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Chapter 1

PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND

Introduction

Education is an important means by which an organized society achieves

stability and prosperity. Through the process of Education, the citizens are

imbued with proper attitudes, values and aspirations, necessary to gain

knowledge and skills that will help them achieve maximum self realization.

Our own Congressional Commission on Education (EDCOM) has recognized

the crucial importance of Education when it stated in the preface to the

official EDCOM report: “Education is essential to our life as a nation. This is the

truism that bears endless repetition”

As stated in the 1987 Philippine Constitution, Article XIV, Section I

that : “The State shall protect and promote the right of all citizens to

quality education at all levels, and shall take appropriate steps to

make such education accessible to all”.

Professional educators know very well that the word “Learning”

implies both teaching and learning. It is the process of facilitating learning,

Knowledge, skills, values, beliefs, and habits of a group of people are

transferred to other people, through storytelling, discussion, teaching, training, or

research. Education frequently takes place under the guidance of educators, but

learners may also educate themselves in a process called autodidactic learning.


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Any experience that has a formative effect on the way one thinks, feels, or acts

may be considered educational.

Education is commonly and formally divided into stages such

as preschool, primary school, secondary school and then college,

university or apprenticeship. The methodology of teaching is called pedagogy.

Working students are those students who work outside the school and

having a school responsibility too. Students have so many reasons to work

outside at home. One of these is that they want to help their parents in earning

money to meet the needs of their family. These may include their everyday needs

such as food, shelter, clothing and education. Others want to work because they

feel bored at home and by means of working they will able to amuse themselves.

Somehow the others work’s for their personal interests. That is they want to use

what they have acquired in school and feel fulfilled just to apply whatever

knowledge they have gained in the past. Money or financial gain is not the main

issue but simply expression of self-fulfillment.

Students who are engaged in a job have to carry out their duties and

responsibilities both as students and worker in order to maintain school and

company relationships Student who had stayed at home with their parents were

often eager to get any job. Some really needed extra income and others wanted

to re-establish communication skills with adults and have something to make them

busy. The successful working students have examined their goals and priorities

before they entered into the field of work.


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The researcher pushed to conduct this study because of his curiosity on

how working students cope their school duties and responsibilities while having a

part-time job.

Setting of the Study

Tomas Claudio Colleges formerly Tomas Claudio Memorial Colleges is a

community-owned and community-based institution of learning in Eastern Rizal.

It was founded on August 15, 1950 in honor of Tomas Claudio, a national hero of

Morong. The College was originally located downtown morong and was

transferred to the scenic sprawling twelve hectare campus at Sitio Taghangin,

about a kilometer from the poblacion.

Its Mission, The College of Education will develop globally competitive

educators equipped with academic and technical skills and values necessary in

rapidly changing world. It’s Vision, The College of Liberal Arts will produce

Claudians who are academically and technically competent in their chosen field

responsive to the needs of society, contributing fully and effectively to nation’s

progress.

The Tomas Claudio Colleges believes in democratic education for social

competence and responsibility. It endeavors to provide its students with a

working understanding of the nature, meaning and importance of education in the

dynamics they expect to work and live.


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Figure 1

“Vicinity Map of Tomas Claudio Colleges”


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Tomas Claudio Colleges is committed to develop good moral character,

personal discipline, professional competence, rational thinking, and seriousness

of purpose and love of God among its students.

In this institution there are lots of activities. One of these is a yearly

intramurals, games consist basketball, volleyball, table tennis, badminton and

swimming. College of Education and Liberal Arts has Lakan at Lakambini ng

Edukasyon, a pageant for the beautiful and Handsome Student of College of

Education, Booth Opening for the Academic Club, and a lot of fun stuff.

Theoretical Framework

The study was based on the Theory of Academic Performance by

Atkinson’s ( e.g., Atkinson, 1996; weiner, 1967 ) According to Atkinson,

educators generally agree that a major variable affecting the academic

performance is motivation. However, important as a motivational variable’s may

be in understanding, predicting and controlling classroom performance, there is

paucity of information and theory associated with them.

There are many theories of human motivation; but little attempt has been

made to extend this theories in a systematic way to educational situations.

Furthermore, the occasional application of psychological theory to education has

not typically eventuated in theory of academic motivation a unified and coherent

body of information. As a result, there is very little in the way of motivation theory

which is clearly help to the academic performance.


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This situation is not without hope, however. The work of several theories

has shown has promise of evolving postulates and hypothesis relevant to the

teaching-learning process. Prominent among these is the theory of academic

motivation, particularly as formulated by Atkinson. This theory has provided a

productive approach to a variety of behavioral phenomena; thus it has been

suggested, that it may also gives direction to educationally relevant research.

The cited theory is relevant to the present study since it aimed to

determine the level of academic performance of the working students in Tomas

Claudio Colleges.

Conceptual Framework

This study was guided by a Coombs’ Systems Approach utilizing the input,

process and output model. The first frame refers to the input which includes the

working students as respondents of the study described in terms of age, sex, and

sibling position, parents educational attainment, monthly family income, and

academic performance.

