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©IFT _{O}_{F}
.WL'VL.''^.^
Class
\'
V
CHAUVENET'S
TREATISE ON
Elementary _{G}_{e}_{o}_{m}_{e}_{t}_{r}_{y}
REVISED AND _{A}_{B}_{R}_{I}_{D}_{G}_{E}_{D}
BY
W. E. BYERLY
PROFESSOR OF MATHEMATICS _{I}_{N} _{H}_{A}_{B}_{V}_{A}_{B}_{D} _{O}_{N}_{I}_{V}_{E}_{R}_{S}_{I}_{T}_{Y}
PHILADELPHIA
_{J}_{.} B. LIPPII^COTT _{C}_{O}_{M}_{P}_{A}_{N}_{Y}
1892.
'aift^^
>
as
_{C}_{o}_{p}_{y}_{r}_{i}_{g}_{h}_{t}_{,} _{1}_{8}_{8}_{7}_{,} _{b}_{y} _{J}_{.} B. LippIncott Compant.
3TER£OTYPERSAN0PRI!NT^s
]
ill'
PREFACE.
_{I}_{n} _{p}_{r}_{e}_{p}_{a}_{r}_{i}_{n}_{g} _{t}_{h}_{i}_{s} _{e}_{d}_{i}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n} _{o}_{f} Chauvenet's Geometry
_{I} _{h}_{a}_{v}_{e} endeavored to compel the student to think and _{t}_{o} _{r}_{e}_{a}_{s}_{o}_{n} _{f}_{o}_{r} _{h}_{i}_{m}_{s}_{e}_{l}_{f}_{,} _{a}_{n}_{d} _{I} _{h}_{a}_{v}_{e} _{t}_{r}_{i}_{e}_{d} _{t}_{o} emphasize the
_{f}_{a}_{c}_{t} _{t}_{h}_{a}_{t} _{h}_{e} _{s}_{h}_{o}_{u}_{l}_{d} _{n}_{o}_{t} merely learn to understand and _{d}_{e}_{m}_{o}_{n}_{s}_{t}_{r}_{a}_{t}_{e} _{a} _{f}_{e}_{w} _{s}_{e}_{t} propositions, hut that he should
acquire the power of grasping and proving any simple geometrical truth that may he set before him ; and this
_{p}_{o}_{w}_{e}_{r}_{,} _{i}_{t} _{m}_{u}_{s}_{t} _{b}_{e} remembered, can never _{b}_{e} _{g}_{a}_{i}_{n}_{e}_{d} _{b}_{y}
_{m}_{e}_{m}_{o}_{r}_{i}_{z}_{i}_{n}_{g} demonstrations. Systematic practice _{i}_{n} de
_{v}_{i}_{s}_{i}_{n}_{g} _{p}_{r}_{o}_{o}_{f}_{s} _{o}_{f} _{n}_{e}_{w} _{p}_{r}_{o}_{p}_{o}_{s}_{i}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{s} is indispensable.
_{O}_{n} this _{a}_{c}_{c}_{o}_{u}_{n}_{t} _{t}_{h}_{e} demonstrations of the main propo
sitions, which at first are full and complete, are gradually
more and more condensed, until at last they are some
times reduced _{t}_{o} mere hints, by the aid of which the full proof is _{t}_{o} be developed; and numerous additional
theorems and problems _{a}_{r}_{e} constantly _{g}_{i}_{v}_{e}_{n} _{a}_{s} _{e}_{x}_{e}_{r}_{c}_{i}_{s}_{e}_{s}
for practice in original work.
A syllabus, containing the axioms, _{t}_{h}_{e} _{p}_{o}_{s}_{t}_{u}_{l}_{a}_{t}_{e}_{s}_{,} _{a}_{n}_{d}
the captions of _{t}_{h}_{e} main theorems _{a}_{n}_{d} _{c}_{o}_{r}_{o}_{l}_{l}_{a}_{r}_{i}_{e}_{s}_{,} _{h}_{a}_{s}
been added to aid student and teacher _{i}_{n} _{r}_{e}_{v}_{i}_{e}_{w}_{s} _{a}_{n}_{d}
examinations, and to make the preparation _{o}_{f} _{n}_{e}_{w} _{p}_{r}_{o}_{o}_{f}_{s}
more easy and definite.
_{6}
ELEMENTS OF GEOMETRY.
In the order of the propositions I have departed _{c}_{o}_{n}_{} _{s}_{i}_{d}_{e}_{r}_{a}_{b}_{l}_{y} _{f}_{r}_{o}_{m} the larger Chauvenet's _{G}_{e}_{o}_{m}_{e}_{t}_{r}_{y}_{,} _{w}_{i}_{t}_{h}
the double object of simplifying the demonstrations
_{a}_{n}_{d} _{o}_{f} giving the student, as soon _{a}_{s} _{p}_{o}_{s}_{s}_{i}_{b}_{l}_{e}_{,} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{f}_{e}_{w}
_{t}_{h}_{e}_{o}_{r}_{e}_{m}_{s} which are the tools with _{w}_{h}_{i}_{c}_{h} _{h}_{e} _{m}_{u}_{s}_{t} _{m}_{o}_{s}_{t}
frequently work in geometrical investigation.
Teachers are strongly advised to require _{a}_{s} full and formal proofs of the corollaries _{a}_{n}_{d} _{e}_{x}_{e}_{r}_{c}_{i}_{s}_{e}_{s} _{a}_{s} _{o}_{f} _{t}_{h}_{e}
main propositions, and _{t}_{o} _{l}_{a}_{y} _{m}_{u}_{c}_{h} _{s}_{t}_{r}_{e}_{s}_{s} _{u}_{p}_{o}_{n} _{w}_{r}_{i}_{t}_{t}_{e}_{n}
demonstrations, _{w}_{h}_{i}_{c}_{h} _{s}_{h}_{o}_{u}_{l}_{d} _{b}_{e} _{a}_{r}_{r}_{a}_{n}_{g}_{e}_{d} _{a}_{s} _{i}_{n} _{t}_{h}_{e}
illustrations given _{a}_{t} _{t}_{h}_{e} end of Book I.
In preparing _{a} written exercise, or in passing _{a} _{w}_{r}_{i}_{t}_{t}_{e}_{n}
examination, _{t}_{h}_{e} student _{s}_{h}_{o}_{u}_{l}_{d} _{h}_{a}_{v}_{e} the syllabus _{b}_{e}_{f}_{o}_{r}_{e} him, and may then conveniently refer _{t}_{o} the propositions
by number. In oral recitation, however, he should quote
the full captions of the theorems _{o}_{n} which he bases _{h}_{i}_{s}
proof.
Cambridge, Mass., 1887.
_{W}_{.} E. BYEELY.
CONTENTS.
INTKODUCTION
PA OB
_{9}
PLANE GEOMETEY. BOOK I.
Rectilinear Figures
Exercises on Book _{1}
BOOK _{I}_{I}_{.}
_{1}_{2}
49
_{T}_{h}_{e} _{C}_{i}_{r}_{c}_{l}_{e}_{.} _{R}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{.} Incommensurables. _{D}_{o}_{c}_{t}_{r}_{i}_{n}_{e} _{o}_{f} _{L}_{i}_{m}_{i}_{t}_{s}_{.}
Measure of _{A}_{n}_{g}_{l}_{e}_{s}
Exercises on Book II
BOOK III.
_{5}_{5}
_{9}_{4}
Theory of Proportion. Proportional Lines. Similar Poly
gons
Exercises on Book III
BOOK IV.
