I
41 IIA1III
1jJii) Alit! _{I}
A
WILEY
EDITION
RESTRICTED!
FOR SALE ONLY IN BANGLADESH, MYANMAR, INDIA, INIJONEIA, NEPAL, PAKISTN, PHILIPPINES, SRI LANKA, VIETNAM
Second ElitionN ^{E}
^{I}^{N}^{C}^{L}^{U}^{D}^{E}^{S}^{D}^{I}^{S}^{K}
U
POWER GENERATION, OPERATION, AND CONTROL
POWER GENERATION, OPERATION, AND CONTROL
SECOND EDITION
Allen J. Wood
Power Technologies, Inc. and
_{R}_{e}_{n}_{s}_{s}_{e}_{l}_{a}_{e}_{r} Polytechnic Inst itu
Bruce F. Wollenberg
University of Minnesota
q^
A WILEYINTERSCIENCE PUBLtCAPON
JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC.
_{N}_{e}_{w} _{Y}_{o}_{r}_{k} _{•} Chichester • Brisbane • Toronto • Singapore
Cop yright © 2003, 2004, 2005 t\cluivC rights by John Wiley _{&} _{S}_{o}_{n}_{s} _{A}_{s}_{i}_{a} _{P}_{t}_{e}_{.} _{L}_{t}_{d}_{.}_{,} _{S}_{i}_{n}_{g}_{a}_{p}_{o}_{r}_{e} for manufacture and export. This hook cannot he reexported from the countr y to which it is consigned b _{y} _{J}_{o}_{h}_{n} _{W}_{i}_{l}_{e}_{y} _{&} _{S}_{o}_{n}_{s}_{.}
_{C}_{o}_{p}_{y}_{r}_{i}_{g}_{h}_{t} _{c} 1984, 1996 Iw John _{W}_{i}_{l}_{e}_{y} _{&} _{S}_{o}_{n}_{s}_{,} _{I}_{n}_{c}_{.}
Al] rights reserved. Published simultaneousl _{y} _{i}_{n} _{C}_{a}_{n}_{a}_{d}_{a}_{.}
Reproduction or translation of an _{y} _{p}_{a}_{r}_{t} _{0}_{1} _{t}_{h}_{i}_{s} _{w}_{o}_{r}_{k} _{b}_{e}_{y}_{o}_{n}_{d} that permitted b y Sections i07 or 108 ot the 1976 United States Copyri ght Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. Requests for permission or further information should be addressed to the Permissions Department, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 605 Third Avenue, New York, NY 101580012.
Library of Congress Cataloging in _{P}_{u}_{b}_{l}_{i}_{c}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n} _{D}_{a}_{t}_{a}_{;}
Wood, Allen
Power generation, operation and control / Allen J. Wood, Bruce F WoLlenherg. 2nd ed. P. cm Includes index. ISBN 9814126640 1. Electric power systems. J. Wollenberg, Bruce F. II. Title TKIOOI.W64 1996
621.3 I—dc20
_{9}_{5}_{}_{1}_{0}_{S}_{7}_{6}
Printed and hound in India by Replika Press Pvt. Ltd. Kundli 131028
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 
CONTENTS
"THIS BOOK IS FOR SALE ONLY IN THE COUNTRY TO WHICH IT IS FIRST CONSIGNED _{B}_{Y} JOHN WILEY & SONS (ASIA) PIE LTD AND MAY NOT ^{B}^{E} ^{R}^{E}^{.}^{E}^{X}^{P}^{O}^{R}^{I}^{E}^{D}^{"}
Preface to the Second Edition
Preface to the First Edition
Introduction
1.1 Purpose of the Course
1,2 Course Scope
1.3 Economic Importance
1.4 Problems, New and Old
Further Reading