The second frame refers to the construction and validation of

questionnaires on the levels of academic performance of working student. Data

gathering, analysis and interpretation of data. The third frame refers to the output

of the study which is a plan of action to enhance the academic performance of

working students in Tomas Claudio Colleges. The line from output frame
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connecting process and input presents feedback. It indicates that whatever will

be the output or the response may get, this means that there is a continuous

process.
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INI
Input Process Output

Profile of the
Respondents
 Construction Plan of Action to
 Age and Validation Enhance the
 Sex of Academic
 Sibling Position Questionnaire- Performance of the
 Parents Checklist Working Students
Educational  Administration
attainment of the
 Monthly Family Questionnaire-
Income Checklist
 Data Gathering
Level of Academic  Analysis and
Performance of Interpretation of
Working Students Data
 Class
Participation
 Task
Performance
 Comprehension

FEEDBACK

Figure 2

“Conceptual Framework Showing the Levels of Academic Performance


of the Working Students in Tomas Claudio Colleges”
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Statement of the Problem

This study aimed to determine the levels of academic performance of the

working students in Tomas Claudio Colleges during the School Year 2015-2016.

Specifically, it sought answers to the following question:

1. What is the profile of the working students with regard their:

1.1 age;

1.2 sex;

1.3 sibling position;

1.4 parent educational attainment; and

1.5 monthly family income;

2. What is the level of performance of the working students as perceived by

themselves with respect to:

2.1 class participation;

2.2 task performance; and

2.3 comprehension?

3. Is there a significant difference on the level of performance of the working

students as perceived by the respondents with respect to the different aspects in

terms of their profile?

4. What action plan may be prepared to enhance the level of academic

performance of the working students?


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Hypothesis of the Study

The study tested the null hypothesis that there no significant difference on

the levels of academic performance of the working students in Tomas Claudio

Colleges as perceived by the respondents with respect to the class participation,

task performance, and comprehension in terms of their age, sex, sibling position,

parents educational attainment and monthly family income.

Significance of the Study

This study will be beneficial to the following:

Curriculum Planners. They will be guided in the revision, enrichment,

and modification and strengthening of the curricula to meet the need of the

clientele.

School Administrators. It will guide them to come up with the scheme to

help students who have difficulty paying on time their tuition fees and some

school financial requirements.

Working Students. This study will serve as their guide on how to become

good and responsible students, especially to the students having a family soon,

because they will able to carry out their responsibilities and duties as wives and

possibly working.
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Guidance Counselors. It will help them find way on how to counsel and

guide students who are found to be laden with problems because they are

working students.

Parents. It is important to the parent, especially to those parents who

work outside the home for they will be able to know the effects it may bring on

having a son or daughter having a part time job.

Future Researchers. The proposed study will benefits and help the future

researcher as their guide. The study can also open in development of this study.

Scope and the Limitation of the Study

This study was conducted to determine the level of academic performance

of the working students of Tomas Claudio Colleges as perceived by the working

students in College of Education and Liberal Arts Department during the school

year 2015 – 2016.

This study is limited observation of about of 21 students at Tomas Claudio

Colleges, Morong, Rizal and who are working. The researchers concentrated on

how working students improves their academic performance while having a part-

time job.
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Definition of Terms

The following are the operational definitions used in this study to


improve the introductory statement;

Academic Performance - is the outcome of education — the extent to

which a student, teacher or institution has achieved their educational goals.

Education- is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition

of knowledge, skills, values, beliefs, and habits. Educational methods

include storytelling, discussion, teaching, training, and directed research.

Education frequently takes place under the guidance of educators, but learners

may also educate themselves.

Employment – is a relationship between two parties, usually based on

a contract where work is paid for, where one is the employer and the other is

the employee.

Feedback - occurs when outputs of a system are routed back as inputs as

part of a chain of cause-and-effect that forms a circuit or loop.

Class- a group of students attending a specific course or lesson

Participation- sharing something in common with others.

Profile- an activity that needs to be accomplished within a defined period

of time or by a deadline
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Performance- Performance measurement is the process of collecting,

analyzing and reporting information regarding the performance of an individual,

group, organization, system or component.

Self-Esteem- it is belief in one’s self, a confidence and satisfaction in

one’s self.

Stress- it is the body reaction to any situation or events that places

unusual demand to the body.

Cope- it means to strive, to deal with and attempt to overcome problems

and difficulties.

Duty- it is an obligation task, conduct services or function that arises from

one’s position in life or in a group.

Job- a task or piece of work, especially one that is paid.

Strategy- a plan of action or policy designed to achieve a major or overall

aim.

Interpretation- the action of explaining the meaning of something.


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Chapter 2

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

This research study cited books, articles and laws, which are relevant to

the present investigation. It is composed of related literature and studies, both

local and foreign, which contain facts and information on the research problem at

hand. It also provides explanations and logical connections between previous

research and present work.

Foreign Literature

Demmert, William G., Jr (2006). This literature review examines research-

based information on educational approaches and programs associated with

improving the academic performance of Native American students. A search

reviewed ERIC's over 8,000 documents on American Indian education, as well as

master's and doctoral dissertations and other sources of research on the

education of Native Americans. Selected research reports and articles were

organized into the following categories: early childhood environment and

experiences; Native language and cultural programs; teachers, instruction, and

curriculum; community and parental influences on academic performance;

student characteristics; economic and social factors; and factors leading to

success in college or college completion. The status of research and major

research findings are reviewed for each of these categories; brief summaries of

research findings with citations are included following the review of each
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category. Also included are an annotated bibliography of more than 100 research

reports, journal articles, and dissertations, most published after 1985; and a

bibliography of 23 additional references to other literature reviews and non-

Native studies. (SV)

As stressed by Gilani (2012) in the works of Garcia and Pearson, reading

strategies are deliberate actions that learners select to establish and improve

their reading comprehension. He stressed that these strategies are the mental

processes involved in the reading techniques chosen by the students while

reading. Usually, these techniques are selected consciously to facilitate reading

comprehension.