Comparison and Measurement _{o}_{f} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{S}_{u}_{r}_{f}_{a}_{c}_{e}_{s} _{o}_{f} _{R}_{e}_{c}_{t}_{i}_{} linear Figures
Exercises on _{B}_{o}_{o}_{k} _{I}_{V}
BOOK _{V}_{.}
Regular Polygons. Measurement _{o}_{f} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{C}_{i}_{r}_{c}_{l}_{e}
Exercises _{o}_{n} _{B}_{o}_{o}_{k} _{V}
Miscellaneous Exercises on Plane Geometry
_{1}_{0}_{1}
125
_{1}_{3}_{0}
_{1}_{4}_{6}
149
_{1}_{6}_{9}
173
Syllabus of Plane Geometry. Postulates, Axioms, and
Theorems
182
7
_{8}
CONTENTS.
_{,}
GEOMETEY O^ SPACE.
BOOK VI.
PAGK
_{T}_{h}_{e} _{P}_{l}_{a}_{n}_{e}_{.} _{D}_{i}_{e}_{d}_{r}_{a}_{l} Angles. Polyedral _{A}_{n}_{g}_{l}_{e}_{s} 
_{1}_{9}_{5} 

Exercises on Book VI 
_{2}_{2}_{0} 

BOOK VII. 

POLYEDRONS 
_{2}_{2}_{4} 

Exercises on 
Book VII 
_{2}_{5}_{4} 

BOOK VIII. 

_{T}_{h}_{e} Three Bound Bodies. 
The _{C}_{y}_{l}_{i}_{n}_{d}_{e}_{r}_{.} 
_{T}_{h}_{e} _{C}_{o}_{n}_{e}_{.} 

The Sphere. Spherical Triangles. _{S}_{p}_{h}_{e}_{r}_{i}_{c}_{a}_{l} _{P}_{o}_{l}_{y}_{} 

gons 
_{2}_{5}_{7} 

Exercises on Book VIII 
_{2}_{8}_{7} 

BOOK IX. 

Measurement of the Three Bound Bodies 
290 

Exercises on Book IX 
308 

Miscellaneous Exercises on Solid Geometry 
_{3}_{0}_{9} 
Syllabus _{o}_{f} Propositions in Solid Geometry. Theorems _{.} 311
:
ELEMENTS OF GEOMETRY.
IKTEODUOTIOK
_{1}_{.} _{E}_{v}_{e}_{r}_{y} person possesses a conception of _{s}_{p}_{a}_{c}_{e} _{i}_{n}_{d}_{e}_{f}_{i}_{}
nitely _{e}_{x}_{t}_{e}_{n}_{d}_{e}_{d} _{i}_{n} all directions.
Material _{b}_{o}_{d}_{i}_{e}_{s} _{o}_{c}_{c}_{u}_{p}_{y}
finite, _{o}_{r} limited, portions _{o}_{f} _{s}_{p}_{a}_{c}_{e}_{.} The portion _{o}_{f} _{s}_{p}_{a}_{c}_{e} which a _{b}_{o}_{d}_{y} occupies can _{b}_{e} conceived _{a}_{s} abstracted _{f}_{r}_{o}_{m}
the matter _{o}_{f} which the body is composed, and _{i}_{s} _{c}_{a}_{l}_{l}_{e}_{d} _{a}
geometrical _{s}_{o}_{l}_{i}_{d}_{.}
called _{a} _{p}_{h}_{y}_{s}_{i}_{c}_{a}_{l} _{s}_{o}_{l}_{i}_{d}_{.} _{A} geometrical solid is, therefore,
merely the _{f}_{o}_{r}_{n}_{i}_{j} or _{f}_{i}_{g}_{u}_{r}_{e}_{,} of _{a} physical solid. In _{t}_{h}_{i}_{s} work,
since only geometrical solids will _{b}_{e} considered, _{w}_{e} _{s}_{h}_{a}_{l}_{l}_{,} _{f}_{o}_{r}
brevity, call them simply solids, and we shall define them formally, _{a}_{s} follows
The material body filling the space is
_{D}_{e}_{f}_{i}_{n}_{i}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{.} A solid is _{a} limited or bounded _{p}_{o}_{r}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n} _{o}_{f} _{s}_{p}_{a}_{c}_{e}_{,}
_{a}_{n}_{d} has length, breadth, and _{t}_{h}_{i}_{c}_{k}_{n}_{e}_{s}_{s}_{.}
_{2}_{,} The boundaries _{o}_{f} _{a} _{s}_{o}_{l}_{i}_{d} _{a}_{r}_{e} _{s}_{u}_{r}_{f}_{a}_{c}_{e}_{^}_{.}
Definition. A surface is that which hae length and breadth,
but no thickness. _{1}
_{I}_{f} _{a} surface is bounded, its _{b}_{o}_{u}_{n}_{d}_{a}_{r}_{i}_{e}_{s} _{a}_{r}_{e} _{l}_{i}_{r}_{^}_{e}_{s}_{.}
_{I}_{f} _{t}_{w}_{o} surfaces intersect, their _{i}_{n}_{t}_{e}_{r}_{s}_{e}_{c}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n} _{i}_{s} _{a} _{l}_{i}_{n}_{e}_{.}
_{D}_{e}_{f}_{i}_{n}_{i}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{.}
A line is that which has _{l}_{e}_{n}_{g}_{t}_{h}_{,} but neither
breadth nor thickness.
9
_{1}_{0}
ELEMENTS OF GEOMETRY.
If a line is terminated, it is terminated _{b}_{y} _{p}_{o}_{i}_{n}_{t}_{s}_{.}
If _{t}_{w}_{o} lines intersect, they intersect in _{a} _{p}_{o}_{i}_{n}_{t}_{.}
Definition. A point has position, but neither length, breadth,
nor thickness.
_{3}_{.} If _{w}_{e} suppose a _{p}_{o}_{i}_{n}_{t} to move in space, its _{p}_{a}_{t}_{h} _{w}_{i}_{l}_{l}
_{b}_{e} _{a} _{l}_{i}_{n}_{e}_{,} and it is often convenient to regard _{a} _{l}_{i}_{n}_{e} _{a}_{s} _{t}_{h}_{e}
path, or locus, of a moving point.
_{I}_{f} _{a} point starts to move from _{a} given _{p}_{o}_{s}_{i}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{,} _{i}_{t} _{m}_{u}_{s}_{t}
_{m}_{o}_{v}_{e} in some definite _{d}_{i}_{r}_{e}_{c}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{;} if it continues _{t}_{o} _{m}_{o}_{v}_{e} _{i}_{n}
the same direction, its path is a straight line.
If the direc
_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n} _{i}_{n} _{w}_{h}_{i}_{c}_{h} the point moves is continually changing, the
path is a curved line.
If a point moves along a line, it is said to describe the
line.
By the direction _{o}_{f} a line at any point we mean the direc
_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n} _{i}_{n} _{w}_{h}_{i}_{c}_{h} _{a} _{p}_{o}_{i}_{n}_{t} _{d}_{e}_{s}_{c}_{r}_{i}_{b}_{i}_{n}_{g} the line is moving when it
_{p}_{a}_{s}_{s}_{e}_{s} through _{t}_{h}_{e} point in question.
Definitions. A straight line is a line which
_{}_{f}
_{f}
has everywhere the same direction.
A curved line is one no portion of
which, _{h}_{o}_{w}_{e}_{v}_{e}_{r} short, is straight.
_{A} _{b}_{r}_{o}_{k}_{e}_{n} _{l}_{i}_{n}_{e} _{i}_{s} _{a} line composed of
different successive straight lines.