_{2} _{C}_{h}_{a}_{r}_{a}_{c}_{t}_{e}_{r}_{i}_{s}_{t}_{i}_{c}_{s} _{o}_{f} Power Generation Units
2.1 Characteristics of Steam Units
2.2 Variations in Steam Unit Characteristic,,,
2.3 Cogeneration Plants
24 LightWater Moderated Nuclear Reactor Units
2.5 Hydroelectric Units
Appcndi.s. Typical Generation Data
References
_{3} _{E}_{c}_{o}_{n}_{o}_{m}_{i}_{c} _{t}_{)}_{i}_{c}_{p}_{a}_{t}_{c}_{h} _{o}_{f} _{T}_{h}_{e}_{r}_{m}_{a}_{l} _{U}_{n}_{i}_{t}_{s} and Methods of Solution
3.1 The Lconomic Dispatch Problem
3.2 Thermal System Dispatching with Network Losses
Considered
3.3 The LambdaIteration Method
3.4 Gradient Methods of Economic Dispatch
3.4.1 Gradient Search
3.4.2 Economic Dispatch by Gradient Search
3.5 Newton's Method
3.6 Economic Dispatch with Piecewise Linear Cost Functions
3.7 hconomiC Dispatch Using Dynamic Programming
3.8 Base Point and Participation Factors
3.9 Economic Dispatch VersusUnit Commitment
Appendix 3A: Optimization within Constraints _{A}_{p}_{p}_{e}_{n}_{d}_{i}_{x} _{3}_{1}_{3} ynam tc.Programmiflg Applications
Xi
Xlii
1
6
8
S
12
17
19
20
28
29
29
1
;
39
43
43
44
47
49
51
57
7
V
Vi (ONTLN rs
Problems
Further Reading
4 Transmission _{S}_{y}_{s}_{t}_{e}_{m} _{E}_{f}_{f}_{e}_{c}_{t}_{s}
4.1 The Power How Problem and Its Solution
79
88
91
93
4.1.1 The Power Flow Problem on a Direct Current
Network ^{L}^{.} 1 .2 The Formulation of the AC Power Flow
4.1.2.1 The Gauss—Seidel Method 4.1.2.2 The Newton Raphson Method 4. 1.3 The Decoupled Power Flow
4.1.4 The "DC" Power Flow
4.2 Transmission Losses
4.2.1 A TwoGenerator System
4.2.2 Coordination Equations, Incremental Losses, and
Penalty Factors 4.23 The B Matrix Loss Formula 42.4 Exact Methods of Calculating Penalty Factors
4.2.4.1 A Discussion of Reference Bus Versus Load Center Penafti, _{F}_{a}_{c}_{t}_{o}_{r}_{s}
4.2.4.2 Referencebus Penalt _{y} _{F}_{a}_{c}_{t}_{o}_{r}_{s} _{D}_{i}_{r}_{e}_{c}_{t} _{f}_{r}_{o}_{m}
the AC Power Flow Appendix: Power Flow Input Data for SixBus System Problems Further Reading
S Unit Commitment
5.1
Introduction
5.1.1 Constraints in Unit Commitment
5.1.2 Spinning Reserve
5.1.3 Thermal Unit Constraints
5. 1.4 Other Constraints
5.1.4.1 HydroConstraints 51.4.2 Must Run
5.1.4.3 Fuel Constraints
5.2 Unit Commitment Solution Methods
5.2.1 PriorityList Methods
5.2.2 DynamicProgramming Solution
5.2.2.1 Introduction
5.2.'2.2 Forward DP Approach .2,3 Lagrange Relaxation Solution
5.2.3.1 Adjusting A
94
97
99
99
105
108
Ill
Ill
114
116
120
'pill
122
123
124
129
131
131
134
'34
136
137
137
138
138
138
139
141
141
142
152
155
CONTENTS
vii
Appendix: Dual Optimization on a Nonconvex Problem Problems Further Reading