Locally, based on the results of National Assessment of Educational

Progress (NAEP) exams, progress in reading comprehension is lagging behind

the improvement in mathematics over the past two decades. Part of the difficulty

is that the strategies have been drawn by assuming that we actually know what

good readers do and that reading comprehension can be dissected into various

parts, each one necessitating a particular strategy. Reading comprehension is

really complex.

In addition, to Horowitz (2012), the reader must also be intentional and

thoughtful while reading, monitoring the words and their meaning as reading

progresses. And the reader must apply reading comprehension strategies as

ways to be sure that what is being read matches their expectations and builds on

their growing body of knowledge that is being stored for immediate or future

reference.
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The aforementioned prevailing situations have inspired the researchers

believing that there is a need to conduct the current study of Reading Strategies

among the 2nd year Bachelor in Elementary Education students in University of

Southeastern Philippines.

Krishnan (2005) conducted a study on non-intellectual factors and their

influence on academic achievement. The sample comprised of 180 students of

sixth to ninth class studying in central school Tirupati and was divided into three

groups depending on their parents‟ education as high, middle and low. The

results indicated that parents‟ educational status had significant influence on the

academic achievement of their children.

Aggarwal (2006) conducted a study on reading ability in relation to some

cognitive and non-cognitive factors. The sample constituted 200 male and female

students selected randomly from the high schools of Bihar in India. Data were

collected by administering reading ability test to the sample .The results of the

study indicated that female students had better reading ability and higher

academic achievement than male students.

Poropat, Arthur (2009) reports a meta-analysis of personality–academic

performance relationships, based on the 5-factor model, in which cumulative

sample sizes ranged to over 70,000. Most analyzed studies came from the

tertiary level of education, but there were similar aggregate samples from

secondary and tertiary education. There was a comparatively smaller sample

derived from studies at the primary level. Academic performance was found to

correlate significantly with Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, and Openness.


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Where tested, correlations between Conscientiousness and academic

performance were largely independent of intelligence. When secondary

academic performance was controlled for, Conscientiousness added as much to

the prediction of tertiary academic performance as did intelligence. Strong

evidence was found for moderators of correlations. Academic level (primary,

secondary, or tertiary), average age of participant, and the interaction between

academic level and age significantly moderated correlations with academic

performance. Possible explanations for these moderator effects are discussed,

and recommendations for future research are provided.

Hill and Tyson (2009) Early adolescence is often marked by changes in

school context, family relationships, and developmental processes. In the context

of these changes, academic performance often declines, while at the same time

the long-term implications of academic performance increase. In promoting

achievement across elementary and secondary school levels, the significant role

of families, family–school relations, and parental involvement in education has

been highlighted. Although there is a growing body of literature focusing on

parental involvement in education during middle school, this research has not

been systematically examined to determine which types of involvement have the

strongest relation with achievement. The authors conducted a meta-analysis on

the existing research on parental involvement in middle school to determine

whether and which types of parental involvement are related to achievement.

Across 50 studies, parental involvement was positively associated with

achievement, with the exception of parental help with homework. Involvement


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that reflected academic socialization had the strongest positive association with

achievement. Based on the known characteristics of the developmental stage

and tasks of adolescence, strategies reflecting academic socialization are most

consistent with the developmental stage of early adolescence

Local Literature

De Guzman, De Castro (2011) graduates need to develop personal skills,

qualities and experiences that enable to them to compete in the labor

market. The author advises the need for students to do everything they can for

them to grow as experts in their chosen field while they are still in school. All

these trainings and experiences will just benefit them where the time comes that

will be establishing their own careers. This is related the present study as it gave

suggestions to further improve the AB Journalism curriculum which must live up

to demands and expectations of the different industries. The Philippines may go

beyond the standing of employment in the country, rights and importance should

be understood. As specified in the book Labor Economics by Cristobal M.

Pagoso, in view of low literacy rates in rising unemployment in developing

countries, it has become imperative that greater educational opportunities should

be provided for the great proportion of adult population as well as the large

number of youth outside the formal school system to help them acquire further

knowledge and skill thereby improving their livelihood and strengthening the

country. From the book Contemporary Social Problems and Issues, it states that
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the educational levels and literacy rates of workers in the Philippines are among

the highest in Asia, but technical, manual and managerial are poorly developed

and in short supply. There is an over-abundance of college graduates that most

especially in Manila area were in the field of education, law and other

professionals exceed in demand to find employment appropriate to their

educational training. This information may be considered in the improvement

of AB Journalism curriculum to add the technical; manual and managerial skillsw

hich are said to be lacking among the Filipino graduates

Angelo Dulas (2010) Primarily, the study was conducted to determine the

relationship between self-efficacy and academic performances on Math and

English subject of science high school students. The objectives are (a) to find

what level of self-efficacy do High school students have and (b) to explore if there

is gender difference among high school students in terms of their self-efficacy

and academic performance.

Katigbak (2010) In a comparison of Filipino and American college

students' self-reported academic motives, approval and self-improvement ranked

higher for Filipino students and motives involving performance standards ranked

higher for American students. Gender differences - men reported more assertive

and competitive achievement modes, women stronger motives regarding

performance standards -replicated across the two cultures, suggesting

generalizable socialization differences for achievement. Intrinsic task motives-

enjoyment of school tasks, persistence, and setting of high performance

standards-were closely tied to affiliation and self-improvement motives for Filipino


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but not American students; achieving and affiliating motives may be less distinct

in the Philippine setting than implied by Western theory.