_{4}_{.} Definitions. A plane
surface, or
simply _{a} _{p}_{l}_{a}_{n}_{e}_{,} _{i}_{s} _{a} surface such that, if
any two _{p}_{o}_{i}_{n}_{t}_{s} in it are joined by a straight line, _{t}_{h}_{e} _{l}_{i}_{n}_{e} will lie wholly in
_{t}_{h}_{e} surface.
A curved _{s}_{u}_{r}_{f}_{a}_{c}_{e} is _{a} surface no portion _{o}_{f} which, however
_{s}_{m}_{a}_{l}_{l}_{,} is plane.
_{5}_{.} _{D}_{e}_{f}_{i}_{n}_{i}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{s}_{.} A _{g}_{e}_{o}_{m}_{e}_{t}_{r}_{i}_{c}_{a}_{l} _{f}_{i}_{g}_{u}_{r}_{e} _{i}_{s} any combination of
_{p}_{o}_{i}_{n}_{t}_{s}_{,} lines, surfaces, or _{s}_{o}_{l}_{i}_{d}_{s}_{,} formed under given condi
_{\}
INTRODUCTION.
_{1}_{1}
tions.
Figures formed by points _{a}_{n}_{d} _{l}_{i}_{n}_{e}_{s} _{i}_{n} _{a} _{p}_{l}_{a}_{n}_{e} _{a}_{r}_{e}
called plane _{f}_{i}_{g}_{u}_{r}_{e}_{s}_{.}
Those formed _{b}_{y} straight _{l}_{i}_{n}_{e}_{s} _{a}_{l}_{o}_{n}_{e}
are called rectilinear^ or rightlined^ figures; _{a} _{s}_{t}_{r}_{a}_{i}_{g}_{h}_{t} line being often called _{a} _{r}_{i}_{g}_{h}_{t} _{l}_{i}_{n}_{e}_{.}
_{6}_{.} _{D}_{e}_{f}_{i}_{n}_{i}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{s}_{.} Geometry may _{b}_{e} defined _{a}_{s} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{s}_{c}_{i}_{e}_{n}_{c}_{e} _{o}_{f}
extension and position.
More _{s}_{p}_{e}_{c}_{i}_{f}_{i}_{c}_{a}_{l}_{l}_{y}_{,} _{i}_{t} _{i}_{s} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{s}_{c}_{i}_{e}_{n}_{c}_{e}
which treats of the construction of figures under _{g}_{i}_{v}_{e}_{n} _{c}_{o}_{n}_{}
ditions, of their measurement and of their _{p}_{r}_{o}_{p}_{e}_{r}_{t}_{i}_{e}_{s}_{.}
Plane _{g}_{e}_{o}_{m}_{e}_{t}_{r}_{y} treats _{o}_{f} _{p}_{l}_{a}_{n}_{e} _{f}_{i}_{g}_{u}_{r}_{e}_{s}_{.} The consideration _{o}_{f} _{a}_{l}_{l} _{o}_{t}_{h}_{e}_{r} _{f}_{i}_{g}_{u}_{r}_{e}_{s} _{b}_{e}_{l}_{o}_{n}_{g}_{s} _{t}_{o} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{g}_{e}_{o}_{m}_{}
_{e}_{t}_{r}_{y} _{o}_{f} space, also called _{t}_{h}_{e} _{g}_{e}_{o}_{m}_{e}_{t}_{r}_{y} _{o}_{f} _{t}_{h}_{r}_{e}_{e} _{d}_{i}_{m}_{e}_{n}_{s}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{s}_{.}
_{7}_{.} Some terms of frequent use in geometry are here _{d}_{e}_{}
fined.
A _{t}_{h}_{e}_{o}_{r}_{e}_{m} is a truth requiring demonstration. A _{l}_{e}_{m}_{m}_{a}
_{i}_{s} _{a}_{n} _{a}_{u}_{x}_{i}_{l}_{i}_{a}_{r}_{y} _{t}_{h}_{e}_{o}_{r}_{e}_{m} employed in the demonstration _{o}_{f}
another _{t}_{h}_{e}_{o}_{r}_{e}_{m}_{.} A _{p}_{r}_{o}_{b}_{l}_{e}_{m} is _{a} question proposed for solu^
tion.
An _{a}_{x}_{i}_{o}_{m} _{i}_{s} _{a} _{t}_{r}_{u}_{t}_{h} assumed _{a}_{s} selfevident.
A _{p}_{o}_{s}_{t}_{u}_{}
_{l}_{a}_{t}_{e} _{(}_{i}_{n} _{g}_{e}_{o}_{m}_{e}_{t}_{r}_{y}_{)} _{a}_{s}_{s}_{u}_{m}_{e}_{s} _{t}_{h}_{e} possibility of the solution _{o}_{f}
some problem. Theorems, _{p}_{r}_{o}_{b}_{l}_{e}_{m}_{s}_{,} _{a}_{x}_{i}_{o}_{m}_{s}_{,} and postulates are all called
propositions.
A corollary is an immediate consequence deduced from one
_{o}_{r} more propositions. A _{s}_{c}_{h}_{o}_{l}_{i}_{u}_{m} is a remark upon one or
_{m}_{o}_{r}_{e} propositions, pointing _{o}_{u}_{t} their _{u}_{s}_{e}_{,} their connection, _{t}_{h}_{e}_{i}_{r} limitation, or their extension. _{A}_{n} _{h}_{y}_{p}_{o}_{t}_{h}_{e}_{s}_{i}_{s} is _{a} sup
position, made either in the _{e}_{n}_{u}_{n}_{c}_{i}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n} _{o}_{f} _{a} _{p}_{r}_{o}_{p}_{o}_{s}_{i}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n} _{o}_{r} in the course of _{a} demonstration.
_{P}_{L}_{A}_{N}_{E} GEOMETRY.
BOOK I
RECTILINEAR FIGURES.
ANGLES.
_{1}_{.} _{D}_{e}_{f}_{i}_{n}_{i}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{.}
_{A} _{j}_{p}_{l}_{a}_{n}_{e} _{a}_{n}_{g}_{l}_{e}_{^} _{o}_{r} simply
an
angle, is
the
amount _{o}_{f} divergence of two lines which meet in a point or
which would meet if _{p}_{r}_{o}_{d}_{u}_{c}_{e}_{d} _{(}_{i}_{.}_{e}_{.}_{,} prolonged).
The point is called the _{v}_{e}_{r}_{t}_{e}_{x} of the angle,
and the two lines the _{s}_{i}_{d}_{e}_{s} of the angle.
From the definition _{i}_{t} _{i}_{s} _{c}_{l}_{e}_{a}_{r} _{t}_{h}_{a}_{t} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{m}_{a}_{g}_{} nitude of an angle is independent _{o}_{f} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{l}_{e}_{n}_{g}_{t}_{h} _{o}_{f} _{i}_{t}_{s} sides. An isolated angle may be designated _{b}_{y} the letter at its vertex, as " the angle O;" but when several angles are formed at the same point _{b}_{y} different _{l}_{i}_{n}_{e}_{s}_{,} _{a}_{s} _{O}_{A}_{,} _{O}_{B}_{,}
OC, we designate the angle intended _{b}_{y} three
letters;
namely, by one letter _{o}_{n} _{e}_{a}_{c}_{h} _{o}_{f} its
sides, together with the
one
at
its vertex,
_{5}
_{y}_{C}_{^}_{'}_{^}_{^}
q—
_{}_{i}
which must be written _{b}_{e}_{t}_{w}_{e}_{e}_{n} the other _{t}_{w}_{o}_{.}
Thus, with these lines there are formed three different _{a}_{n}_{g}_{l}_{e}_{s}_{,} which are distinguished _{a}_{s} _{A}_{O}_{B}_{,} _{B}_{O}_{C}_{,} _{a}_{n}_{d} _{A}_{O}_{G}_{.}
Two angles, such as AOB, BOO, which have the _{s}_{a}_{m}_{e}
and a common side _{O}_{B} between them, are _{c}_{a}_{l}_{l}_{e}_{d}
vertex
adjacent.