6 Generation with Limited Energy Supply
6.1 Introduction
6.2 TakeorPaY Fuci Supply Contract
6.3 Composite Generation Production Cost Function
6.4 Solution by Gradient Search Techniques
6.5 Hard Limits and Slack Variables
6.6 Fuel Scheduling by Linear Programming
Appendix: Linear Programming
Problems
Further Reading
7 Hydrothermal Coordination
7.1 Introduction
7.1.1 LongRange HydroScheduling
7.1.2 ShortRange HydroScheduling
7.2 Hydroelectric Plant Models
7.3 Scheduling Problems
7.3.1 Types of Scheduling Problems
7.3.2 Scheduling Energy
7.4 The ShortTerm Hydrothermal Scheduling Problem
7.5 ShortTerm HyrdoScheduling: A Gradient Approach
7.6 HydroUnits in Series (Hydraulically Coupled)
7.7 PumpedStorage Hydroplants 77. i PumpedStorage HydroScheduling with a Ay
Iteration
7.7.2 PumpedStorage Scheduling by a Gradient Method
7.8 DynamicProgramming Solution to the Hydrothermal
Scheduling Problem
7.8.1 Extension to Other Cases
7.8.2 DynamicProgramm ing Solution to Multiple
1lydroplant Problem
7.9 HydroScheduling Using Linear Programming
Appendix: HydroScheduling with Storage Limitations
Problems
Further Reading
8 Production Cost Models
8.1 Introduction
8.2 Uses and Types of Production Cost Programs
160
166
169
l'71
171
172
176
181
185
187
195
2(4
207
209
209
210
211
211
214
214
214
218
223
228
230
231
234
240
246
249
250
253
256
262
264
264
2(i7
VIII
CoNrJN1s
Production Costing Using LoadDuration Curves X 2.2 Outages ('onidered is. 7 ProH ht lisuc Prod uctiorl _{C}_{o}_{s}_{t} _{P}_{r}_{o}_{g}_{r}_{a}_{m}_{s}
is 3 
I 
Prohahilist ic Production Cost Computations 
5.3. 
Simulating Economic Scheduling with the 
Unserved Load Method 3.3 The Expected Cost Method 8.3.4 A Discussion of Some Practical Problems
X.4 S.i mole Computation and Exercise 4 1 No Forced Outages is42 lorced Outages included
Appendix. Probabilit y Methods and Use in Generation Planning Problems Further Realin
9 Control LII Ceneratiur,
9. tnt r d uct on
9.2 Generator Model
9.3 Load Model
9.4 PrtmeMovr Model
9.5 Governor !vindcl
9.6 TieLine Model
9.7 (.ienera tion Control
9 .J Supplementary Control Action
9 7.2 TieLine Control 9.73 Generation Allocation 9 . 74 Automatic Generation Control {AGC) Implemcn ion i 7.5 AGC Features Problems Further Reading
10 Interchange of Po;er and Energy
10.1
Introduction
10.2 Economy Interchange between interconnected Utilities
10.3 Interutility Economy Energy Evaluation
10.4 interchange Evaluation with Unit Commitment
10.5 MultipleUtilit y Interchange Transactions
10.6 Other Types of Interchange 1416.1 Capacity Interchange 10 62 Diversity Interchange
10.6. 
