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Chapter 1

1. Traffic engineering – branch of civil engineering that uses


engineering techniques to achieve the safe & efficient
movement of people & goods on road.

2. Traffic – movement of vehicles, ship or person in an area (


street, air lane , water route )

3. Transportation engineering – application of sc&tech for


planning functional design , operation and management of
facilities of any transportation mode

4. Road engineering – discipline branch of civil engineering that


involves planning, design, construction, operation and
maintenance of facilities for safety purposes.

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Construction structure used in transportation

 Railroad
 Airport
 Pipe network
 Road
 Canal
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History
1. Early roads
- China Dynasty
- Parsian Empire
- Britain
- India
- Mesopotamia

2. Roman roads
- Purpose : military movement
- Appian way
- Road thickness : 0.7m-1.2m
- Thick weary
- Straight without gradient
- Build on hard stratum

3. Modern roads
- Pierre Trasaquet , France ( improved construction method in
1764 )
- John Metcalf , England
- Thomas Telford : heavy foundation stone over soil sub-grade
- John Macadam : use compacted crushed aggregate layer

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Road designers

1. Robert Philips ( 1736 )


- a layer of gravel placed on roadbase upon a well drained and
dried sub-grade

2. Tresaquet’s road ( 1775-1820 )


- inspector general of road
- continuous maintenance of road
- sub grade moisture & drainage
- purpose : military adventures

3. John Metcalf’s road ( 1717-1810 )


- construction with graded mixture of earth and gravel
- follow Robert Philips procedure
- construct 290km of road in northern part of England

4. Telford road ( 1757–1834 )


- Scottish road engineer
- big size stone as foundation, 17-22cm for a firm base
- provide cross drain to keep sub-grade dry ( 90m interval )
- road thickness : 36-38 cm

5. Macadam road ( 1756-1838 )


- new concept of road construction in 1826
- Scottish engineer & surveyor general of road
- designed road with cambered formation and small angular
aggregate as road material
- develop cheap paving material of soil and stone aggregate
( macadam )
- Native soil can support road&traffic if the road crust could
protect the soil underneath from water and wear

Method :
* sub-grade prepare and compacted according to road width
* prepare sub-grade with camber
* foundation, intermediate , wearing surface layer
* cross slope of finish surface 1 in 36

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Road pavement
1. Laterite/Dirt road
2. Gravel road
3. Flexible road pavement
i) Asphaltic concrete
ii) Porous pavement
iii) Stone mastic asphalt

4. Rigid road pavement


5. Semi-rigid road pavement

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Road system in Malaysia

1. Toll Highway
2. Federal Road
3. State Road
4. Council Road
5. Rural Road
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Malaysia road category

1. Federal road
- link state, capital , airport , railway and port
- connect entry point , main city and state
- under Federal Road Ordinance ( include FELDA , anything
under Federal fund )
- fund : federal government
- maintenance : federal JKR
- federal route will be label with numbers

2. Toll highway
- Under Malaysian Highway Authority ( built and maintenance )
- design , built and operate ( concession period 30 years )
- rest and relax areas, shelters for motorcyclists and emergency
phones provided
- eg : PLUS , NKVE and KESAS

Toll Highway vs Federal Road


Toll Highway Federal Road

Speed limit 110 km/h 90 km/h


Geometry
Higher Lower
requirement
Lane Two lanes or more Two lanes

Accessibility Limited Not limited

Traffic Higher Lower