12
BOOK I.
_{1}_{3}
_{2}_{.} _{D}_{e}_{f}_{i}_{n}_{i}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{s}_{.}
_{T}_{w}_{o} angles are equal when one can _{b}_{e}
_{s}_{u}_{p}_{e}_{r}_{p}_{o}_{s}_{e}_{d} _{u}_{p}_{o}_{n} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{o}_{t}_{h}_{e}_{r}_{,} _{s}_{o} that the vertices shall _{c}_{o}_{} _{i}_{n}_{c}_{i}_{d}_{e} _{a}_{n}_{d} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{s}_{i}_{d}_{e}_{s} _{o}_{f} _{t}_{h}_{e} first shall fall along _{t}_{h}_{e} _{s}_{i}_{d}_{e}_{s} _{o}_{f}
the second.
_{T}_{w}_{o} _{a}_{n}_{g}_{l}_{e}_{s} _{a}_{r}_{e} _{a}_{d}_{d}_{e}_{d} _{b}_{y} placing them in the _{s}_{a}_{m}_{e} _{p}_{l}_{a}_{n}_{e}
_{w}_{i}_{t}_{h} _{t}_{h}_{e}_{i}_{r} _{v}_{e}_{r}_{t}_{i}_{c}_{e}_{s} together and _{a} side in common, care being
_{t}_{a}_{k}_{e}_{n} _{t}_{h}_{a}_{t} neither _{o}_{f} the angles is superposed upon the _{o}_{t}_{h}_{e}_{r}_{.} _{T}_{h}_{e} angle _{f}_{o}_{r}_{m}_{e}_{d} _{b}_{y} the exterior sides of the two _{a}_{n}_{g}_{l}_{e}_{s} is their sum. _{3}_{.} _{A} clear notion of the magnitude of an angle will be _{o}_{b}_{t}_{a}_{i}_{n}_{e}_{d} _{b}_{y} supposing that _{o}_{n}_{e} of its sides, _{a}_{s} _{O}_{j}_{B}_{,} _{w}_{a}_{s} _{a}_{t}
_{f}_{i}_{r}_{s}_{t} _{c}_{o}_{i}_{n}_{c}_{i}_{d}_{e}_{n}_{t} with _{t}_{h}_{e} other side _{O}_{A}_{^} and
_{t}_{h}_{a}_{t} _{i}_{t} _{h}_{a}_{s} _{r}_{e}_{v}_{o}_{l}_{v}_{e}_{d} about the point
_{u}_{p}_{o}_{n}
(turning
_{a}_{s} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{l}_{e}_{g} _{o}_{f} _{a} pair _{o}_{f} dividers _{t}_{u}_{r}_{n}_{s}
_{u}_{p}_{o}_{n} _{i}_{t}_{s} hinge) until it has arrived at the posi
tion _{O}_{B}_{.} During this revolution the _{m}_{o}_{v}_{a}_{b}_{l}_{e} _{s}_{i}_{d}_{e} _{m}_{a}_{k}_{e}_{s}
with the fixed side a _{v}_{a}_{r}_{y}_{i}_{n}_{g} angle, which increases _{b}_{y} in
sensible degrees, that is, _{c}_{o}_{n}_{t}_{i}_{n}_{u}_{o}_{u}_{s}_{l}_{y} _{;} and the revolving line
By con«
is said to describe^ or to generate^ the angle AOB.
tinning the revolution, an angle _{o}_{f} any magnitude _{m}_{a}_{y} _{b}_{e} generated.
_{4}_{.} _{D}_{e}_{f}_{i}_{n}_{i}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{s}_{.} When one straight line meets another, _{s}_{o} as
to make two adjacent angles equal, each of _{t}_{h}_{e}_{s}_{e} angles is
called a right angle; and the first line _{i}_{s}
said to be perpendicular to the second.
Thus, if ^ 00 and BOC are equal angles,
each is _{a} right angle, _{a}_{n}_{d} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{l}_{i}_{n}_{e} _{C}_{O} _{i}_{s}
perpendicular _{t}_{o} _{A}_{B}_{.}
Intersecting lines not perpendicular _{a}_{r}_{e} _{s}_{a}_{i}_{d} _{t}_{o} _{b}_{e} _{o}_{b}_{l}_{i}_{q}_{u}_{e}
to each other. An acute angle is _{l}_{e}_{s}_{s} _{t}_{h}_{a}_{n} _{a} _{r}_{i}_{g}_{h}_{t} _{a}_{n}_{g}_{l}_{e}_{.}
An obtuse angle is greater than _{a} right angle.
2
;
_{1}_{4} ELEMENTS OF GEOMETRY.
_{5}_{.} _{D}_{e}_{f}_{i}_{n}_{i}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{.} _{T}_{w}_{o} straight lines lying in _{t}_{h}_{e} _{s}_{a}_{m}_{e} plane
_{a}_{n}_{d} _{f}_{o}_{r}_{m}_{i}_{n}_{g} _{n}_{o} _{a}_{n}_{g}_{l}_{e} with _{e}_{a}_{c}_{h} other—that is, _{t}_{w}_{o} straight
_{l}_{i}_{n}_{e}_{s} in the same plane which will _{n}_{o}_{t} meet, _{h}_{o}_{w}_{e}_{v}_{e}_{r} far
produced—are parallel.
TKIANGLES.
_{6}_{.} _{D}_{e}_{f}_{i}_{n}_{i}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{s}_{.} A plane triangle is _{a} portion _{o}_{f} _{a} plane
_{b}_{o}_{u}_{n}_{d}_{e}_{d} _{b}_{y} three intersecting straight _{l}_{i}_{n}_{e}_{s}_{;} _{a}_{s} _{A} _{5}_{0}_{.} The
_{s}_{i}_{d}_{e}_{s} _{o}_{f} _{t}_{h}_{e} triangle are the _{p}_{o}_{r}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{s} _{o}_{f} _{t}_{h}_{e}
_{b}_{o}_{u}_{n}_{d}_{i}_{n}_{g} lines included between _{t}_{h}_{e} _{p}_{o}_{i}_{n}_{t}_{s} _{o}_{f}
intersection; viz., AB, _{B}_{C}_{,} _{C}_{A}_{.}
_{T}_{h}_{e} _{a}_{n}_{g}_{l}_{e}_{s}
_{o}_{f} _{t}_{h}_{e} triangle are the angles _{f}_{o}_{r}_{m}_{e}_{d} _{b}_{y} _{t}_{h}_{e}
_{s}_{i}_{d}_{e}_{s} _{w}_{i}_{t}_{h} each other; viz., _{C}_{A}_{B}_{,} _{A}_{B}_{C}_{,} _{B}_{C}_{A}_{.}
_{T}_{h}_{e} _{t}_{h}_{r}_{e}_{e}
_{a}_{n}_{g}_{u}_{l}_{a}_{r} points. _{A}_{,} _{B}_{,} _{C}_{,} which _{a}_{r}_{e} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{v}_{e}_{r}_{t}_{i}_{c}_{e}_{s} _{o}_{f} _{t}_{h}_{e} angles,
_{a}_{r}_{e} _{a}_{l}_{s}_{o} called the vertices of the triangle.