Energy Banking 
10.6.4 
Emergency Power Interchange 
0.6.5 inadvertent Power Exchange
17()
283
284
296
302
310
310
313
316
324
328
328
328
332
336
341
345
346
346
350
352
355
356
360
363
363
367
372
374
375
378
378
379
379
379
3,K)
CONTENTS
_{i}_{x}
10.7 Power Pools
10.7.1 The Energybroker System
10.7.2 Allocating Pool Savings
10.8 Transmission Effects and Issues
10.8.1 Transfer Limitations
10.8.2 Wheeling
10.8.3 Rates for Transmission Services in Multiparty _{U}_{t}_{i}_{l}_{i}_{t} _{y} Transactions
10.8.4 Some Observations
10.9 Transactions Involving Nonutilit _{y} Fames
Problems
Funher Reading
_{1}_{1} Power System Security
_{1}_{1}_{.}_{1} Introduction _{I} _{1}_{.}_{2} Factors Affecting Power Sstem Security
11.3 Contingency Analysis: Detection of Network Problems
_{1}_{1}_{.}_{3}_{.}_{1} _{.}_{\}_{n} _{t}_{h} erview of Security Analysis
_{1}_{1}_{.}_{3}_{.}_{2} Linear Serisit I itv Factors
_{I} _{1}_{.}_{3} _{.}_{3}_{A}_{C} _{P}_{o}_{w}_{e}_{r} Flow Methods
1.3.4 (onungeney Selection
I 3.5 Concentric Relaxation
11.3.6 Bounding
Appendix Ii .'\: Calculation of Network Sensitivity Factors Appendix I I B: Derivation of Equation 11.14 Problems Further R::Jni
_{1}_{2} _{A}_{n} Introduction to State Estimation in Power Systems
12.1 Introduction
_{1}_{2}_{.}_{2} Power S stern State Estimation
_{1}_{2}_{3} Maximum Likelihood Weighted leastSquares Estimation
I 
2.3.1 
Introduction 
_{1} 
Maximum Likelihood Concepts 

12.3.3 
Matrix Formulation 

12.3.4 
An Example of Weighted LeastSquares State Estimation 
12.4 State Estimation of an AC Network
12.4.1 Development of Method
12.4.2 Typical Results of State Lstirnation on an AC Network
380
382
385
391
393
401
401
^{4}^{0}^{5}
^{4}^{0}^{9}
410
410
414
415
421
421
42
430
432
433
439
444
^{4}^{4}^{5}
^{4}^{5}^{0}
453
^{4}^{5}^{3}
453
458
458
460
465
467
^{4}^{7}^{2}
472
475
x
CONTENJS
12.5 State Estimation by Orthogonal Decomposition
12.5.1 The Orthogonal Decomposition Algorithm
12 6 An Introduction to Advanced Topics in State Estimation
12.6.1 Detection and Identification of Bad Measurements
12.6.2 Estimation of Quantities Not Being Measured
12.6.3 Network Observability and Pseudomeasurements
12.7 Application of Power Systems State Estimation
Appendix. Derivation of LeastSquares Equations
Problems
Further Reading
13 Optimal Power Flow
_{1}_{3}_{.}_{1} 
Introduction 
13.2 
Solution of the Optimal Power Flow 
13.2.1
I I
2
The Gradient Method Newton's Method
13.3 Linear Sensitivity Analysis
1331 Sensitivity Coefficients of an AC Network Model 3.4 Linear Programming Methods
13.4.1 Linear Programming Method with Only Real Power Variables
13.4.2 Linear Programming with AC Power Flow Variables and Detailed Cost Functions
13.5 SecurityConstrained Optimal Power flow
13.6 Interior Point Algorithm
13.7 Bus Incremental Costs
Problems
Further Reading
_{A}_{p}_{p}_{e}_{n}_{d}_{i}_{x}_{:} About the Software
Index
479
482
487
487
493
493
499
50!