Rivera (2007) stated that the interest and goals have been identified as

two important motivational constructs that influence student’s engagement and

achievement in learning. However, the bulk of research on motivation in physical

educational pedagogy emanates from achievement goal theories. Achievement

goals have been reported to have a weak influence in predicting both

performance and motivation outcomes. Interest, on the other hand, has been

found to play a key role in influencing student learning behavior and intention to

participate in the future.

Foreign Studies

Scott (2006), discovered that reading comprehension is influenced

imperatively by a student’s level of word knowledge. This includes vocabulary

and spelling proficiency and also the skill to decode words in print.

Furthermore, Paynter, Bodrova & Doty (2005), define reading

comprehension as intricate practice that involves many levels of processing.

They additionally noted that one of the most primary aspects of comprehension is

the resistance to deal with unfamiliar words converged in text. Readers who find

it difficult in terms of word-level tasks use up valuable cognitive space intended

for deeper levels of text analysis. It is not sufficient to depend merely on context

indication to predict the meaning of new words, since this strategy frequently
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results in inaccuracy or shallow perceptions of key terms, especially in content-

area reading.

In addition, reading comprehension is a complex cognitive process that

relies upon a number of ingredient working together at once in a synchronous,

even automatic way.

The reader must be intentional and thoughtful while reading, monitoring

the words and their meaning as reading progress. Readers must adapt reading

comprehension strategies to ascertain that what is being read corresponds to

their knowledge accumulated and stored for a sudden or future reference.

Horowitz (2012).

Conley (2009) This article considers the importance of ownership of

learning as a key component of college readiness. The article is organized

around two conceptual models. The first is a four-part model of college readiness

that includes key cognitive strategies, key content knowledge, key learning skills

and techniques, and key transition knowledge and skills. The second is a five-

part model of ownership of learning that consists of the following elements:

motivation and engagement, goal orientation and self-direction, self-efficacy and

self-confidence, metacognition and self-monitoring, and persistence. Finally, the

article concludes with a discussion of the role and importance of ownership of

learning and makes the case that these elements can and should be taught to all

students, and particularly in settings where an achievement gap exists.

According to study of Chinn (2009), cited that Comprehending or

comprehension strategies are strategies that help students understand and


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remember material such as texts and lectures. Most of the research on

comprehension strategies has focused on learning from reading texts. Five

strategies that have been found to be useful for enhancing comprehension are

monitoring, using text structure, summarizing, elaborating, and explaining.

Moreover, Phakiti as cited by Ghafournia&Afghari (2013) states that

comprehending strategies are used by language learners to comprehend texts

and extract meaning. Good examples of comprehending strategies are

identifying main ideas, making inferences about the implied meaning, translating,

making prediction, skimming, and scanning reading texts.

In addition, Phakiti (2006) found that retrieval strategies were found to

largely affect comprehending strategies. This means that comprehending

strategies depend largely on the effectiveness of retrieval strategies. Perhaps in

reading comprehension, the extent to which comprehending strategies are

successfully used depends on how well one can retrieve information.

The study of Phakiti and the present study have similarity since both dealt

with students’ strategies in learning in the different subject area.

Darst (2007) sought to examine the effects of task design on situational

interest and the extent to which the effects were mediated by gender, grade,

individual interest, and skill levels. An important finding that emerged from this

investigation was the role of cognitive demand of learning task in generation

situational interest. It was concluded that providing learners with “a learning task

that demands relatively high cognitive engagement is likely to be perceived as


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interesting and enjoyable regardless of the intensity of the physical involvement

in the task demands”. Teaching Games for Understanding (TGfU) or the tactical

Approach provides students with a relatively high cognitive demand in solving

tactical problems to game play. Situational interest was also found to be a

function of learning task design and it varied across different learning task in

physical education.

The study of Darst and the present study have similarity since both dealt

with students’ interest in learning in the different subject area.

Local Studies

Torres (2005) examined the teaching effectiveness and job satisfaction of

public elementary school teachers in the Division of Northern Samar. Among her

findings are as follows: the status of the teachers level effectiveness subject-

matter, motivational teacher behavior and personal and social characteristics.

They were very effective in classroom management as assessed by the teachers

and administration did not differ with regards to the aspects of teaching.

Dela Cruz (2014) many highly educated Filipino today, married or

unmarried, have indicated their desire to be part of national effort to build the

nation and to contribute to the national welfare. Some have shown their need and

capability to make good or even excel in some field of national endeavor, as well

as fulfill their responsibilities.


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It would be bare economic necessity. To do so would equate living to

taking out the bare necessities of life and overlook the need for the fullness of

living presented by satisfaction in the family life, pride in one’s work, joy in the

culture and the arts, and pleasure in the comforts that modern day living has to

offer. There are many so-called “hazards” for working student. Among them are

neglect studies, inability to fully cope with school duties and the physical strain

being a student about by the added responsibilities of gainful employment to that.

Perry (2010) Academic emotions have largely been neglected by

educational psychology, with the exception of test anxiety. In 5 qualitative

studies, it was found that students experience a rich diversity of emotions in

academic settings. Anxiety was reported most often, but overall, positive

emotions were described no less frequently than negative emotions.

Mercado (2008) conducted a research on job-related stressors as

correlates to teaching performance. In their study, all faculty members of the

College of Science who have undergone evaluators of their teaching

performance of their respective students were the subjects of the study.