_{I}_{f} _{a} _{s}_{i}_{d}_{e} _{o}_{f} _{a} _{t}_{r}_{i}_{a}_{n}_{g}_{l}_{e} _{i}_{s} produced, the angle _{w}_{h}_{i}_{c}_{h} _{t}_{h}_{e} prolongation makes with the adja
_{c}_{e}_{n}_{t} _{s}_{i}_{d}_{e} _{i}_{s} called an exterior angle ; as A CD.
_{A} _{t}_{r}_{i}_{a}_{n}_{g}_{l}_{e} is called scalene (ABC) when no two of its _{s}_{i}_{d}_{e}_{s}
are equal _{;} isosceles (DEF) when two of its sides are equal
_{e}_{q}_{u}_{i}_{l}_{a}_{t}_{e}_{r}_{a}_{l} _{{}_{G}_{U}_{I}_{)} _{w}_{h}_{e}_{n} _{i}_{t}_{s} three sides are _{e}_{q}_{u}_{a}_{l}_{.}
A right triangle is one which has _{a} right angle ; as MNP,
which is rightangled at ]V.
The side _{M}_{P}_{,} opposite to the
_{r}_{i}_{g}_{h}_{t} angle, is called the _{h}_{y}_{p}_{o}_{t}_{e}_{n}_{u}_{s}_{e}_{.} _{T}_{h}_{e} _{b}_{a}_{s}_{e} _{o}_{f} _{a} triangle is _{t}_{h}_{e} _{s}_{i}_{d}_{e} _{u}_{p}_{o}_{n} which it is supposed
BOOK I.
;
15
_{t}_{o} _{s}_{t}_{a}_{n}_{d}_{.} _{I}_{n} general, any side may be assumed as the base _{b}_{u}_{t} _{i}_{n} _{a}_{n} _{i}_{s}_{o}_{s}_{c}_{e}_{l}_{e}_{s} triangle BEF^ whose sides DE and DF _{a}_{r}_{e} _{e}_{q}_{u}_{a}_{l}_{,} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{t}_{h}_{i}_{r}_{d} _{s}_{i}_{d}_{e} _{E}_{F} _{i}_{s} _{a}_{l}_{w}_{a}_{y}_{s} _{c}_{a}_{l}_{l}_{e}_{d} the base.
_{W}_{h}_{e}_{n} _{a}_{n}_{y} _{s}_{i}_{d}_{e} _{^}_{(}_{7} _{o}_{f} _{a} triangle has been adopted as the
_{b}_{a}_{s}_{e}_{,} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{a}_{n}_{g}_{l}_{e} _{B}_{A} _{G} opposite to it is* called
the vertical angle, and its angular point A _{t}_{h}_{e} _{v}_{e}_{r}_{t}_{e}_{x} _{o}_{f} _{t}_{h}_{e} triangle. The perpen
dicular AD let fall from the vertex upon _{t}_{h}_{e} _{b}_{a}_{s}_{e} _{i}_{s} _{t}_{h}_{e}_{n} _{c}_{a}_{l}_{l}_{e}_{d} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{a}_{l}_{t}_{i}_{t}_{u}_{d}_{e} of the triangle.
_{7}_{.} _{D}_{e}_{f}_{i}_{n}_{i}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{.} _{E}_{q}_{u}_{a}_{l} _{f}_{i}_{g}_{u}_{r}_{e}_{s} _{a}_{r}_{e} figures which _{c}_{a}_{n} _{b}_{e} _{m}_{a}_{d}_{e}
_{t}_{o} _{c}_{o}_{i}_{n}_{c}_{i}_{d}_{e} _{t}_{h}_{r}_{o}_{u}_{g}_{h}_{o}_{u}_{t} _{i}_{f} _{o}_{n}_{e} _{i}_{s} properly superposed _{u}_{p}_{o}_{n}
_{t}_{h}_{e} other.
_{E}_{o}_{u}_{g}_{h}_{l}_{y} _{s}_{p}_{e}_{a}_{k}_{i}_{n}_{g}_{,} _{e}_{q}_{u}_{a}_{l} _{f}_{i}_{g}_{u}_{r}_{e}_{s} _{a}_{r}_{e} figures of the same
_{s}_{i}_{z}_{e} _{a}_{n}_{d} _{o}_{f} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{s}_{a}_{m}_{e} _{s}_{h}_{a}_{p}_{e} _{;}
_{e}_{q}_{u}_{i}_{v}_{a}_{l}_{e}_{n}_{t} figures are of the
_{s}_{a}_{m}_{e} _{s}_{i}_{z}_{e} _{b}_{u}_{t} _{n}_{o}_{t} _{o}_{f} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{s}_{a}_{m}_{e} shape;
and similar figures
are of the same shape but not of the same size.
POSTULATES AND AXIOMS.
_{8}_{.} Postulate I. Through any two given points one straight
line, and only one, can be drawn.
Postulate II. Through a given point _{o}_{n}_{e} straight line, and
only one, can be drawn having any given direction.
_{9}_{.} Axiom I. A straight line is the shortest line that can
_{b}_{e} drawn between two _{p}_{o}_{i}_{n}_{t}_{s}_{.}
Axiom II. Parallel lines have the _{s}_{a}_{m}_{e} direction.
16
ELEMENTS _{O}_{F} _{G}_{E}_{O}_{M}_{E}_{T}_{E}_{Y}_{.}
PROPOSITION I.—THEOREM.
10. At a given point in a straight line one perpendicular _{t}_{o}
the line can be drawn, and but _{o}_{n}_{e}_{.}
Let
be the given point _{i}_{n} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{l}_{i}_{n}_{e} _{A}_{B}_{.}
Suppose a line
OD, constantly _{p}_{a}_{s}_{s}_{i}_{n}_{g} _{t}_{h}_{r}_{o}_{u}_{g}_{h} _{0}_{,} _{t}_{o}
revolve about _{0}_{,} starting from _{t}_{h}_{e} _{p}_{o}_{s}_{i}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n} _{O}_{A} _{a}_{n}_{d} _{s}_{t}_{o}_{p}_{p}_{i}_{n}_{g} _{a}_{t} the position _{O}_{B}_{.}
_{T}_{h}_{e} angle which _{0}_{1}_{)} _{m}_{a}_{k}_{e}_{s} _{w}_{i}_{t}_{h} _{O}_{A} _{w}_{i}_{l}_{l} _{a}_{t} _{f}_{i}_{r}_{s}_{t} _{b}_{e} _{l}_{e}_{s}_{s}
than the angle which it makes with OB, and will eventually become greater than _{t}_{h}_{e} _{a}_{n}_{g}_{l}_{e} _{m}_{a}_{d}_{e} _{w}_{i}_{t}_{h}
OB.
Since the angle DOA increases continu
ously _{(}_{3}_{)}_{,} the line OB must _{p}_{a}_{s}_{s} through
one position
m which the angles _{D}_{O}_{A} _{a}_{n}_{d}
DOB are equal.
_{L}_{e}_{t}
OC he this position.
_{^}
D
BOA
]/_
j
/
_{T}_{h}_{e}_{n} _{0}_{(}_{7} _{i}_{s}
perpendicular _{t}_{o} _{^}_{j}_{B} _{b}_{y} _{(}_{4}_{)}_{.}_{*} There can be no other perpendicular _{t}_{o} _{A}_{B} _{a}_{t} _{0}_{,} _{f}_{o}_{r} _{i}_{f} OD is revolved from the position 0(7 by the slightest _{a}_{m}_{o}_{u}_{n}_{t}
in either direction, one of the adjacent angles _{w}_{i}_{l}_{l} _{b}_{e} in
creased at the expense of the other, and they will _{c}_{e}_{a}_{s}_{e} _{t}_{o}
be equal.
