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THE LIBRARY

OF

THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA

LOS ANGELES

of CALIFORNIA

AT

LOS ANGELES

LIBRARY

A TREATISE

ON THE

GEOMETRY OF SUEFACES

BY

A. B. BASSET M.A. RR.S.

TRINITY COLLEGE CAMBRIDGE

CAMBRIDGE

DEIGHTON BELL AND CO.

LONDON GEORGE BELL AND SONS

1910

[All Rights reserved]

12KU5

Cambridge :

PRINTED BY JOHN CLAY, M.A.

AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS.

Q_ A

i-

Sciences

Library

PBEFACE

last edition of Salmon's Analytic Geometry of Tliree

THE

Dimensions, which was published in 1884, has been out of

print for some years; and although there are several excellent

works on Quadric Surfaces and other special branches of the

subject, such as those of Mr Blythe on Cubic Surfaces and of the

late Mr Hudson on Rummer's Quartic Surface, yet there is no

British treatise exclusively devoted to the theory of surfaces of

higher degree than the second. I have therefore endeavoured to

supply this want in the present work.

The Theory of Surfaces is an extensive one, and a thoroughly

comprehensive treatise would necessarily be voluminous. I have

therefore decided to limit this work

to the

more elementary

portions of the subject, and have abstained from introducing

investigations which require a knowledge of the Theory of

Functions and of the higher branches of Modern Algebra. The

ordinary methods of Analytical Geometry are quite sufficient to

enable the properties of cubic and quartic surfaces and twisted

curves, and also the point and plane singularities of surfaces, to

be discussed with tolerable completeness, and to demonstrate a

number of interesting and important theorems connected with

them ;

but for the purpose of confining this treatise within a

moderate compass, I have abstained from any general discussion of

surfaces of higher degree than the fourth.

The properties of a point singularity may usually be examined by means of a surface of low degree just as Well as by one of the

nth degree ; but if the degree is less than a certain limit, which

depends on the character of the singularity, the latter appears in

an incomplete form on the surface. Thus the properties of a triple

line cannot be fully investigated without employing a surface of

the seventh degree, and this fact has rendered it necessary to

partially discuss surfaces of higher degree than a quartic.

VI

PREFACE

The resolution of a multiple point into its constituents has been discussed by Professor Segre of Turin, and other Italian

mathematicians, in various papers published in the Annali di

Matematica ; and these researches have shown that an important

analogy exists between the theories of plane curves and of surfaces.

The class of an anautotomic plane curve of degree n, and also the

reduction of class produced by a multiple point of order n, the

1); whilst

tangents at which are distinct, are both equal to n(n

the constituents of the multiple point are \n(n

class of an anautotomic surface of degree n, and also the reduction

of class produced by a multiple point of order n, the tangent cone

I) 2 ; and from

at which is anautotomic, are both equal to n (n

analogy I concluded that the constituents of the multiple point

In 1908 I succeeded in obtaining a

1) nodes.

The

were ^n(n

I) 2 conic nodes.

formal proof of the last theorem, which enables a large number of

singular points to be resolved into their constituent conic nodes

and binodes.

In the present treatise I have incorporated a variety of results,

originally due to Italian and German mathematicians, many of

which have- been published since the last edition of Salmon's

work ; and I have endeavoured to modernize the analysis and the

terminology by discarding antiquated methods and inappropriate

symbols and phrases. I have also to express my obligations to the late Professor Cayley's papers, references to which are denoted by

di Matematiche

the letters C. M. P. ; as well as to the Repertorio

Superiori by Professor E. Pascal, which contains a valuable epitome

of the subject, together with an exhaustive collection of references

to the original papers of British and foreign mathematicians, who

have studied this subject.

FLEDBOROUGH HALL,

HOLYPORT, BERKS.

March, 1910.

CONTENTS

CHAPTER I.

THEORY OF SURFACES.

ABT.

1.

Equation of a surface

2.

Four distinct species of surfaces

3-4. Quadriplanar coordinates

5.

Section by a tangent plane

6.

Conic nodes

7.

Binodes

8.

Unodes

9.

Tangential equation of a surface

10.

The spinodal, flecnodal and bitaugential curves

11.

The six singular tangent planes

12.

Boothian coordinates

13.

Polar surfaces

14-5.

16.

Class of a surface

Tangent cones

17-8. Nodal and cuspidal generators of tangent cone

.

.

.

19.

20.

Class of a surface which possesses C conic nodes and B binodcs

Number of tangent planes which can be drawn through certain

21.