Based on the result of the study, the researchers concluded that the major

factors affecting the burnout inventory of teachers are: emotional exhaustion

(teachers are tired out at the end of the day); depersonalization (teachers do not

want to stay in the campus after the class) and; reduced Personal Factor

(teachers feel frustrated with their work). Meanwhile, the major factors that affect

the job-related stressors are; physical facilities (the rooms and laboratory cannot
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accommodate the students); organizational structure (funds and other benefits

for teachers are not immediately released causing them.

Feden (2006) stated that the important thing is for student to learn skills

necessary for everyday living and which they understand and appreciate. It is not

enough that they memorize and repeat. An effective teaching strategy start with

specific fact or information or prior knowledge has been identified. Then, continue

with process until generalization is reached and work an application. On the line

teachers’ part, the decision on how to assist the performance of the pupils will be

the identification of the competency that has to be demonstrated by the students.

The description of the task to be performed by the students and authentication of

task reflects the partnership for improving classroom instruction.

According to Masikip (2012) that the second year high school students

obtained a poor performance in the pretest and obtained good performance in

the posttest before and after exposure to remediation activities. It was also found

out that performance of the respondents in algebra differ significantly before and

after exposure to remediation activities. Performance of the respondents in

algebra after exposure to remediation activities did not differ significantly in terms

of sex and monthly family income.

Alcovendas and Espares (2013) discusses that AB English honor

graduates are gainfully employed having sufficient annual income, have a

tendency of staying long in the company. The statement of Alcovendas

andEspares was relevant because in the present study conducted by the


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researchers. The result shows that academic performances in school really affect

the employment status of the graduates. The honors and awards that some

graduates acquire where instrumental to attaining a better job after graduation

The study of Alcovendas, Espares and the present study have similarity since

both dealt with academic performance of the students.

Nelita M. Lalican (2008) discussed the relevance of its productivity with

the present condition. The findings of the study revealed that, employers prefer

specialists rather than generalists and the employers find the graduates effective,

efficient and cooperative. They also find the graduates knowledgeable,

dependable and resourceful however, many employers describe UPLB

graduates as academically inclined, having a know it-all attitude although with

assertive personality. This also has bearing to the current tracer study among AB

Journalism graduates since this present research also tried to find out whether

these graduates are effective, efficient and cooperative

The study of Lalican and the present study have similarity since both dealt with

Employment.
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Chapter 3

METHODOLOGY AND SOURCE OF DATA

This chapter presents the description of the research methods to be use,

the respondents of the study, the instruments to be use, the procedures and

sources of data utilized in analyzing the data gathered.

Research Design

The researchers used the descriptive method. This method of research

emphasizes the present status of the people which describes a current situation,

determines a situation and determines the nature of prevailing conditions of

practices and seek accurate description of activities, objects, person, and

processes.

To obtain facts about existing condition or detect significant relationship

between current phenomena, there is a need for interpreting the meaning of the

data gathered.

It aimed to determine the levels of academic performance of the working

students in Tomas Claudio Colleges. The researchers made use of this method

because it can describe the existing occurrence concerning the levels of

academic performance of the working students in Tomas Claudio Colleges.

Descriptive research method describes the research of statistics. It is

logical and primary focuses on numeric data. According to Calmorin (2007)


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Descriptive research focuses on the present condition. The purpose is to find

new truth that may have different forms such as increase quantity of knowledge,

an increase insight into factors which are operating, the discovery of a new

causal relationship, and more accurate formulation of the problem

Respondents of the Study

The chosen respondents in this study were several working student in Tomas

Claudio Colleges, Education Department.

The researchers went personally to the classroom of the respondents to explain

to them the content of the questionnaire to enable them to understand and

answer the questions given.

Respondents No. of Respondents

Second Year 2

Third Year 9

Fourth Year 10

Total 21

Instrumentation

The questionnaire was the main instrument used in gathering of data. The

questionnaire was in form of checklist. In the formulation of questionnaire items,


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the researchers used a simple and clear language to enable the respondents to

understand and answer the question adequately.

Part one, is the profile of the respondents, this includes the teachers

respondents' age, sex, sibling position, parents educational attainment and

monthly family income. Part two, is the levels of academic performance of the

working students in Tomas Claudio Colleges. For part two, the respondents were

asked to rate each item by using a 5-point rating scale where 5 is the highest and

1 is the lowest. The attainment of grades was utilized in order to acquire the

performance of the pupil-respondents. The following scale and verbal

interpretation will be used.

Scale Range Verbal Interpretation

5 4.50-5.00 VeryGood

4 3.50- 4.49 Good

3 2.50-3.49 Satisfying

2 1.50-2.49 Need Improvement

1 1.00-1.49 Not Effective

Validation of the Instrument

In testing the validity of the instruments, the questionnaire-checklist was

presented to the research professor of the college, the head teacher of the
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elementary department and thesis adviser for the content validation. The panel of

experts was consulted in revised of the thesis for the improvement of the studies.

Procedure of the Study

The title defense undergone and then the preparation of chapter 1, 2 and

3 had begun. Afterwards, the researchers gathered the foreign and local

literature and the foreign and local studies. When done, the researchers

undergone the Colloquium and was preparing for the validation of the

questionnaire checklist. Letters will also be signed in approval to conduct the

study. Then comes the administration of the questionnaire checklist. Once

administered, it was retrieved and the survey will lead.

Upon retrieval of the questionnaires, the data were tallied, tabulated, analyzed

and interpreted. This was lead to the finalization of the remaining chapters in the

study and finally the researcher’s was started preparing for the oral defense.