_{1}_{1}_{.} Corollary. _{T}_{h}_{r}_{o}_{u}_{g}_{h} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{v}_{e}_{r}_{t}_{e}_{x} _{o}_{f} any given angle one
line can be drawn bisecting _{t}_{h}_{e} angle, and but one.
Suggestion. Suppose _{a} line _{O}_{D} _{t}_{o} _{r}_{e}_{v}_{o}_{l}_{v}_{e}
about O, as in the proof just given.
* An Arabic numeral alone refers to an article in the same Book ; but
_{i}_{n} referring to articles in _{a}_{n}_{o}_{t}_{h}_{e}_{r} _{B}_{o}_{o}_{k}_{,} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{n}_{u}_{m}_{b}_{e}_{r} _{o}_{f} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{B}_{o}_{o}_{k} _{i}_{s} _{a}_{l}_{s}_{o}
given.
V,
BOOK I.
_{1}_{7}
PROPOSITION II.—THEOREM.
_{1}_{2}_{.} All _{r}_{i}_{g}_{h}_{t} angles are equal.
Let AOG and AIQfC be any two right _{a}_{n}_{g}_{l}_{e}_{s}_{.}
Superpose A'CfC upon AOC^
placing the point
_{p}_{o}_{i}_{n}_{t}
_{(}_{J} upon the
_{a}_{n}_{d} making the line _{C}_{/}_{A}_{'}
fall along the line OA; then _{w}_{i}_{l}_{l}
_{O}_{C} coincide with _{0}_{0}_{,} _{f}_{o}_{r} _{o}_{t}_{h}_{e}_{r}_{}
5
B'
(y
_{w}_{i}_{s}_{e} _{w}_{e} should have _{t}_{w}_{o} _{p}_{e}_{r}_{p}_{e}_{n}_{} diculars to the line AB at the same point _{0}_{,} which, _{b}_{y} Propo
sition I., is impossible.
The angles A'C/C and AOC are then equal _{b}_{y} definition _{(}_{2}_{)}_{.}
_{P}_{R}_{O}_{P}_{O}_{S}_{I}_{T}_{I}_{O}_{N} III.—THEOREM.
_{1}_{3}_{.} _{T}_{h}_{e} _{t}_{w}_{o} _{a}_{d}_{j}_{a}_{c}_{e}_{n}_{t} angles _{w}_{h}_{i}_{c}_{h} one straight line makes
with another are together equal to two right angles.
_{I}_{f} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{t}_{w}_{o} _{a}_{n}_{g}_{l}_{e}_{s} _{a}_{r}_{e} _{e}_{q}_{u}_{a}_{l}_{,} they are right angles by _{d}_{e}_{f}_{i}_{n}_{i}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n} _{(}_{4}_{)}_{,} _{a}_{n}_{d} _{n}_{o} _{p}_{r}_{o}_{o}_{f} is necessary. _{I}_{f} _{t}_{h}_{e}_{y} _{a}_{r}_{e} _{n}_{o}_{t} _{e}_{q}_{u}_{a}_{l}_{,} _{a}_{s} _{A}_{O}_{D} _{a}_{n}_{d} _{B}_{O}_{D}_{,} still the sum of
_{A}_{O}_{D} _{a}_{n}_{d} _{B}_{O}_{B} _{i}_{s} _{e}_{q}_{u}_{a}_{l} _{t}_{o} _{t}_{w}_{o} right angles.
_{L}_{e}_{t} _{O}_{C} _{b}_{e} _{d}_{r}_{a}_{w}_{n} _{a}_{t} AB.
perpendicular to
The angle AOD is the sum of the two
angles AOC and COD _{(}_{2}_{)}_{.}
Adding the
angle BOD, the sum of the two angles _{A}_{O}_{D} _{a}_{n}_{d} _{B}_{O}_{D} _{i}_{s} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{s}_{u}_{m} _{o}_{f} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{t}_{h}_{r}_{e}_{e} angles AOC, COD,
and BOD.
_{T}_{h}_{e} _{f}_{i}_{r}_{s}_{t} _{o}_{f} _{t}_{h}_{e}_{s}_{e} _{t}_{h}_{r}_{e}_{e} _{i}_{s} _{a} right angle, and the other two
_{a}_{r}_{e} _{t}_{o}_{g}_{e}_{t}_{h}_{e}_{r} _{e}_{q}_{u}_{a}_{l} _{t}_{o} _{t}_{h}_{e} right angle _{B}_{O}_{C} _{;} hence the sum _{o}_{f} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{a}_{n}_{g}_{l}_{e}_{s} _{A}_{O}_{D} _{a}_{n}_{d} _{B}_{O}_{D} is equal to _{t}_{w}_{o} right angles.
_{1}_{8}
ELEMENTS OF GEOMETRY.
_{1}_{4}_{.} Corollary I. _{T}_{h}_{e} _{s}_{u}_{m} _{o}_{f} _{a}_{l}_{l}
angles having a common vertex^ and
formed on one side _{o}_{f} a straight line, is two right angles.
^
_{1}_{5}_{.} Corollary II. _{T}_{h}_{e} _{s}_{u}_{m} _{o}_{f} _{a}_{l}_{l}
the angles that can _{b}_{e} _{f}_{o}_{r}_{m}_{e}_{d} _{a}_{b}_{o}_{u}_{t}
a point
angles.
_{i}_{n}
a plane
_{i}_{s} _{f}_{o}_{u}_{r}
_{r}_{i}_{g}_{h}_{t}
EXERCISE.
Theorem. ^{—} _{I}_{f} a line is perpendicular to a second _{l}_{i}_{n}_{e}_{,} then
reciprocally the second line is perpendicular _{t}_{o} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{f}_{i}_{r}_{s}_{t}_{.}
_{1}_{6}_{.} Definition. When the sum _{o}_{f} _{t}_{w}_{o} _{a}_{n}_{g}_{l}_{e}_{s} _{i}_{s} _{e}_{q}_{u}_{a}_{l} _{t}_{o} _{a} right angle, each is called _{t}_{h}_{e} _{c}_{o}_{m}_{p}_{l}_{e}_{m}_{e}_{n}_{t}
of the other.
Thus, J) 0(7 is the comple
ment of A ODj and A OD is the complement
of DOC.
When the sum of _{t}_{w}_{o} _{a}_{n}_{g}_{l}_{e}_{s} _{i}_{s} _{e}_{q}_{u}_{a}_{l} _{t}_{o}
_{b}
two right angles, each is called the supple
_{m}_{e}_{n}_{t} of the other. Thus, _{B}_{O}_{D} is the supplement of _{A}_{O}_{D}_{,}
and _{A}_{O}_{D} is the supplement of _{B}_{O}_{D}_{.}
It is evident _{t}_{h}_{a}_{t} _{t}_{h}_{e} complements of equal angles are equal to each other _{;} and also that the supplements of equal angles are equal to each other.
:
BOOK I.
:
19
PROPOSITION IV.—THEOREM
_{1}_{7}_{.} _{I}_{f} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{s}_{u}_{m} _{o}_{f} two adjacent angles is equal to _{t}_{w}_{o} _{r}_{i}_{g}_{h}_{t}
_{a}_{n}_{g}_{l}_{e}_{s}_{^} _{t}_{h}_{e}_{i}_{r} _{e}_{x}_{t}_{e}_{r}_{i}_{o}_{r} _{s}_{i}_{d}_{e}_{s} are in the same _{s}_{t}_{r}_{a}_{i}_{g}_{h}_{t} line.
_{L}_{e}_{t} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{s}_{u}_{m} _{o}_{f} the adjacent angles _{A}_{O}_{D}_{^} _{B}_{O}_{D}_{,} _{b}_{e} _{e}_{q}_{u}_{a}_{l}
_{t}_{o} _{t}_{w}_{o} right angles ; then OA and OB are
in _{t}_{h}_{e} _{s}_{a}_{m}_{e} straight line.