508
512
514
514
516
518
529
531
S32
534
538
546
547
551
553
555
558
561
565
PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION
It has been 11 years since the first edition was published. Many developments have taken place in the area covered by this text and new techniques have been developed that have been applied to solve old problems. Computing power has increased dramatically, permitting the solution of problems that were previously left as being too expensive to tackle Perhaps the most important development is the changes that are taking place in the electric power industry with new. tunutility participants playing a larger role in the operating decisions. It is still the intent of the authors to provide an introduction to this field for senior or firstear graduate engineering students. The authors have used the text material in a onesemester (or twoquarter) program for man y years. The same difficulties and required compromises keep occurring. Engineering students are very comfortable with computers but still do not usuall y have an appreciation of the interaction of human and economic factors in the decisions to be made to develop "optimal" schedules; whatever that may mean. In 1995, most of these students are concurrently being exposed to courses in ad'.anced calculus and courses that explore methods for solving power flow equations. This requires some coordination. We have also found that very few of our students have been exposed to the techniques and concepts of operations research, necessitating a continuing effort to make tlem comfortable with the application of optimization methods. The subject area of this book is an excellent example of optimization applied in an important industrial system. The topic areas and depth of coverage in this second edition are about the same as in the first, with one major change. Loss formulae are given less space and supplemented by a more complete treatment of the powerflowbased techniques in a new chapter that treats the optimal power flow (OP). This chapter has been put at the end of the text. Various instructors may find it useful to introduce parts of this material earlier in the sequence; it is a matter of taste, plus the requirement to coordinate with other course coverage. (It is difficult to discuss the OPF when the students do not know the standard treatment for solving the power flow equations.) The treatment of unit commitment has been expanded to include the Lagrange relaxation technique. The chapter on production costing has been revised to change the emphasis and introduce new methods. The market structures for bulk power transactions have undergone important changes
xl
_{u}_{i}
_{F}_{'}_{R}_{E}_{F} _{A}_{(} _{r} I() THE S(ONl) FLit Ft()N
throughout the woild. Ehe chapter on interchange transactions is a progre report intended to give the students an appreciation ol the complications that ma y accompan y a competitive market for the _{g}_{e}_{n}_{e}_{r}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n} of electric energy The section on scuritv anal ysis have been updated to incorporate an introduction to the use of houndin _{g} techniques and other contingenc selection methods. Chapter _{1}_{3} on the OPI' includes a brief coverage of the security constrained ( )PF and its use in securit y _{c}_{o}_{n}_{t}_{r}_{o}_{l}_{.} The ;uthcrs appreciate the suggesiioiis and help offered by professors Who have used the tirsi edition, and our students. CNIany of these suogestions i;ic been incorporated: some lave riot, because of a lack of time, space or knowledge. Mart y o our students at Rensselaer Pol y technic Instit utc (R PI) and the Universit y of Minnesota have contributed to the correction of the first edition and undertaken hours of calculations for homework solutions, checked old examples, and developed data for new examples for the second edition. The 1994 class :11 R P1 deserves speciat and honorable mention. They were subjected to an earl y draft of the revision of Chapter and required to proofread it as part of a tedious assi gnment lb (lid an outstandin g ob and I 'and errors of _{I}_{)} _{t}_{o} 1 _{,}_{.}_{e}_{a}_{r}_{s} standing. (A note of caution to any of you professors that think of tr y ing this: it requires more work than you might believe. Hook would you like 20 critical editors for _{y} _{o}_{u}_{r} _{l}_{a}_{s}_{t}_{e}_{s}_{t}_{,} _{g}_{l}_{o}_{r}_{i}_{o}_{u}_{s} _{t}_{o}_{m}_{e}_{?}_{)}
who ran the
computations for the hii niar ginal wheeling cost examples in Chapter 10. We would also like to thank Brian Stott. of Power Computer Applications. Corp
for running the ()I I I examples in Chapter 13.