22.

23.

singular points

Double and stationary tangent planes to tangent cone

Points of contact of stationary planes to tangent cone lie on the spinodal curve

Maximum number of double points

24 Segre's theorem. Multiple points

25-7. Different kinds of binodes

.

28. Three primary species of unodes

29. Tropes

30. Bitropes and unitropes

31. Singular lines, the tangent planes along which are fixed

32-3.

A line lying in a surface is torsal or singular

.

34. Surfaces of a higher degree than the third cannot in general have lines lying in them

PAGE

1

2

2

3

5

5

6

7

7

8

9

10

13

14

15

16

17

17

18

18

20

20

21

23

24

25

25

26

Vlll

ART.

CONTENTS

35. Every tangent plane at a point on a torsal line is a multiple tangent plane

36. Three distinct species of nodal lines

37-9. Pinch points, and their properties

40.

41.

42.

43.

44-5.

46-8.

49.

50.

51.

52.

53.

54.

55.

56.

57.

58-9.

Tangent plane along a nodal line

Nodal lines of the third kind

Number of points of intersection of three surfaces which possess

a common multiple line

Reduction of class produced by a nodal line .

Other properties of lines lying in a surface . On the intersections of surfaces

The Hessian

The Hessian intersects the surface in the spinodal curve

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

A conic node on a surface produces a conic node on the Hessian having the same nodal cone

The spinodal curve has a sextuple point at a conic node

.

A binode produces a cubic node on the Hessian and an octuple

point on the spinodal curve

A unode produces a quartic node on the Hessian

Lines lying in a surface touch the spinodal curve

The curve of contact of a trope forms part of the spinodal curve

When a fixed plane touches a surface along a straight line, the

latter twice repeated forms part of the spinodal curve .

Cayley's theorems with respect to the degrees of the spiiiodal

and flecnodal curves

60.

The Hessian possesses conic nodes .

61. The Steinerian

.

.

.

.

.

CHAPTER II.

CUBIC SURFACES.

62.

63.

64.

65.

66.

67.

Twenty-three different species of cubic surfaces

Equation of a cubic surface

Intersection of a quadric and a cubic

An anautotomic cubic surface possesses 27 lines lying in it .

Such a surface possesses 45 triple tangent planes

It has 54 singular planes, whose point of contact is a tacnode on

the section

68. Double-sixes.

.

.

.

,

69. The Hessian of a cubic surface. Conjugate poles

70-3.

Properties of conjugate poles

PAGE

26

26

27

29

29

31

31

32

34

36

36

37

37

38

38

39

39

39

40

43

44

44

44

45

45

46

46

46

47

74-5. The polar quadric of the cubic with respect to a conic node

on the Hessian, consists of two planes

49

76. Sylvester's canonical form of a quaternary cubic

50

77. Sylvester's pentahedron

52

78. Singularities of cubic surfaces

52

CONTENTS

IX

ART.

79.

The binodc B

 

'

80.

The binode B-

.

81.

The binode 7?

82.

Unodes

83.

Table of the 23 species of cubic surfaces

84.

Autotomic cubic surfaces

85.

Uninodal

86-7. Unibinodal

88.

89.

90.

91.

92.

93.

One binode B One binode B

Cay ley's equations of the 23 species

Nodal lines

Point constituents of a nodal line on a cubic

Quadrinodal cubics.

Steiner's quartic

PAGE

53

53

54

54

56

56

57

59

60

61

61

62

62

62

CHAPTER III.

TWISTED CURVES AND DEVELOPABLES.

94.

95.

96.

97-8.

Generation of a developable surface

Its edge of regression

Every generator is cut by v - 4 other generators Reciprocal polars of a developable and of its edge of re-

gression

99-102. Generation and classification of twisted curves

103. Singularities of twisted curves and developables

104-5. The Plucker-Cayley equations

106.

107.

108.

109.

110.

111.

112.

113.

114.

115.

116.

117.

118.

Degree of the developable, whose edge of regression is the

curve of intersection of two surfaces .

.

.

.

.

The Pliicker-Cayley equations for the curve of intersection of

two surfaces

Maximum number of points at which two surfaces can touch

one another

The characteristics of curves which are the partial intersections

of two surfaces

The characteristics of the cone standing on a twisted curve.

Cayley's table of results

The Salmon-Cremona equations denned

Theory of Correspondence. Chasles' theory of united points

Degree of scroll enveloped by a trisecant Degree of bitangential developable

Number of tangents which cut a twisted curve in one other

.