Revision of the manuscript was done based on the comments, suggestions and

recommendations of the panel to the panel members. And finally the final copy of

the thesis was passed to the office of the Dean of College of Education and

Liberal Arts in Tomas Claudio Colleges.

Statistical Treatment

For the analysis and interpretation of data, the following statistical tools

were utilized;

To determine the profile of the respondents, frequency percentage and

rank distribution were used;


31

To determine the level of performance of the working students with

respect to different aspects, weighted mean was used;

To determine the significant difference in the level of performance of the

working students with respect to the different aspects, one-way analysis of

variance (ANOVA) was used;


32

Chapter 4

PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA

This chapter presents the results, analysis and interpretation of data

relative to the questions raised to find out the levels of academic performance of

the working students of Tomas Claudio Colleges.

The Profile of the Respondents

Table 1 presents the frequency and percentage distribution of the

respondents in terms of age.

Table 1

Frequency and Percentage Distribution of the Respondents


in Terms of Age

Age f %

15-17 years 2 9.5

18-20 years 8 38.1

21-22 years 6 28.6

23-25 years 1 4.8

26 years and above 4 12.0


Total 21 100.0

As shown in the table, in terms of age, most of the respondents have ages

18-20 years old with 8 or 38.1 percent. It was followed by ages 21-22 years old

with 6 or 28.6 percent, 26 years and above with 4 or 12 percent, 15-17 years old
33

with 2 or 9.5 percent and last in rank belongs to age bracket of 23-25 years old

with 1 or 4.8 percent.

Table 2 presents the frequency and percentage distribution of the

respondents in terms of sex.

Table 2

Frequency and Percentage Distribution of the Respondents


in Terms of Sex

Sex f %

Male 5 23.8

Female 16 76.2
Total 21 100.0

As shown in the table, in terms of sex, most of the respondents are

females with 16 or 76.2 percent followed by males with 5 or 23.8 percent.

Table 3 presents the frequency and percentage distribution of the

respondents in terms of sibling position.

Table 3

Frequency and Percentage Distribution of the Respondents


in Terms of Sibling Position

Sibling Position f %

First 9 42.9

Second 5 23.8

Third 4 19.0

Fourth and above 3 14.3

Total 21 100.0
34

The table shows that, in terms of sibling position 9 or 42.9 percent are first

born, followed by 5 or 23.9 percent which are 2nd born, 3rd born with 4 or 19

percent and lastly 3 or 14.3 percent are 4th born and above.

Table 4 presents the frequency and percentage distribution of the

respondents in terms of father’s educational attainment.

Table 4

Frequency and Percentage Distribution of the Respondents


in Terms of Father’s Educational Attainment

Fathers’ Educational Attainment f %


College Graduate 3 14.3
College Undergraduate 6 28.6
High School Graduate 8 38.1
High School Undergraduate 2 9.5
Elementary Graduate 2 9.5
Elementary Undergraduate - -
Total 21 100.0

As shown in the table, in terms of father’s educational attainment of the

respondents, high school graduates are 8 or 38.1 percent. Followed by college

undergraduates with 6 or 28.6 percent, college graduates with 3 or 14.3 percent

and lastly with the same frequency and percentage of 2 and 9.5 percent,

respectively are high school undergraduates and elementary graduates.


35

Table 5 presents the frequency and percentage distribution of the

respondents in terms of mother’s educational attainment.

Table 5

Frequency and Percentage Distribution of the Respondents


in Terms of Mother’s Educational Attainment

Mother’s Educational Attainment f %


College Graduate 4 19.0
College Undergraduate 6 28.6
High School Graduate 5 23.8
High School Undergraduate 1 4.8
Elementary Graduate 4 19.0
Elementary Undergraduate 1 4.8
Total 21 100.0

As shown in the table, in terms of mother’s educational attainment of the

respondents, college undergraduates are 6 or 28.6 percent. Followed by high

school graduates with 5 or 23.8 percent, college graduates and elementary

graduates with the same frequency and percentage of 4 or 19.0 percent

respectively and lastly with the same frequency and percentage also of 2 are

high school undergraduates and elementary undergraduate with 1 or 4.8 percent,

respectively.

Table 6 presents the frequency and percentage distribution of the

respondents in terms of monthly family income.


36

Table 6

Frequency and Percentage Distribution of the Respondents


in Terms of Monthly Family Income

Monthly Family Income f %


₱20,000 and above 4 19.0
₱15,000 - ₱19,999 3 14.3
₱10,000 - ₱14,999 5 23.8
₱10,000-₱14,999 - -
₱5,000-₱9,999 3 14.3
₱4,999 and below 6 28.6
Total 21 100.0

As shown in the table, in terms of monthly family income of the

respondents, 6 or 28.6 have monthly family income of ₱4,999 and below, 5 or

23.8 percent belong to families with ₱10,000 - ₱14,999, 4 or 19.0 belong to

families with income bracket of ₱20,000 and above and only 3 or 14.3 percent

belong to families with income bracket of ₱15,000 - ₱19,999 and ₱5,000-₱9,999.

The Level of Performance of the Working Students with Respect to Class


Participation, Task Performance and Comprehension
Table 7 presents the computed weighted mean on the level of

performance of the working students with respect to class participation.

The table reflects that with respect to class participation, the overall

weighted mean obtained 3.82 is interpreted Good. First and second in ranks are

“share ideas in the lesson” and “participate actively in class” with weighted

means of 3.95 and 3.90 both interpreted Good. Two other items are also
37

interpreted as Good while last in rank is “develop my own study habits” with a

weighted mean of 3.67 interpreted as Good.