_{F}_{o}_{r} _{B}_{O}_{D} is the supplement _{o}_{f} _{A} _{0}_{2}_{)}_{,}
_{a}_{n}_{d} _{i}_{s} therefore identical with the _{a}_{n}_{g}_{l}_{e}
which OD makes with the prolongation of _{^}
TIL).
(Proposition
Therefore _{O}_{B} and the prolongation _{o}_{f} _{A}_{O} _{a}_{r}_{e} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{s}_{a}_{m}_{e}
line.
_{1}_{8}_{.} Every proposition _{c}_{o}_{n}_{s}_{i}_{s}_{t}_{s} _{o}_{f} _{a}_{n} _{h}_{y}_{p}_{o}_{t}_{h}_{e}_{s}_{i}_{s} _{a}_{n}_{d} _{a} _{c}_{o}_{n}_{}
clusion. The converse of _{a} proposition _{i}_{s} _{a} _{s}_{e}_{c}_{o}_{n}_{d} _{p}_{r}_{o}_{p}_{o}_{s}_{i}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}
of which the hypothesis and conclusion are respectively the
conclusion and hypothesis _{o}_{f} the first. _{F}_{o}_{r} _{e}_{x}_{a}_{m}_{p}_{l}_{e}_{,} _{P}_{r}_{o}_{p}_{O}_{'} sition III. may _{b}_{e} enunciated _{t}_{h}_{u}_{s}
Hypothesis—if two adjacent _{a}_{n}_{g}_{l}_{e}_{s} _{h}_{a}_{v}_{e} _{t}_{h}_{e}_{i}_{r} exterior
sides in the same straight line, then
_{C}_{o}_{n}_{c}_{l}_{u}_{s}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{—}_{t}_{h}_{e} _{s}_{u}_{m}
of these adjacent angles is equal _{t}_{o} _{t}_{w}_{o} _{r}_{i}_{g}_{h}_{t} _{a}_{n}_{g}_{l}_{e}_{s}_{.} And Proposition TV. may _{b}_{e} _{e}_{n}_{u}_{n}_{c}_{i}_{a}_{t}_{e}_{d} _{t}_{h}_{u}_{s} Hypothesis—if the sum of two adjacent _{a}_{n}_{g}_{l}_{e}_{s} _{i}_{s} _{e}_{q}_{u}_{a}_{l} _{t}_{o}
two right angles, then
have their exterior sides in _{t}_{h}_{e} _{s}_{a}_{m}_{e} _{s}_{t}_{r}_{a}_{i}_{g}_{h}_{t} _{l}_{i}_{n}_{e}_{.}
Conclusion—these _{a}_{d}_{j}_{a}_{c}_{e}_{n}_{t} _{a}_{n}_{g}_{l}_{e}_{s}
Each of these propositions is, _{t}_{h}_{e}_{r}_{e}_{f}_{o}_{r}_{e}_{,} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{c}_{o}_{n}_{v}_{e}_{r}_{s}_{e} _{o}_{f} _{t}_{h}_{e}
other.
A proposition _{a}_{n}_{d} _{i}_{t}_{s} _{c}_{o}_{n}_{v}_{e}_{r}_{s}_{e} _{a}_{r}_{e}_{,} _{h}_{o}_{w}_{e}_{v}_{e}_{r}_{,} _{n}_{o}_{t} _{a}_{l}_{w}_{a}_{y}_{s}
_{b}_{o}_{t}_{h} true.
20
ELEMENTS OF GEOMETRY.
PROPOSITION v.—THEOREM.
_{1}_{9}_{.} _{I}_{f} two straight _{l}_{i}_{n}_{e}_{s} _{i}_{n}_{t}_{e}_{r}_{s}_{e}_{c}_{t} _{e}_{a}_{c}_{h} _{o}_{t}_{h}_{e}_{r}_{,} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{o}_{p}_{p}_{o}_{s}_{i}_{t}_{e} _{(}_{o}_{r}
vertical) angles _{a}_{r}_{e} _{e}_{q}_{u}_{a}_{l}_{.}
Let AB and CD intersect _{i}_{n}
B
_{;} _{t}_{h}_{e}_{n} _{w}_{i}_{l}_{l}
the opposite, or vertical, _{a}_{n}_{g}_{l}_{e}_{s} _{A}_{O}_{G} _{a}_{n}_{d}
_{B}_{O}_{D} be equal.
For each of these _{a}_{n}_{g}_{l}_{e}_{s} _{i}_{s}_{,} _{b}_{y} _{P}_{r}_{o}_{p}_{o}_{s}_{i}_{}
tion III., the supplement _{o}_{f} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{s}_{a}_{m}_{e} _{a}_{n}_{g}_{l}_{e} _{B}_{O}_{C}_{,} _{a}_{n}_{d} _{h}_{e}_{n}_{c}_{e}_{,}
they are equal _{(}_{1}_{6}_{)}_{.}
In like manner it can be proved that the opposite angles
AOD and BOC are equal.
EXERCISES. 1. Theorem. ^{—} The line which bisects one _{o}_{f} _{t}_{w}_{o} vertical angles
bisects the other.
2. Theorem. — The
_{s}_{t}_{r}_{a}_{i}_{g}_{h}_{t} _{l}_{i}_{n}_{e}_{s} _{w}_{h}_{i}_{c}_{h}
bisect a pair _{o}_{f} adjacent _{a}_{n}_{g}_{l}_{e}_{s} _{f}_{o}_{r}_{m}_{e}_{d}
by two intersecting _{s}_{t}_{r}_{a}_{i}_{g}_{h}_{t} _{l}_{i}_{n}_{e}_{s} _{a}_{r}_{e} _{p}_{e}_{r}_{}
pendicular to each _{o}_{t}_{h}_{e}_{r}_{.}
_{S}_{u}_{g}_{g}_{e}_{s}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{.} Prove EOH = FOH.
Q
_{P}_{R}_{O}_{P}_{O}_{S}_{I}_{T}_{I}_{O}_{N} VI.—THEOREM.
_{2}_{0}_{.} _{T}_{w}_{o} _{t}_{r}_{i}_{a}_{n}_{g}_{l}_{e}_{s} _{a}_{r}_{e} equal when _{t}_{w}_{o} _{s}_{i}_{d}_{e}_{s} _{a}_{n}_{d} _{t}_{h}_{e} included _{a}_{n}_{g}_{l}_{e} _{o}_{f} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{o}_{n}_{e} _{a}_{r}_{e} _{r}_{e}_{s}_{p}_{e}_{c}_{t}_{i}_{v}_{e}_{l}_{y} equal to two sides and the included _{a}_{n}_{g}_{l}_{e} _{o}_{f} _{t}_{h}_{e} other.
In the triangles _{A}_{B}_{C}_{,} DEF,
'
_{l}_{e}_{t} _{A}_{B} _{b}_{e} equal to DE, _{B}_{C} to
.X*
D
AD
and the included
angle _{B} equal _{t}_{o} _{t}_{h}_{e}
included angle E; _{t}_{h}_{e}_{n}
the triangles are equal.
EF,
_{B}
_{C}
E
_{F} F
E
For, superpose _{t}_{h}_{e}
triangle ABC upon the triangle _{D}_{E}_{F}_{,} placing _{t}_{h}_{e} _{p}_{o}_{i}_{n}_{t} _{B}
BOOK I.