.

.

.

point

Number of triple tangent planes to a twisted curve Number of apparent double planes

The eight Salmon-Cremona equations

.

.

'.

64

64

65

65

66

68

71

73

74

75

76

77

78

80

81

82

84

86

89

91

X

CONTENTS

ART.

120. Its mode of generation

121. Reciprocal relations

122. Unicursal curves usually possess cusps

123. Other singularities of such curves

124. The singularities <r, or, T, t and 8 do not in general exist

125. Deficiency of a twisted

curve

126. The Pliicker-Cayley equations for certain twisted curves

127. Ditto, when the deficiency is zero

128-9. Twisted cubic curves

.

;

'.

130.

131.

132.

133.

134.

135.

136.

137.

Equations of ditto

Developable of which a twisted cubic is the edge of regression

A property of a twisted cubic

Twisted cubics are anautotomic curves

Characteristics of a twisted cubic

Connection between plane and twisted cubics

Twisted quartic curves

Table of their characteristics

138-9. Quartics of the first species

140. Connection between twisted quartics and plane cubics

141-2. Connection between twisted quartics of the first species and

plane binodal quartics .

.

.

.

.

.

143.

Quartics of the first species may be the partial intersection of a

quadric and a cubic surface

144.

Quartics of the second species

.

145.

Such a curve cannot possess actual double points

.

.

146.

All autotomic quartics and quartics of the second species are

included amongst the edges of regression of a certain sextic

developable

147-8.

149-50.

Properties of those developables

Nodal quartics and their reciprocals .

151-4. Cuspidal quartics and their reciprocals

155.

156.

Anautotomic quartics of the first species constitute a class of

curves sui generis .-

Quintic curves.

Four primary species

157-8. Quintic curves of the first species

159-

160-

161

,,

second

third

fourth

.

.

.

.

PAGE

92

92

93

93

94

95

96

96

97

97

98

98

99

99

99

100

101

102

103

103

105

105

105

106

107

108

109

Ill

Ill

112

113

113

114

CHAPTER IV.

COMPOUND SINGULARITIES OF PLANE CURVES.

162.

163.

164.

Object of investigation

Point, line and mixed singularities

Determination of the point and line constituents of a singu-

115

115

CONTENTS

xi

ART.

165. Constituents of a multiple point

166.

tangent

167. Number of tangents which can be drawn from a multiple point

168-9. Distinction between multiple points and tangents, and singular points and tangents

Point constituents of a multiple point having a pair of tacnodal

170.

.

.

.

.

.

.

branches

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

171.

172.

Line constituents of ditto

Point and line constituents, when the multiple point has any

number of tacnodal branches

.

.

.

.

.

PAGE

116

117

117

118

118

119

.119

173-5. Extension of results, when ordinary and tacnodal branches

176.

177.

178.

179.

180.

181.

182.

183.

184.

185.

coincide

Birational transformation

A node arbitrarily situated transforms into a node

Application of birational transformation to multiple points .

Equations of a quartic curve which has a tacnode, a rhamphoid

cusp, an oscnode and a tacnode cusp

Cusps, tacnodes and rhamphoid cusps respectively transform into rhamphoid cusps, oscnodes and tacnode cusps

Multiple points having rhamphoid cuspidal branches

Constituents of the singularity formed by the union of two

.

.

.

.

multiple points of order n

Radii of curvature of the different branches .

The reciprocal theorem

General observations .

.

.

.

125

125

126

127

128

129

130

CHAPTER V.

SINGULARITIES OF SURFACES.

186.

187.

188.

189.

190.

191.

192.

193.

194.

195.

The conic node and binode are the only simple point singu-

larities

.

Number of points absorbed at the common vertex of three

cones

Number of points absorbed at a multiple point on

surfaces

three

Number of points absorbed at a multiple point when the nodal

cones are specially related

Reduction of class produced by a multiple point of order p . Conversion of cusps into nodes

Constituents of a

multiple point of order p

.

.

.

Determination of the point constituents of a singularity

.

.

Constituents of a multiple point, when the nodal cone has 8

nodal and K cuspidal generators

Constituents when the nodal cone has a multiple generator of

order q, such that r tangent planes coincide

.

.

.

131

131

131

132

133

133

134

136

137

138

Xll

CONTENTS

ABT.

196-9. Constituents when the nodal cone degrades into planes

.

200.

A second method ' of determining the constituents of a multiple

point

201.

Singular generators of nodal cone at a multiple point .