Table 7

Computed Weighted Mean on the Level of Performance of the Working Students


with Respect to Class Participation

CLASS PARTICIPATION ̅
W𝐗 VI Rank
Having a part time job makes me …
1. participate actively in class. 3.90 Good 2
2. share ideas in the lesson. 3.95 Good 1
3. capture my willingness and interest in
3.76 Good 4
the lesson.
4. develop my own study habits. 3.67 Good 5
5. improve my study habits. 3.81 Good 3
̅
Overall W𝐗 3.82 Good

The findings indicate that the classroom participation of the working

students is influenced by their part time job. This implies that having a part time

job is not a hindrance for the students to participate inside the classroom and to

perform well in their class. This supports the statements of Eastwold (2004)

indicates that some researchers believe that truancy problems can be blamed on

ineffective school attendance policies. In some cases the costs in time and

energy to enforce compulsory education statutes seem to outweigh the benefits.

As a result schools will develop policies that devote the most energy to those

students expected to have the best chance of success.


38

Table 8 presents the computed weighted mean on the level of

performance of the working students with respect to task performance.

Table 8

Computed Weighted Mean on the Level of Performance of the Working Students


with Respect to Task Performance

TASK PERFORMANCE ̅
W𝐗 VI Rank
Having a part time job makes me …
1. increase my participation in group
3.52 Good 3
activities.
2. cope to the day-to-day learning
3.43 Satisfying 4.5
activities.
3. develop my willingness to participate in
3.62 Good 2
group discussion.
4. willing to take an active part during
3.71 Good 1
discussion.
5. provide various activities to improve my
3.43 Satisfying 4.5
class participation.
Overall W𝐗 ̅ 3.54 Good

As shown in table, with respect to task performance, the overall weighted

mean obtained is 3.54 interpreted Good. Among the items, first and second in

ranks are “willing to take an active part during discussion” and “develop my

willingness to participate in group discussion” with weighted means of 3.71 and

3.62 both interpreted Good. Third in rank is “increase my participation in group

activities” with weighted mean of 3.52 interpreted as Good. Lastly, two items tied

for fourth and fifth are “cope to the day-to-day learning activities” and “provide

various activities to improve my class participation” with a weighted means of

3.43 and both interpreted as Satisfying.


39

The findings reveal that having a part time job has a positive effects on

their task performance. This implies that the students develop their skills in

attaining to actively participate in a certain task. This supports the study of

Krishnan (2005) conducted a study on non-intellectual factors and their influence

on academic achievement. The sample comprised of 180 students of sixth to

ninth class studying in central school Tirupati and was divided into three groups

depending on their parents‟ education as high, middle and low. The results

indicated that parents‟ educational status had significant influence on the

academic achievement of their children.

Table 9 presents the computed weighted mean on the level of

performance of the working students with respect to comprehension.

The table reflects that with respect to comprehension, the overall weighted

mean obtained 3.83 is interpreted Good. Among the items, first and second in

ranks are “appreciate the teaching strategies of my teacher” and “enhance my

ability in applying skills in class” with weighted means of 4.24 and 3.81 both

interpreted Good. Third and fourth in ranks are “stimulate my desire to develop

my comprehension skills in every subject taken” and “lessen difficulty coping the

lesson“ with weighted means of 3.76 both interpreted as Good. Last in rank is

“easily understand the lesson” with a weighted mean of 3.57 and interpreted as

Good.
40

Table 9

Computed Weighted Mean on the Level of Performance of the Working Students


with Respect to Comprehension

COMPREHENSION ̅
W𝐗 VI Rank
Having a part time job makes me …
1. enhance my ability in applying skills in
3.81 Good 2
class.
2. easily understand the lesson. 3.57 Good 5
3. stimulate my desire to develop my
comprehension skills in every subject 3.76 Good 3.5
taken.
4. appreciate the teaching strategies of
4.24 Good 1
my teacher.
5. lessen difficulty coping the lesson. 3.76 Good 3.5
̅
Overall W𝐗 3.83 Good

Last in rank is “easily understand the lesson” with a weighted mean of

3.57 and interpreted as Good.

The data connote that the students believe that their comprehension ability were

improved and enhanced by taking part time job. This pertains that the students

were able to develop their ability in comprehension in the teaching- learning

process.

This supports the study of Angelo Dulas (2010) that the strategies to

determine the relationship between self-efficacy and academic performances on

Math and English subject of science high school students. The objectives are (a)

to find what level of self-efficacy do High school students have and (b) to explore

if there is gender difference among high school students in terms of their self-

efficacy and academic performance.


41

Table 10 presents the composite table on the level of performance of the

working students.

Table 10
Composite Table on the Level of Performance of the Working Students

Aspects W𝐗 ̅ VI Rank
Class Participation 3.82 Good 2
Task Performance 3.54 Good 3
Comprehension 3.83 Good 1
Composite W𝐗 ̅ 3.73 Good

The table depicts that on the level of performance of the working students,

the grand weighted mean obtained is 3.73 interpreted Good. First in rank is

comprehension with a weighted mean of 3.83 interpreted Good. Followed by

class participation as revealed by 4.72 weighted mean and interpreted as Good

also and lastly the task performance with a weighted mean of 3.54 and

interpreted as Good.