_{2}_{1}
_{u}_{p}_{o}_{n} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{p}_{o}_{i}_{n}_{t} _{E}_{,} _{a}_{n}_{d} making the side BC fall along the
_{s}_{i}_{d}_{e} _{E}_{F}_{.} _{T}_{h}_{e}_{n}_{,} _{s}_{i}_{n}_{c}_{e} _{J}_{5}_{(}_{7} is equal to EF by hypothesis, the
_{p}_{o}_{i}_{n}_{t} _{G} _{w}_{i}_{l}_{l} fall upon the point F. _{S}_{i}_{n}_{c}_{e} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{a}_{n}_{g}_{l}_{e} _{B} _{i}_{s} _{e}_{q}_{u}_{a}_{l} _{t}_{o} the angle E^ and the _{s}_{i}_{d}_{e}
_{B}_{G} _{h}_{a}_{s} _{b}_{e}_{e}_{n} _{m}_{a}_{d}_{e} _{t}_{o} coincide with the side EF^ _{B}_{A} must
_{f}_{a}_{l}_{l}
_{a}_{l}_{o}_{n}_{g} _{E}_{D}_{^} _{b}_{y} definition _{(}_{2}_{)} ; and, as BA is equal to ED^
_{t}_{h}_{e} _{p}_{o}_{i}_{n}_{t} _{A} _{w}_{i}_{l}_{l} fall on the point D.
_{S}_{i}_{n}_{c}_{e} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{p}_{o}_{i}_{n}_{t} _{G} _{h}_{a}_{s} _{b}_{e}_{e}_{n} proved to coincide with the
point _{F}_{^} and the point A with the point D, the side GA must _{c}_{o}_{i}_{n}_{c}_{i}_{d}_{e} with the side FD^ by Postulate I. _{(}_{8}_{)}_{.}
_{T}_{h}_{e} _{t}_{w}_{o} _{t}_{r}_{i}_{a}_{n}_{g}_{l}_{e}_{s} _{h}_{a}_{v}_{e} now been proved _{t}_{o} coincide
throughout, and are equal, by definition _{(}_{7}_{)}_{.}
_{2}_{1}_{.}
_{S}_{c}_{h}_{o}_{l}_{i}_{u}_{m}_{.} When _{t}_{w}_{o} triangles are equal, the equal
angles _{a}_{r}_{e} opposite _{t}_{o} the equal sides.
PROPOSITION VII.—THEOREM.
_{2}_{2}_{.} Two triangles are equal when a side and the two adjacent
angles _{o}_{f} the one are respectively _{e}_{q}_{u}_{a}_{l} _{t}_{o} _{a} _{s}_{i}_{d}_{e} _{a}_{n}_{d} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{t}_{w}_{o}
adjacent angles _{o}_{f} the _{o}_{t}_{h}_{e}_{r}_{.}
In the triangles _{A}_{B}_{G}_{,} _{D}_{E}_{F}_{,} _{l}_{e}_{t} _{B}_{G} _{b}_{e} _{e}_{q}_{u}_{a}_{l} _{t}_{o} _{E}_{F}_{,} _{a}_{n}_{d}
let the angles B and G adjacent to BGhe respectively _{e}_{q}_{u}_{a}_{l} _{t}_{o} the angles _{E} _{a}_{n}_{d} _{F}
adjacent _{t}_{o} _{E}_{F}_{;} _{t}_{h}_{e}_{n}
the triangles _{a}_{r}_{e} _{e}_{q}_{u}_{a}_{l}_{.}
\ \
C
E
\
For,
1.^^
superpose _{t}_{h}_{e}
\
^{B}
'''
E
/
triangle
ABG upon _{t}_{h}_{e}
,
F F
triangle BEF, placing the point _{B} _{u}_{p}_{o}_{n} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{p}_{o}_{i}_{n}_{t} _{E}_{,} _{a}_{n}_{d}
making the side BG fall along _{t}_{h}_{e} _{s}_{i}_{d}_{e} _{E}_{F}_{.}
Since J5(7 is equal to EF, the point G will fall _{u}_{p}_{o}_{n} _{t}_{h}_{e} point _{F}_{.}
Since the angle B is equal to the angle E, by hypothesis,
22
ELEMENTS OF GEOMETRY.
and the side _{5}_{(}_{7} has been made _{t}_{o} _{c}_{o}_{i}_{n}_{c}_{i}_{d}_{e} _{w}_{i}_{t}_{h} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{s}_{i}_{d}_{e} _{E}_{F}_{^}
_{B}_{A} must fall along _{E}_{D}_{^} _{a}_{n}_{d} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{p}_{o}_{i}_{n}_{t} _{A} _{w}_{i}_{l}_{l} _{f}_{a}_{l}_{l} _{s}_{o}_{m}_{e}_{w}_{h}_{e}_{r}_{e}
on the side _{E}_{D}_{,} or _{o}_{n} that _{s}_{i}_{d}_{e} _{e}_{x}_{t}_{e}_{n}_{d}_{e}_{d}_{.}
Since the angle G is equal to the angle P, by hypothesis,
and _{B}_{C} coincides with EF^ CA must fall along _{F}_{D}_{,} _{a}_{n}_{d} _{t}_{h}_{e}
_{p}_{o}_{i}_{n}_{t} _{A} will fall somewhere on _{t}_{h}_{e} _{l}_{i}_{n}_{e} _{F}_{D}_{,} _{o}_{r} _{o}_{n} _{t}_{h}_{a}_{t} _{l}_{i}_{n}_{e} extended.
Since _{A} has been proved to lie _{u}_{p}_{o}_{n} _{E}_{D}_{,} _{a}_{n}_{d} _{a}_{l}_{s}_{o} _{u}_{p}_{o}_{n}
_{F}_{D}_{,} _{i}_{t} _{m}_{u}_{s}_{t} coincide with the only _{p}_{o}_{i}_{n}_{t} _{t}_{h}_{e}_{y} _{h}_{a}_{v}_{e} _{i}_{n} _{c}_{o}_{m}_{}
_{m}_{o}_{n}_{,} _{t}_{h}_{e} point D.
_{H}_{e}_{n}_{c}_{e} the triangles coincide throughout, and are equal.
PEOPOSITION VIII.—THEOREM.
_{2}_{3}_{.} In an isosceles triangle the angles opposite the equal sides
_{a}_{r}_{e} equal.
Let ^5 and AC he the equal sides of the isosceles triangle
ABC; then the angles _{B} and _{C} are equal.
Through _{t}_{h}_{e} _{v}_{e}_{r}_{t}_{e}_{x} _{A} _{d}_{r}_{a}_{w} _{a} _{l}_{i}_{n}_{e} _{A}_{D}_{,} bisect
ing the _{a}_{n}_{g}_{l}_{e} _{B}_{A}_{C}_{,} _{a}_{n}_{d} _{m}_{e}_{e}_{t}_{i}_{n}_{g} _{t}_{h}_{e} side BC 
t 

atD. 
/ 
In the triangles _{A}_{B}_{D} _{a}_{n}_{d} _{A}_{C}_{D} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{s}_{i}_{d}_{e} AB
is equal to the side _{A}_{C}_{h}_{y} hypothesis, the side AD is common, and the included angle BAD is equal to
the included angle _{C}_{A}_{D} _{b}_{y} construction. The triangles are
therefore equal, by Proposition YI., and the angle C of the one is equal to the _{a}_{n}_{g}_{l}_{e} _{B} _{o}_{f} _{t}_{h}_{e} other, _{b}_{y} _{(}_{2}_{1}_{)}_{.}
_{2}_{4}_{.} Corollary. _{T}_{h}_{e} _{s}_{t}_{r}_{a}_{i}_{g}_{h}_{t} line _{b}_{i}_{s}_{e}_{c}_{t}_{i}_{n}_{g} the vertical angle
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