Our thanks to Kuo Chan g. of Pnwer Technologies. Inc
ALLEN J. Wooi BRUCE. F. WOLI t N BERG
PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION
The fundamental purpose of this text is to introduce and explore a number of engineering and economic matters ,nvH\ ed in phiuniiio. operating, and
controllin g power generation and tra]isnussion system ,, in clectr'tc utilities. It is intended br hrsi\ear graduate students in electric _{p}_{o}_{w}_{e}_{r} _{e}_{n}_{g}_{i}_{n}_{e}_{e}_{r}_{i}_{n} _{g} _{W}_{e} bcliee that it ill also serxe a uirahie seiltud\ text for an _{y} _{o}_{n}_{e} _{v}_{w} _{h} _{a}_{n} undergraduate dcc' rical engineering education and an understanding of s1ead state power Circui! analvsi. This text brings together material that has esoixed inei' Noo in teaching u zruduatele\cl coure in the electric pc) er ci ineerina department at Rensselaer Pol\ iechni 1ns1iuic t K P1). The topics nic!uted 5cr ye as an efteet se means to introduce graduate ' tudent., to advanced matherntiical and operations research methods applued to practical electric posser engineering prohienis. Some areas of the text cover methods that are currenil bein _{g} _{a}_{p}_{p}_{l}_{i}_{e}_{d} _{i}_{n} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{c}_{o}_{n}_{t}_{r}_{o}_{l} _{a}_{n}_{d} operation of electric power generation sssten1s. The overall selection of topics. undoubtedly. rehecis the interesls Of the a inhors. In a onesemester course it is. of course, impossible to consider Al the prob!eni and current prictices";ii this field. We can only introduce the tpes of problems that arise. IHLPiraw theoretical and practical computational approachc., and point the t Lident in the direction of seeking more information and developin g dv anced skills s they are required. The material has re gularl y been taught in t he second semester of a fs rtyear graduate course. Some acquaintance v. oh both advanced criltilis methods (e. g , Lagrange multipliers) and basic L!ndergradliaie Con[r)l theor _{y} _{i}_{s} _{n}_{e}_{e}_{d}_{e}_{d}_{.} Optimiiation methods are introduced aN _{t}_{h}_{e} _{y} _{a}_{r}_{e} _{n}_{e}_{e}_{d}_{e}_{d} _{t}_{o} _{.}_{s}_{o}_{l} _{e} _{p}_{r}_{a}_{c}_{t}_{i}_{c}_{a}_{l} prohlem' and iiNcd without recourse to extensive mathematical proofs. This material is intended for an cngineerng course: mathematical rigor is important but is more properl y the pros nec of an applied or iheoretical mathematics course. With the exception of Chapter 12. the text is sellcontained in the sense that the a riou applied mathematical techniques are presented and developed as they are uiilied. Chapter 12. dealin _{g} _{w}_{i}_{t}_{h} _{s}_{t}_{a}_{t}_{e} _{e}_{s}_{t}_{i}_{m}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{.} _{m}_{a} _{y} _{r}_{e}_{q}_{u}_{i}_{r}_{e} _{m}_{o}_{r}_{e} understandin g of statistical and probabilistic methods than is provided in the text. 1 he first seven chapteN of the text fulloss .i natural sequence. 'Alth
each
ucceeding chapter introducing further coniplicaiion, to the generation
"ill
PRIF .\Ei() iHI F! RS
_{s}_{e}_{l}_{l}_{e}_{d} _{c}_{l}_{i}_{n} _{g} problein and ncu soluti iii techtupies ('hapter S treai., met)od' u'ed in generation s ocot planning and InirodUCCS probabilistic techniques in _{t}_{h}_{e} _{C}_{i} imnutal ion of fuel consumpt sn and energ y production co,( ,; Chapter stands alone and miehi, be used in any position alter the hirst seven chapters. _{C}_{h}_{a}_{p}_{t}_{c}_{r} _{9} intiiidmices general ion control and discusses practices in modern 11 S. utilities and pook We has e a tempted to provide the big picture' in this liptcr to iflustratc hoA the ci las pieces