities 𝑷(𝑨/𝑩𝒊 ) 𝒊 = 𝟏, 𝟐, … , 𝒏
which are calculated after the experiment is performed are known as posterior probabilities. The
events 𝑩𝟏 , 𝑩𝟐 , … , 𝑩𝒏 are usually called causes for event A to occur.
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Random variable: Random variable is simply a variable whose values are determined by the
outcomes of a random experiment; generally it is denoted by capital letters such as X, Y, Z, etc. and
their values are denoted by the corresponding small letters 𝒙, 𝒚, 𝒛, 𝒆𝒕𝒄.
Probability distribution. The system consisting of a random variable X along with 𝑷(𝑿), is called
the probability distribution of X.
Mean ane variance of a random variable: Let a random variable X assume values 𝒙𝟏 , 𝒙𝟐 , … , 𝒙𝒏
with probabilities 𝒑𝟏 , 𝒑𝟐 , … , 𝒑𝒏 respectively, such that 𝒑𝒊 ≥ 𝟎, ∑𝒏𝒊=𝟏 𝒑𝒊 = 𝟏. Then, the mean of X,
denoted by 𝝁, [𝒐𝒓 ] expected value of X denoted by 𝑬(𝑿) is defined as 𝝁 = 𝑬(𝑿) = ∑𝒏𝒊=𝟏 𝒙𝒊 𝒑𝒊 and
Variance denoted by 𝝈𝟐 = ∑𝒏𝒊=𝟏 (𝒙𝒊 − 𝝁)𝟐 𝒑𝒊 = ∑𝒏𝒊=𝟏 𝒙𝒊 𝟐 𝒑𝒊 𝝁𝟐
Standard deviation, 𝝈 = √𝒗𝒂𝒓𝒊𝒂𝒏𝒄𝒆.
Bernoullian trials: A sequence of independent trials which can result in one of the two mutually
exclusive possibilities success of failure such that the probability of success or failure in each trial is
constant, then such repeated independent trials are called Bernoullian trials.
Suppose we perform a series on n Bernoullian trails for each trial, p is the probability of success and
q is the probability of failure, then p + q = 1.
Poisson’s distribution: The limiting case of binomials distribution when the number of trials is
very large i.e., 𝒏 → ∞ and the probability of success in each trial is very small I.e., 𝒑 → 𝟎 such that np
is a finite number, the probability density function for poisson’s distribution is given by
𝒎𝒓
𝑷(𝑿 = 𝒓) = 𝒆−𝒎 , 𝒓 = 𝟎, 𝟏, 𝟐, … … … … …
𝒓!
Binomial distribution: A random variable X taking values 0, 1, 2, … n is said to have a binomial
distribution with parameters n and p, if its probability distribution is given by
𝑷(𝑿 = 𝒓) = 𝒏𝑪𝒓 𝒑𝒓 𝒒𝒏−𝒓
Where p represents probability of success while q represents probability of non-success, or failure
and n is the number of trials.
Note : While using above probability density functions of the binomial distribution in solving any
problem we should, first of all examine whether all the conditions, given below are satisfied;
There should be a finite number of trials.
The trials are independent.
Each trial has exactly two outcomes: success or failure. The probability of an outcome remains the
same in each trial.
𝒏−𝒓 𝒑
Recurrence or recursion formula for the binomial distribution: 𝑷(𝒓 + 𝟏) = 𝒓+𝟏 . 𝒒 𝑷(𝒓).

i) Mean = 𝒏𝒑

## iii) Standard deviation= √𝒏𝒑𝒒

Important formulae
iv) 𝑷(𝑨 ∩ 𝑩) = 𝑷(𝑨) × 𝑷(𝑩/𝑨), 𝒘𝒉𝒆𝒓𝒆 𝑨 𝒂𝒏𝒅 𝑩 𝒂𝒓𝒆 𝒂𝒏𝒚 𝒕𝒘𝒐 𝒆𝒗𝒆𝒏𝒕𝒔.

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## v) 𝑷(𝑨 ∩ 𝑩) = 𝑷(𝑩) × 𝑷(𝑨/𝑩), 𝒘𝒉𝒆𝒓𝒆 𝑨 𝒂𝒏𝒅 𝑩 𝒂𝒓𝒆 𝒂𝒏𝒚 𝒕𝒘𝒐 𝒆𝒗𝒆𝒏𝒕𝒔.

vi) Two events A and B are independent, if and only if 𝑷(𝑨 ∩ 𝑩) = 𝑷(𝑨) × 𝑷(𝑩).

vii) If A, B, C, are three independent, events, then 𝑷(𝑨 ∩ 𝑩 ∩ 𝑪) = 𝑷(𝑨) × 𝑷(𝑩) × 𝑷(𝑪).

𝑷(𝑨

## ̅ ) = 𝑷(𝑨) − 𝑷(𝑨 ∩ 𝑩), 𝒘𝒉𝒆𝒓𝑨 𝒏𝒂𝒏𝒅 𝑩

ix) 𝑷(𝑨 ∩ 𝑩 ̅ 𝒂𝒓𝒆 𝒊𝒏𝒅𝒆𝒑𝒆𝒅𝒅𝒆𝒏𝒕 𝒆𝒗𝒆𝒏𝒕𝒔.

̅∩𝑩
x) 𝑷(𝑨 ̅ ) = 𝑷(̅̅̅̅̅̅̅̅ ̅̅̅̅) × 𝑷(𝑩
𝑨 ∪ 𝑩) = 𝟏 − 𝑷(𝑨 ∪ 𝑩) = 𝑷(𝑨 ̅ ), 𝒘𝒉𝒆𝒓𝒆 𝑨
̅̅̅̅ and 𝑩
̅ are mutually
exclusive events.

̅ ∩𝑩)
𝑷(𝑨 𝑷(𝑩)−𝑷(𝑨∩𝑩)
̅ /𝑩) =
xi) 𝑷(𝑨 = ̅̅̅̅ and B are independent events and 𝑷(𝑩) ≠ 𝟎.
, 𝒘𝒉𝒆𝒓𝒆 𝑨
𝑷(𝑩) 𝑷(𝑩)

̅ ̅
xii) 𝑷(𝑨 ̅ ) = 𝑷(𝑨∩𝑩) = 𝟏−𝑷(𝑨∪𝑩) , 𝒘𝒉𝒆𝒓𝒆 ̅𝑨̅̅̅ and 𝑩
̅ /𝑩 ̅ are independent events and 𝑷(𝑨) ≠ 𝟏.
𝑷(𝑨̅̅̅̅) 𝟏−𝑷(𝑨)