It could be deduced from the results that the respondents believe that their

level of performance are affected by their part time job. Findings imply that

having part time jobs is not a barrier to perform well and improve their other skills

that is related in school matters. The findings are in relation to the study of Rivera

(2007) that the interest and goals have been identified as two important

motivational constructs that influence student’s engagement and achievement in

learning. However, the bulk of research on motivation in physical educational

pedagogy emanates from achievement goal theories. Achievement goals have

been reported to have a weak influence in predicting both performance and


42

motivation outcomes. Interest, on the other hand, has been found to play a key

role in influencing student learning behavior and intention to participate in the

future.

The Significant Difference on the Level of Performance of the Working


Students as Perceived by Themselves with Respect to Class Participation,
Task Performance and Comprehension in Terms of Their Profile

Table 11 presents the computed F-values on the level of performance of

the working students as perceived by themselves with respect to the cited

aspects in terms of their profile.

The table reflects that in terms of age, sex, sibling position, father’s

educational attainment and monthly family income, the computed F-values

obtained probability values exceeding .05. This accepts the null hypothesis

which means that the age, sex, sibling position, father’s educational attainment

and monthly family income are not significant on the level of academic

performance of the working students on class participation, task performance

and comprehension.

On the contrary, in terms of mother’s educational attainment, the null

hypothesis is rejected since the computed F-values in all aspects obtained

probability values less than .05. This means that this variable is significant on the

level of academic performance of the working students on class participation,

task performance and comprehension


43

Table 11

Computed F-values on the Level of Performance of the Working Students as


Perceived by Themselves with Respect to the Cited Aspects in Terms of Their
Profile

Age Fcomp p-values Ho VI


Class Participation .459 .765 Accepted Not Significant
Task Performance 1.023 .425 Accepted Not Significant
Comprehension .348 .842 Accepted Not Significant
Sex Fcomp p-values Ho VI
Class Participation 1.058 .317 Accepted Not Significant
Task Performance .039 .846 Accepted Not Significant
Comprehension .013 .909 Accepted Not Significant
Sibling Position Fcomp p-values Ho VI
Class Participation 1.517 .246 Accepted Not Significant
Task Performance .514 .678 Accepted Not Significant
Comprehension 2.844 .069 Accepted Not Significant
Fathers’ Educational Attainment Fcomp p-values Ho VI
Class Participation .609 .662 Accepted Not Significant
Task Performance 2.081 .131 Accepted Not Significant
Comprehension .480 .750 Accepted Not Significant
Mothers’ Educational Attainment Fcomp p-values Ho VI
Class Participation 1.450 .263 Accepted Not Significant
Task Performance 2.946 .048 Rejected Significant
Comprehension 3.218 .036 Rejected Significant
Monthly Family Income Fcomp p-values Ho VI
Class Participation .074 .989 Accepted Not Significant
Task Performance 1.018 .427 Accepted Not Significant
Comprehension .847 .516 Accepted Not Significant

This implies that mother’s educational attainment is a factor on the level of

academic performance of the working students. This is in contradiction with the

ideas of Singh and Srivastava (2004) that the impact of parents‟ literacy on the

academic achievement on a sample of 85 first grade and 80 fifth grade students

of Punjab in India. Students‟ scores on an achievement test were taken as

measures of academic achievement of the students. The findings indicated that

parents‟ literacy had a positive relationship with younger students‟ academic

achievement.
44

Action Plan to Enhance the Level of Academic Performance of the Working

Students

Based on the findings, an action plan is proposed to enhance the level of

academic performance of the working students.


45

Chapter 5

SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

This chapter presents the summary of findings, conclusion drawn and

recommendation offered.

Summary of Findings

Based on the analysis and interpretation of data, the findings are hereby

summarized:

1. The Profile of Respondents

The student-respondents are mostly 18-20 years old and the

majority is females. As to siblings position, many of them are the eldest.

Many of them have a family monthly income of below 5,000 pesos. Their

parents’ educational attainment indicates that many are high school

graduate and some are college graduate.

2. The Level of Performance of the Working Students with Respect to


Class Participation, Task Performance and Comprehension
The level of performance of the working students with respect to

class participation, task performance and comprehension measures is

interpreted as Good.
46

3. The Significant Difference on the Level of Performance of the


Working Students as Perceived by Themselves with Respect to Class
Participation, Task Performance and Comprehension in Terms of Their
Profile
The test result accepted the null hypothesis stating the no significant

difference on the level of academic performance of the working students on class

participation, task performance and comprehension.

On the contrary, in terms of mother’s educational attainment, the null

hypothesis is rejected since the computed F-values in all aspects obtained

probability value less than .05. This means that this variable is significant on the

level of academic performance of the working students on class participation,

task performance and comprehension.

Conclusion

Based on the findings, the following conclusions are drawn:

1. There is no significant difference exist on the levels of academic

performance of the working students as perceived by themselves with respect to

class participation, task performance and comprehension in terms of their age,

sex, sibling position, fathers’ educational attainment and monthly family income

while there is a significant difference on the level of academic performance of the

working students as perceived by themselves with respect to class participation,

task performance and comprehension in terms of their mother’s educational

attainment.
47

Recommendations

In the light of findings, the following recommendations are hereby offered:

1. Working students should know how to balance their time.

2. A comprehensive policy, practice and new research summarizing the

state of knowledge and offering practical, evidence-based

recommendations must be established for further consciousness in

discipline for the nation’s students.

3. The proposed action plan is recommended for implementation.

4. Parallel studies along the line using other variables such as parents and

teachers perceptions may be conducted.