fit together in an elect iL power Control system V lie topics if energy and pos'cr interchange neiween utilities aid the sci.nom ican I scheduling pioHents that ma y arise in eocrdtnai ir.g he econemni operation if interconnected utihttes are discussed in Chapter 10 ( flapteis 11 _{a}_{n}_{d} _{1}_{2} _{a} _{I}_{L}_{'} a untt Chapter 11 is concerned with power s ystem securim. and _{i}_{l}_{c} _{c}_{l}_{o}_{p}_{s} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{a}_{n}_{a}_{l} _{y}_{t}_{i}_{c}_{a}_{l} framework rued to control bulk power 5551cm', in ueh
_{a} _{f}_{i}_{s}_{h}_{i}_{t}_{i} _{d}_{i}_{a}_{l}_{.} _{s}_{C}_{c}_{i}_{i}_{r}_{i}_{[} _{y} is enhanced. Fvervt hing. iricluil no power s ystems. seems
_{t}_{o} _{t}_{a}_{i}_{l} _{l}_{'}_{o}_{u}_{e}_{r} _{y}_{s}_{t}_{c}_{m} securtly practices try to control and
operate pos. er assienis in a defensive post ore so that the etfect of these ines table failures are mmnhi:l/ed. Fnall% Chapter I is an introduction _{t}_{o} _{0}_{1}_{C} _{U}_{}_{C} _{i}_{i} 'irate in elcetrie power s ystems We have chosen to use a niaxirnum likclihond hlrmuiatioii since the quantiiatt\c n)crisurenieiti _{w}_{e}_{i}_{g}_{h}_{t}_{i}_{n}_{e} _{l}_{u}_{n}_{c}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{s} _{a}_{r}_{m} _{'} e in a riaLLir,il sense in lie course oi the develop
ment [ach chapter is provided with a set of problems and an annotated releri'nee list for further nadine. \lanv lii not incistt of these prehiems should be solved isin a <fiiamtai computer. Az R P1 we ae able to pios ide the Audent.
a load flow, a routine' for sc heduling
f tiicrnsrii Ant i'd. 1 he cn _{g}_{l}_{n}_{e}_{e}_{r}_{i}_{n} _{.} _{l} _{v}_{i} students of today are well prepared to
10propensityci e a
with some fundamental progranis (e.g
uiiiite the computer efficnselv when access to one IS provided. Real bulk _{p}_{o}_{w}_{e}_{r} _{s} _{y} stems have problems tli:it usmalIv ::ill forth I )r. Bellman ' curse Of
dimensionalits computers help and are essent iii tO solve praeteals'zed problems. The iiithors sish to espress their appreciation ti: K. A. Clements, H. H _{l}_{I}_{a}_{p}_{p}_{.} _{I}_{I}_{.} _{M}_{.} _{M}_{e}_{r}_{r}_{i}_{l}_{l}_{,} _{C} _{K}_{.} _{P}_{a}_{n}_{e}_{.} _{M}_{.} _{A}_{.} _{S}_{a}_{g}_{e}_{r}_{,} and J. C Wcs(cott. who each
reviewed portions of this text in draft form and offered suggestions in addition, Dr. Ciements used earlier versions of this test in graduate courses laugh! at _{W}_{o}_{r}_{c}_{e}_{s}_{t}_{e}_{r} _{P}_{o}_{l} _{y}_{t}_{e}_{c}_{h}_{n}_{i}_{c} Institute and in a course for utility engineers taught in Boston. Massachusetts. Much of the material in this text originated from work done b y our past and current associates at Power Technologies. Inc., the General Electric
.'\ number of IEEE papers base
(.ompans. and Leeds and Northrup
been used as primary sources and are cited where appropriate It is not possible to avoid omitting, references and sources that arc considered to he significant by one group or another. We make no apology for omissions and only ask for indulgence from those readers whose favorites have been _{l}_{e}_{f}_{t} _{1}_{)}_{1}_{1}_{1}_{,}_{.} Those interested may easily trace the references back to original
Company.
sources.
PRIF.ACi TO TIiF FIRST MITION
_{x}_{v}
We would like to express our appreciation for the tine typing job done on the original manuscript by Liane Brown and Bonnatyne MacLean. This book is dedicated in general to all of our teachers, both professors and associates. and in particular to Dr. F. T. B. Gross.
A LUN J. WOOD
BRuci F. Wu _{i}_{.}_{F}_{N}_{B}_{F}_{R}_{&}
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