.

202-3. Singular generators of nodal cone when they are lines of closest contact

204-5. Six primary species of cubic nodes

'.

.

.

.

.

.

206.

Quartic nodes

207-8. Constituents of two special quartic nodes .

.

.

.

209.

210.

211.

212.

213.

214.

Singular lines and curves Cuspidal lines of the first species They possess tacnodal points and cubic nodes

Cuspidal lines of the second species

Tacnodal and rhamphoid cuspidal lines

Quartic surfaces can possess a rhamphoid cuspidal or an oscnodal line of the second kind

.

.

.

215.

216.

217.

218.

219.

220.

Ten primary species of triple lines

Theory of coincident pinch points

Triple lines of species VIII, IX and X Nodal curves on surfaces

Number of pinch points .

Intersections of nodal and residual curve are not singular points

.

on the former

221.

222.

223.

224.

225.

226.

227.

Cuspidal curves

Cuspidal curves possess tacnodal points ,

They also possess cubic nodes Tacnodal and rhamphoid cuspidal curves on surfaces

Nodal twisted curves on surfaces

Nodal twisted cubic. Number of pinch points

.

.

.

Generalization

of results

.

.

228-9. Birational transformation

230.

231.

A double point transforms into another double point .

Application to multiple points on surfaces

232-3. Analogy between plane curves and surfaces

234.

Plane singularities

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

CHAPTER VI.

QUARTIC SURFACES.

235.

236.

237.

238.

Preliminary observations

Nodal quartics

Five given nodes

Six given nodes

239-40. Weddle's surface

241.

242.

Seven given nodes

Eight nodes.

Dianodal surfaces

.

.

.

.

PAGE

139

142

143

144

146

147

147

149

150

150

151

151

152

152

155

156

158

158

159

159

160

161

161

162

162

163

164

165

166

169

172

173

173

174

174

175

176

176

CONTENTS

quartic ((7, F, IF) 2 =

 

Xlll

PAGE

177

.

.

.

177

 

178

179

180

ABT.

243. The octonodal

244. Centre-surface of an ellipsoid.

245. The Symmetroid

246. Rummer's surface

247. Kummer's 13, 14, 15 and 16 nodal surfaces

248. The Tetrahedroid. The wave surfaces of Fresnel and of Lord

Parabolic ring

249.

250-3.

254.

255.

256.

257.

258.

259.

Kayleigh

Quartics with singular lines Quartics having a nodal line of the first kind

Pliicker's complex surface

Nodal line of the second kind

of the third kind

.

Cuspidal line of the first kind

.

.

The quartic is of the 12th class

There are four tacnodal points and four straight lines lying in

the surface

260.

261.

262.

263.

264.

265.

266.

The quartic may possess four additional nodes

Cuspidal line of the second kind

Tacnodal line of the first kind

.

.

.

of the second kind

.

.

.

.

.

.

Rhamphoid cuspidal and oscnodal lines

Quartics having a nodal conic .

.

.

.

.

.

.

The surface is of the 12th class and has four pinch points .

267. Kummer's cones

268.

269.

The surface possesses 16 straight lines lying in it

.

.

Ten double tangent planes can be drawn through any point on

the nodal conic

270.

271.

272.

273.

274.

275.

276.

Each line touches Kummer's cones

The tangent planes at the four pinch points pass through a

point

Section of surface by tangent plane at a pinch point

Kummer's cones pass through the four pinch points The surface has 40 triple tangent planes It has 52 planes of the type -ajr,

The bitangential curve

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

277-8. Cremona's transformation

279-81. Quartics having a cuspidal conic

282.

283.

284.

286.

Tacnodal points

There are three Kummer's cones

The surface formed by the revolution of an oval of Descartes .

The four stationary tangent cones

286-8. Further properties of these surfaces

289-90. Quartics having two intersecting nodal lines 291-4. A nodal and a cuspidal line, which intersect

295-7. Two intersecting cuspidal lines

298.

Rhamphoid cuspidal and oscnodal lines

.

.

.

.

.

.

299. Cyclides

181

182

182

185

186

186

186

186

187

187

187

187

188

188

188

189

190

190

192

193

194

194

195

195

196

196

197

199

200

200

201

202

202

203

204

205

206

206

xiv

CONTENTS

ART.

300-1. Their generation

302.

303.

304.

305.

306-7. Binodal cyclides

308-9. Trinodal cyclides

310.

311.

312.

313.

314.

315.

The five centres of inversion

Conditions for a double